Learning Goal Ontology

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23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 1 mois)

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Learning Goal Ontology

How Can We Form Effective Collaborative Learning Groups?

Akiko Inaba, Thepchai Supnithi, Mitsuru Ikeda,
Riichiro Mizoguchi, & Jun’ichi Toyoda


I.S.I.R., Osaka University, Japan

Design of Collaborative Learning Session

CL Designer

Analyze

Develop

Design

Implement

Evaluate

Effects of Collaborative Learning

Not all the collaborative learning processes are productive

Collaborative Learning Group Formation


According to Learning Theories

Advantages of collaborative learning are well known

Educational effects

Interaction

among learners

Relationship

among learners

How can we form an effective learning group?

To Form Learning Groups

Difficulty in understanding the learning theories


Due to the lack of common and solid background
concepts for collaborative learning

Learning Theory
X

Searching learning theories

Selecting appropriate theories

Forming groups

according to the theories

Learning Theories

×

×

CL Designer

Research Objectives

To construct a collaborative learning support system


Detect appropriate situation for a learner to join in a collaborative
learning session


Form a collaborative learning group.

To fulfill the objectives we have to consider


How to detect the appropriate situation to start a collaborative
learning session and to set up the learning goal


How to form an effective group which ensures educational benefits
to the members of the group, and


How to facilitate desired interaction among the members.


To fulfill the objectives we have to consider


How to detect the appropriate situation to start a collaborative
learning session and to set up the learning goal


How to form an effective group which ensures educational benefits
to the members of the group
, and


How to facilitate desired interaction among the members.



To form groups with justification by learning theories

Peer Tutoring
(Endlsey, 1980)

Cognitive Flexibility theory
(Spiro, et. al, 1988)

Sociocultural theory
(Vygotsky, 1930)

Cognitive Apprenticeship
(Collins, 1991)

Anchored Instruction
(Bransford, et al., 1992)

Distributed Cognition
(Salomon, 1993)

Cognitive Constructivism
(Piaget, 1929)

Legitimate Peripheral Participation
(Lave & Wenger, 1991)

Observational Learning
(Bandura, 1971)

Zone of Proximal Development
(Vygotsky, 1930)… ...

Underlying Learning Theories for
Collaborative Learning

Collaborative Learning Ontology

Collaborative Learning Ontology

Trigger to start collaborative learning sessions

Learning scenario

Learning material

Learning group

Learning goal

Trigger to start collaborative learning sessions

Learning scenario

Learning material

Learning group

Learning goal


Common goal


Personal goal


Personal Cognitive Change


Personal Experience

What situation learners are put in

What educational benefit

learners get

What interaction learners do

Role of Phenomena described in Learning Theories


< Design Phase >

Situation

Interaction

Educational benefits

Learning Theory

wants learners to do

wants learners to get

CL Designer

phenomena

goals

W
-
goal

Y<=I
-
goal

I
-
goal

wants to set up

Role of Phenomena described in Learning Theories


< Analyze Phase >

Situation

Interaction

Educational benefits

Learning Theory

CL Designer

phenomena

Are the learners

doing such interaction?

Will the learners

get such benefits?

Does the group

realize the situation?

Learning Group

monitor

I
-
goal

Y<=I
-
goal

W
-
goal

Learning Goal Ontology

The Classification of Learning Goals


G:I

-

Personal goal

-

What a learner (
I
)

acquires


G:Y<=I

-

Personal goal

-

Why a learner (
I
) interacts with another learner (
Y
ou)


to attain his/her
I
-
goal


G:W

-

Common goal as a
W
hole group

-

The situation setting up to attain
Y<=I
-
goals

La

Lb

Lc

G:I(Lc)

G:I(Lb)

G:I(La)

G:W(La,Lb)

G:W(La,Lb,Lc)

G:Y(La)<=I(Lb)

G:Y(Lb)<=I(La)

Learning Goal Ontology

I
-
goal,

Y<=I
-
goal,

W
-
goal

I
-
goals

Acquisition of Content
-
Specific Knowledge







Development of Cognitive Skills

Development of Meta
-
cognitive Skills

Development of Skills for Self
-
Expression







Accretion


Tuning


Restructuring

»
Modes of Learning, Rumelhart & Norman (1978)



Cognitive stage


Associative stage


Autonomous stage

»
Acquisition of Cognitive Skill, Anderson (1982), Fitts (1964)

Y<=I
-
goals

Learning by Observation

Learning by Self
-
Expression

Learning by being Taught

Learning by Teaching

Learning by Apprenticeship

Learning by Practice

Learning by Diagnosing

Learning by Guiding

Learning by Reflection

Learning by Discussion

W
-
goals

Setting up the situation for
Peer Tutoring

Setting up the situation for
Anchored Instruction

Setting up the situation for learning by
Cog. Apprenticeship

Setting up the situation for sharing (Meta
-
)Cognitive
function between learners (
Sociocultural T.
)

Setting up the situation for sharing Multiple Perspectives
(
Cog. Flexibility T.
)

Setting up the situation based on
Distributed Cognition

Setting up the situation based on
Cog. Constructivism


Setting up the community for Legitimate Peripheral
Participation (
LPP
)

Setting up the situation for
Observational Learning


Primary Focus & Secondary Focus

in a Learning Theory

Primary Focus (P)


specifies the role that is mainly focused in the learning
theory.


