The Cyber Art of Being Alive - SIUE Robotics Page

blabbedharborIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 10 mois)

72 vue(s)

Artificial Intelligence:

The Cyber Art of Being Alive

Jerry B. Weinberg

Associate Professor

Department of Computer Science

What is Intelligence?


Expert Tasks


Medical Diagnosis


Airplane Mechanic


Formal Tasks


Mathematics


Game Playing


Creative Tasks


Painting


Music Composition


Everyday Tasks


Visual recognition


Language understanding

Intelligence


The ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's
environment



The ability to learn, understand, and deal with new
situations




Storing knowledge (facts about a subject)


Reasoning (putting facts together to achieve a goal)


Learning (new knowledge and skill refinement)


Perception (interpreting the environment)


Reasoning: State Space Search


State Space


The space of all possible states of a problem


The actions that can be applied to a state


Solving a problem: State Space Search


From a starting state search for a solution by
applying possible actions


Goal test


Example:


How could you find your car?


States: locations where you are


Actions: moving from one point to the next


Goal test: Being in the same location as your car

Exhaustive Search
vs. Intelligent
Search

Heuristic Reasoning


Heuristic


“Rule of thumb”


a way to measure good a state is to get to your
goal


Examples


Parking: what would be a good heuristic to find
your car?

Knowledge Representation


Data


Information

Knowledge


Data is a collection of raw values


Information is derived facts from values


Knowledge is information applied to a problem


Knowledge representation encodes
information in a program in such a way that
it can be applied to a problem

Solve These Problems


What is the name of this shape?



432 X 14 =



How many windows are in your house?

Different type of problems require different ways to
represent the knowledge and different ways of
reasoning
.

Knowledge
Representations:

Theories of Cognition


Rule
-
based


Model
-
based


Case
-
based


Neural Networks


Bayesian Networks


Formal Logic

Intelligent Agents (IA’s) are
Physical Symbol Systems


Symbols and symbols structures that can be manipulated
syntactically

by a set of processes


The symbol structure can be interpreted
semantically


Symbol Grounding Problem


4 apples


1 apple = 3 apples



Where does a symbol get its “meaning”



How does a computer “understand” what the
symbol means?



How do we understand what a symbol means?

Where are we going?


Caveat: The Difficulties of Being a Futurist


The future is difficult to predict


Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943


“I think there is a world market for maybe five computers”


Ken Olson, President of DEC, 1977


“There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”


Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, 1981


“640 Kilobytes ought to be enough for anybody.”



Things are not always used for what they are design to do


Arpanet (original Internet) was designed for robust communication
in the event of a war.


We are now using it to order dog food and post pictures of our
spring break vacation.




Where is the AI now?


Microsoft Office Helpers


Amazon.com


NBA Scout


Furby


Wal
-
Mart Stocker


Batman the Movie


Half
-
life


The Sims


NASA

Creative AI’s


AARON the cyberartist


Knowledge of objects and colors


Creates original paintings


The Cyber Poet


“Reads” books and creates a language model


Uses the model to create original hiaku’s

Soul

A haiku written by Ray Kurzweil's Cybernetic Poet

after reading poems by John Keats and Wendy Dennis

You broke my soul

the juice of eternity,

the spirit of my lips.




Computer Power


Apple IIe, 1983


1 Mhz, $1,400



Dell PC, Today


4 2 Ghz processors, $900


Embedded Computers: Embedded AI


Augmented Reality


Ubiquitous Computing


GPS: Path Finding


Security Face Recognition



Robotics

A machine able to extract information from its
environment and use knowledge about its world to move
safely in a meaningful manner

Physically Embodied Computation

The Real World is a Harsh Place

Inaccessible

Non
-
deterministic

Dynamic

Teleprescence


The next best thing to being there?


Meetings, building inspections, home
doctor visits, search & rescue


SOE Tour Guide

Autonomous Robots


Mobile Robotics


Maintenance


Construction


Entertainment


Autonomous Robots


Robotics


Productivity


Service


Friends


Everyone can be a robot scientist


Robot Kits between $200
-

$2000