French clitics and cognition

blabbedharborIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 6 mois)

67 vue(s)

1

French clitics and cognition

Dick Hudson

Oxford, November 2012

2

Plan

1.
Cognition in Word Grammar

2.
Clitics in Word Grammar

3.
French clitics

4.
Conclusions

3

1. Cognition in Word Grammar


Language is part of cognition


both competence and performance.


All of general ability is available


so let's assume language can use it all.


Maybe language needs nothing else?


This is a question for research.


So what does general cognition offer?

4

General cognition


A variety of units:


concepts, e.g. 'cat'


percepts, e.g. cat purring


motor
-
programs, e.g. how
to stroke


feelings, e.g. liking for cats


A network structure


linking units


defining concepts

cat

5

Networks and activation


The brain is a 'neural'
network


which carries activation.


The mind is a 'mental'
network


built on the neural network


and therefore affected by
activation.


But the mental network
has special properties too.

6

is
-
a

The mental network


Nodes are classified
in 'is
-
a' hierarchies


Properties are links to
other nodes.


All links are
classified.


These hierarchies
allow generalisations


so a token X inherits
properties by default


bird

robin

flying

flier

X

7

Default inheritance


Penguins are birds.


A typical bird flies.


flying is expected


quantity (#) = 1


But for penguins,
there's no flying


# = 0


i.e. They don't fly.


So X doesn't fly.

bird

penguin

flying

flier

X

0

#

1

#

0

#

8

Types of link in cognitive networks


Basic (?innate?) links


is
-
a (classification)


quantity (how many? true/false?)


identity (binding


more later)


argument, value


Relational concepts


in an is
-
a hierarchy


e.g. 'flier' is
-
a 'actor'

#

=

flier

actor

argument

value

9

Binding


To 'find' a node, bind
it to another one.


Q. Who is John?


A. He's the cook.


Follows activation:


choose the most active
candidate.

John

?

=

cook

10

Limitless cognitive networks


Limitless creation of relations as needed


e.g. for kinship


Limitless creation of properties as needed


e.g. for people


Limitless exceptionality as needed


e.g. for birds


Limitless binding as needed

11

2. Clitics in Word Grammar


By default, a word
is realized by a
word
-
form.


But a clitic is
realized by an
affix.


Default
inheritance allows
this.

word
-
form

word

realization

form

affix

clitic

12

Default morphology


Base is
-
a realization.


Top is
-
a realization.


Top is fully inflected.


By default, Base =
Top.


But for inflections:


Top is a 'variant' of
Base.

word
-
form

word

realization

base

variant

top

inflection

13

Affixes and hosts


By default, an affix has
a host


the wordform it defines.


Every affix has a
position within its host


at least as prefix or suffix


but the position may be
defined by a template


e.g. Latin
am
-
a
-
b
-
i
-
t
-
ur

{ }

{s}

host

2

1

{ }

{ }

{ur}

host

6

{ }


1 2 3 4 5 6

{ }

{ }

{ }

{ }

1

2

3

4

5

s
-
variant

second part

fourth part

'he/she will be
loved'

14

Clitics and hostforms


A clitic is fully realized
by an affix.


The affix needs a host.


So the host is a special
'hostform'.


Maybe this inherits a
template structure from
inflections?


special clitics always
combine with complex
morphology?

affix

clitic

top

hostform

host

part

e.g. third part

wordform

15

John is/'s late.

realization

JOHN

BE,3sg

LATE

{John}

{i
-
z}

{late}

realization

JOHN

BE,3sg,

clitic

LATE

{John}

{z}

{late}

{John
-
z}

host

part 2

part 1

hostform

Bound to realization of
previous word.

16

The entry for {z}


{z} is
-
a suffix.


So it has a host.


Its host is
-
a hostform


whose part2 it is


and part1is
bound

to
the preceding
wordform.

form

host

suffix

hostform

{z}

2

1

next

=

17

Summary of apparatus


Rich relations


realization


host


part 1/2/…


Forms


hostforms


Default inheritance


Activation


Binding

18

3. French clitics


Je ne me les y

ai pas mis.


I not for
-
me them there have not put.


Clitics combine in an order which is


rigidly fixed


different from full NPs:


J'ai mis les lettres sur la table.


I have put the letters on the table

clitics
underlined

19

The football team

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

subj

neg

1/2/ref

3 dir

3 ind

y

en

je

tu

il/elle

nous

vous

ils/elles



ne

me

te

se

nous

vous



le

la

les


lui

leur



y



en

20

The challenges of French clitics

A. Positive imperatives: Verb + clitics.


Donnez
-
le
-
moi!
(*
Me le donnez!
) "Give it to me!"

B. Only one per column.


*
Je te me présenterai
.
"I'll introduce myself to
you"

C. *3 + 5 (*
1/2/ref + 3 ind
)


*Je me lui présenterai.
"I'll introduce myself to her."

D. and …

21

Clitic climbing


Je ai donné.
I have given him it.



le lui

le

aux

'make'



Je te ferai manger.

I'll make you eat it.



Je te laisserai le manger.

I'll let you eat it.



Je te laisserai manger.

I'll let you eat it.

le

Or …

'let', 'send' or perception



Je le lui donne.

I give him it.

22

Classifying clitics


Clitics are classified.


'subj', 'neg', etc.


One item per class.


'1/2/ref' is
-
a 'obj'


so *
me lui


and
Donnez
-
le
-
moi


= Donnez
-
le
-
lui

clitic

subj

ne

obj

3dir

y

en

1/2/ref

23

Adding hostforms


Each clitic brings
its own hostform.


Each clitic class
has a position.


Each verb also has
its own hostform.


Hostforms bind
together.

hostform

3dir

host

4

hostform

imperative

host

<4

?

=

24

Classifying hostforms


Positive imperatives
have ordinary order.


Compare:


Donnez
-
le
-
moi


Donnez le livre
à Jean!


But other verbs are
different…

imperative

host

<4

obj

3dir

y

en

4

7

6

5

hostform1

hostform2

3dir

en

Give it to me!

Give the book to
John!

25

The paradoxes

hostform2

verb

host

>7

imperative

host

<4

hostform1

4

3dir

en

7

1

subj

1/2/ref

3

5

obj



Positive imperatives are
exceptional verbs,



but they have default
hostforms.



Why?



Order shows function
(direct/indirect) in
hostform1,


but person in
hostform2.


Why?

2

neg

26

Why positive imperatives?

Why do positive imperatives have default
order?


Because they
don't

include subjects and
negatives.


subjects contrast before/after verb.


negatives contrast
ne ….. pas.


So subj and neg drag hostword1 before the
verb.

27

Why function > person?


Pos imperatives:
Donnez
-
le
-
moi/lui
!


follows non
-
clitic order:
Donnez
le livre

à Jean
!


Others:
Il
me

le
donne ~ Il
le

lui

donne


follows semantic link to subject:


reflexive > non
-
reflexive


also animacy hierarchy:


1 > 2 > 3

28

Je les fais manger.

I them make eat

How do clitics climb?


Each clitic brings
a hostform.


But so does each
clitic
-
available
verb.


Then the various
hostforms merge.

Je les mange.

I them eat

host

hf

host

hf

host

hf

host

hf

=

=

29

Binding again


Binding in parsing,


and in semantics,


and in clitic
climbing.


He hurt himself.

subj

=

referent

=

referent

Je les ai mangés.

host

=

host

30

4.Conclusions


French clitics require only:


default inheritance


binding


unlimited relations


All these tools are available in general
cognition.


So clitics are ordinary cognition.

31

Thank you


This show is available at

www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/talks.htm