The learner who plays this role (P
-
member) is expected
to gain the main educational benefit.

Secondary Focus (S)


specifies the role that is weakly focused in the learning
theory.


The learner who plays this role (S
-
member) is needed as
a companion to enable a P
-
member to attain learning
goals.

Conceptual Structure of a
W
-
goal

?x=?a=?d

?y=?b=?c

W
-
goal

Role

?y

Secondary Focus (S)

Role

?x

Primary Focus (P)

Y<=I
-
goal

S <= P
-
goal

Y<=I
-
goal

P <= S
-
goal

p/o

p/o

p/o

p/o

I
-
goal

Behavior

Behavior

?b

?a

I

G: I(I)

You

p/o

p/o

p/o

I
-
goal

Behavior

Behavior

?d

?c

I

G: I(I)

You

p/o

p/o

p/o

Conceptual Structure of a
W
-
goal

Role

Role

Primary Focus

(P)

Secondary

Focus (S)

S<=P
-
goal

P<=S
-
goal

W
-
goal

Behavior

Behavior

Y<=I
-
goal

I
-
goal

Behavior

Behavior

Y<=I
-
goal

I
-
goal

You

I

You

I

Types of W
-
goals

Singleton W
-
goal


Multiple P
-
Focuses
×

Single S
-
Focus


Peer Tutoring


Anchored Instruction


Single P
-
Focus
×

Multiple S
-
Focuses


Cognitive Apprenticeship


Sociocultural Theory


Multiple Representations


Multiple P
-
Focuses
×

No S
-
Focus


Distributed Cognition


Cognitive Constructivism

Composite W
-
goal


Observational Learning


LPP

Peer Tutoring
(M
-
P
×

S
-
S)

PeerTutoring

PeerTutor

?x

Primary Focus

PeerTutee

?y

Secondary Focus

S<=P
-
goal

P<=S
-
goal

L by Teaching

L by being Taught

?x=?a=?d

?y=?b=?c

Tutoring

?d

?c

PeerTutee

G: I(PeerTutee)

PeerTutor

-

Content
-
specific


knowledge


(Accretion)



?a

?b

PeerTutee

G: I(PeerTutor)

PeerTutor

Tutoring

-

Content
-
specific


knowledge


(Tuning)





Passive Learning

Passive Learning

An Example of Usage of

Our Ontology

Opportunistic Group Formation

C

L

a

p

p

r

e

n

t

i

c

e

m

a

s

t

e

r

o

b

s

e

r

v

e

r

o

b

s

e

r

v

e

r

agent

learner

Individual Learning Mode

Collaborative Learning Mode

Opportunistic Group Formation

An Example of

Forming Collaborative Learning Groups

Learner
L
a

:
Development of
Meta
-
cognitive Skills

Self
-
monitoring + Self
-

evaluation + Self
-
regulation

LPP

Sociocultural

Theory


Cognitive

Apprenticeship

Distributed

Cognition

Cognitive

Constructivism

Cognitive stg.

Associative stg.

Autonomous stg.

(Associative stg.)

An Example of Group Formation: LPP

La

Lb

Lc

G:I(La)=Development of


(Meta)cognitive skills (Assoc. st.)

G:I(Lb)=Development of (Meta)cognitive skills (Autonomous st.)

G:I(Lc)=Development of (Meta)cognitive skills (Autonomous st.)

Peripheral Part.

(Problem
-
solving)

Full Part.

(Problem
-
solving)

Full Part.

(Problem
-
solving)

G:Y({Lb,Lc})<=I(La)=L by Practice

G:Y(Lb)<=I(Lc)=

G:Y(Lc)<=I(Lb)=

L by Discussion

G:W(La,{Lb,Lc})=LPP

G:W(Lb,Lc)=


Cognitive Constructivism

Lb

Lc

Lb

Lc

Lb

Lc

Lb

Lc

Lb

Lc

La

La

La

Ld

Observer

(Observing)

G:I(Ld)=Development of Metacognitive skills (Cog. st.)

G:W(Ld,{La,Lf})=


Observational Learning

An Example of Group Formation:


Sociocultural Theory

Lf

La

G:I(La)=Development of


Metacognitive skills


(Assoc. st.)

G:I(Lf)=Development of


Cognitive skills


(Assoc. st.)

Client

(Presenting)

G:Y(Lf)<=I(La)=

L by Reflection

G:W(La,Lf)=


Sociocultural T.

Diagnoser

(Advising)

G:Y(La)<=I(Lf)=

L by Diagnosing

G:Y({La,Lf})<=I(Ld)=L by Observing

Conclusion

Collaborative Learning

Ontology


a system of concepts to represent a collaborative learning
session

Learning Goal Ontology


as a part of Collaborative Learning Ontology


I
-
goal, Y<=I
-
goal, W
-
goal

Future work

To elaborate collaborative learning ontology


Learning topic


Learning scenario


Learner’s role

To construct an Analyzing Support Tool

To consider possibility of integration several
groups into one


http://www.ai.sanken.osaka
-
u.ac.jp/~inaba/LGOntology
/

Further Information: