Cognitive Lecture MEMORY AND THOUGHT 2011 [Autosaved]x

blabbedharborIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 10 mois)

81 vue(s)

COGNITIVE ANALYSIS

OUR TARGETS

Cognitive lecture

COGNITIVE ANALYSIS

Targets of the Cognitive analysis

General learning outcomes


Outline principles that define the cognitive
level of analysis.


Explain how principles that define the
cognitive level of analysis may be
demonstrated in research (that is, theories
and/or studies).


Discuss how and why particular research
methods are used at the cognitive level of
analysis.


Discuss ethical considerations related to
research studies at the cognitive level of
analysis.

Cognitive
processes


Evaluate schema theory with reference to
research studies


Evaluate two models of theories of one
cognitive process with reference to
research studies


Explain how biological factors may affect
one cognitive process




Cognitive processes


Discuss
how social or cultural factors affect
one cognitive process


With reference to relevant research studies,
to what extent is one cognitive process
reliable?


Discuss the use of technology in
investigating cognitive processes

Cognition and emotion


To what extent do cognitive and biological
factors interact in emotion


Evaluate one theory of how emotion may
affect one cognitive process




SOURCE JOHN CRANE PSYCH
-
IB SYLLABUS

General theorists to know


Hermann
Ebbinghaus
,
Tversky

and
Kahnemann
,
Jean Piaget
,
Leon
Festinger
,
Frederic Bartlett
,
Aaron Beck
,
Albert Ellis
.



Memory Research (
some is
biological
):
Atkinson &
Shiffrin
,
Craik

&
Lockhart
,


Flourens

&
Lashley
,
Thompson
,
Brown
&
Kulik
,
Milner
,
Morris
,
Cole
& Scribner
,
Elizabeth Loftus
.


SOURCE JOHN CRANE
PSYCH
-
IB SYLLABUS


IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE



Theorists did not agree with behaviorism (stimulus and response)

Cognitive Perspective involves the following:

1.
Computer Technology and Artificial Intelligence


Norbert Wiener
-
created the term cybernetics to refer to any

system that has built
-
in correction mechanisms, i.e. is self
-
steering. John Crane

Also the terms feedback, input and output.


Alan Turing
-

The
Turing Machine idea which is a computer.(1936)

Considered
the father of Computer Science.

Ludwig von
Bertalanffy
-

“Modern Theories of Development, where he
introduced the question
of whether we could explain biology in purely physical
terms”

2.

Linguistics

Noam Chomsky
-
generative grammar
-
create new sentences which never been
spoken before. Interested in the organization of language, mental structure and
“believed that language was species
-
specific

(human only). All these make him truly “cognitive”.”
-
John Crane


IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE


3.
Studies on the develop of knowledge

Jean Piaget
-
known as the creator of cognitive psychology.

Creator of the term “
genetic epistemology
-
meaning

the study of the development of knowledge.”
-
John Crane

“Infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of
the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills.

These skills he called
schemas (e.g. assimilation, accommodation).”

4.
Famous theorists of Cognitive Psychology


Hermann
Ebbinghaus
-
meaningfulness of syllables, memorization and
relearning old material.


Tolman
-
cognitive maps animals have an internal representation of behavior.


Kohler
-
insight learning with apes
-
problem solving


Bartlett
-
existence of schemas


Bandura
-
observation learning





IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE


5.
First Cognitive Psychologists


Donald
Hebb



“Finding of the
Hebb

synapse,Hebb

cell assembly which is called.
consolidation theory, and is the most accepted explanation for neural learning
today. Thinking is what happens when complex sequences of these cell assemblies
are activated. He humbly suggested that his theory is just a new version of
connectionism.”
-
John Crane


George A. Miller
-


limits to short
-
term memory could only hold about seven pieces
called chunks.


Ulric

Neisser


” research interests include memory, especially

memory for life events and in natural settings; intelligence, especially individual and
group differences in test scores, IQ tests and their social significance; self
-
concepts,
especially as based on self
-
perception.”
-
John Crane





The Cognitive
Level of Analysis

Main focus and
assumptions


Cognition
-

is the
mental act or process by which
knowledge is
acquired.

Focus on the following


humans process information, looking at how we
treat information that comes in to
the person
(stimuli
) and how this treatment leads to
responses.


interested
in the variables that intervene
between
stimulus/input and response/output.


Perception, Attention, Memory
and
Language
.


Perception acquiring knowledge


Attention
concerned
with acquisition
.


Memory deals with
organizing
and
retaining
knowledge


Language

how we use it for knowledge


Information
P
rocessing Model


work with models of the human
mind


study processes
that are
not directly
observable





BASIC
INFORMATION PROCESSING
MODEL





INPUT PROCESSES


Concerned
with perception & sensory registration

STORAGE
& RELATED PROCESSES


Concerned
with elaborating, manipulating, selecting
& storing
info

OUTPUT PROCESSES


Concerned
with production of appropriate responses

Input

Output

Information

Processing

STIMULUS

INPUT
PROCESSES

STORAGE
RELATED
PROCESSES

OUTPUT
PROCESSES

RESPONSE


Broadbent’s (1958) idea that much
of cognition
consists of a sequence
of stages
(input/attention/perception, storage,
retrieval)

One application of the information
processing model: Artificial
Intelligence


Artificial intelligence (AI) is the
science of making machines do the
sort of things
that are
done by
human minds
(
Boden

1987
).


C
omputer
metaphor
involves
viewing the brain as being like a
computer
.


“AI
models assume the human mind
functions in an
analogous way
to
the computer and so in AI,
computers are tools that are used to
try and
understand how
information
is processed by the human
mind”
-

John Crane

OUR TARGETS


Perception and Motivation
-
Emotion
Lecture


Complete Video




MISUNDERSTOOD LYRICS

Our Targets


Selective listening
Activity


Write as many
lyrics down


Take your lyrics
and come up
with the

meaning


Are you correct?

Perceptual Set


THEORIES OF
PERCEPTION


Each sense organ is part of a sensory system which
receives sensory inputs
and transmits
sensory
information to the brain
.


A major theoretical issue on which psychologists
are divided is the extent to which
perception relies
directly on the information present in the stimulus
.


Some argue that perceptual
processes are
not
direct, but depend on the perceiver's expectations
and previous knowledge as well as
the information
available in the stimulus itself
.

EXPLAINING PERCEPTION
-

A TOP
-
DOWN
APPROACH

Helmholtz (
1821
-
1894)
-
founder
of perceptual
research
.


sensations and our conscious perception of the real
world there must be
intermediate processes.


believed perception is more than direct
registration
of sensations
, but that other events intervene
between stimulation and experience.

PERCEPTIONS
AS HYPOTHESES
-

R L GREGORY (B 1923
)


signals received by the sensory receptors trigger neural events, and
appropriate knowledge
interacts
with these inputs to enable us to makes sense of the world
.


we respond to certain objects as though they are doors even though we can only
see a
long narrow
rectangle as the door is ajar
.


Perceptions can be
ambiguous

PERCEPTUAL
SET


"a perceptual bias or predisposition or readiness to
perceive particular
features of a stimulus
".
Allport

1955


Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data
and
ignore
others
.


According to Vernon, 1955 set works in two ways
:



(1) The perceiver has
certain expectations
and focuses attention on particular aspects of the
sensory data: This he calls
a 'Selector
'.


(
2) The perceiver knows how to classify, understand and name selected data and
what inferences
to draw from it. This he calls an 'Interpreter
'.


Factors that influence

• Expectations

• Emotion

• Motivation

• Culture

Expectation
-

Bruner & Minturn, 1955







MOTIVATION
AND
EMOTION

Allport
, 1955 has distinguished 6 types of motivational
-
emotional influence on perception:


(
i
) bodily needs (
eg

physiological needs)


(ii) reward and punishment


(iii) emotional connotation


(iv) individual values


(v) personality


(vi) the value of objects.

STUDY

Gilchrist &
Nesberg



1952, found participants who had gone without food for
the longest
periods were more likely to rate
pictures of food as brighter. This effect did not
occur with
non
-
food
Pictures
.

CULTURE

Deregowski


perceiving perspective in drawings is in fact
a specific
cultural skill, which is learned
rather than
automatic


Several cultures
prefer drawings which don't show perspective, but instead are split
so as to
show both
sides of an object at the same
time






Outline
one

key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how
it can be used to explain behaviour


SELECTIVE ATTENTION

Is
your ability to pick and choose among various available inputs.


SELECTION THEORY(1960)


DONALD BROADBENT ARGUED THAT WE ATTEND TO ONLY ONE OF
THE MANY CHANNELS OF INFORMATION REACHING US AT ANY TIME
BECAUSE THESE CHANNELS ARE LIMITED.


DICHOTIC LISTENING TASK
, SUBJECTS COULD REPORT HEARING
THEIR NAME IN THE CHANNEL THEY HAD BEEN INSTRUCTED TO
IGNORE. OTHERS WERE TOLD TO IGNORE ONE CHANEL BUT WERE
ABLE TO REPORT THE FLOW OF A COMPLETE STORY EVEN THOUGH
THE STORY WAS SWITCHED WITHOUT WARNING TO THE IGNORED
CHANNEL.

ATTENUATION THEORY(1964)


ANNE TREISBENT’S FILTER SHE TOOK BROADBENTS STUDY AND
SUPPRESSED OTHER CHANNELS BUT DID NOT ELIMINATE THEM.
ACCORDING TO HER STUDY INFORMATION WAS STILL BEING
PROCESSED.





Outline
one

key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how it can be
used to explain behaviour


RESULTS
FROM THESE STUDIES


SELECTIVE ATTENTION DOES NOT BLOCK OUT ALL STIMULI.



ASSUME THAT YOU WILL FIRST ANALYZE THE VARIETY OF
INFORMATION AND YOU WILL THEN FOCUS ON A SELECT FEW AND
DIRECT MOST OF YOUR CONSCIOUS ATTENTION TO THEM.


What makes one input more important than another?

1.
INFORMATION THAT LEADS TO MORE SATISFACTION TO AN URGENT
NEED
SUCH AS HUNGER

2.
PRIORITY TO INPUTS THAT ARE STRANGE OR NOVEL. EXAMPLE IF
YOU ARE AT A FORMAL PARTY AND SOMEONE COMES IN NUDE.

3.
PRIORITY TO INTEREST SUCH AS HEARING YOUR NAME. OR WHEN
YOU BECOME INTERESTED IN A HOBBY YOU START TO NOTICE IT
EVERYWHERE.






OUR TARGETS


FEATURE
EXTRACTION
LECTURE




Outline
one

key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how it can
be used to explain behaviour


FEATURE EXTRACTION

Is your way of deciding which aspects of the selected channels you will focus
on.



Extract the significant features of an input helps a person to identify it
and compare it to other inputs.


Feature extraction depends on experience on knowing what to look for.


Example
-
Looking for the “juicy” parts in a book.


Outline
one

key concept from the cognitive perspective and
show how it can be used to explain behaviour



STORING
INFORMATION

We call this memory.


Sensory storage

only holds information for only a second.


Short term memory

keeps it in mind as long as you repeat it.


Long term memory

can store it indefinitely.


SHORT TERM MEMORY


Ways to move items from short term memory to long term
memory.


Rehearsal


REPETITION





CIAMTVFBINATOUSASAT




CIA MTV FBI NATO USA
SAT



Chunking
-

breaking up items. Grouping them in how they
are related.



HOW MANY DOTS DO YOU
SEE!!!!!!


WE REMEMBER NEW
PHONE #’S IN TWO TO
THREE CHUNKS


2535717339 OR 253
-
571
-
7339


FOR THIS TO MOVE
INTO LONG TERM WE
NEED TO REHEARSE

LONG TERM MEMORY


This is where we store
information for future
use.


Identify
one

research method used by psychologists working within the
cognitive perspective and describe how this method has been applied in
one empirical study

OTHER
MODELS OF MEMORY

ENDEL TULVING(1972)


SEMANITIC MEMORY
-

OUR OWN KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE, RULES
AND WORDS. WE SHARE WITH OTHERS WHO SPEAK OUR LANGUAGE.


EPISODIC MEMORY
-

MEMORY OF OUR OWN LIFE

L.R. SQUIRE(1987)


DECLARITIVE MEMORY
-
(EXPLICIT MEMORY) INCLUDES BOTH SEMANITIC
AND EPISODIC MEMORY. YOU USE THIS WHEN YOU NEED IT.
(CONSCIOUS)

ROEDIGER (1990)


PROCEDURAL MEMORY
-

(IMPLICIT MEMORY) DOES NOT REQUIRE
CONSCIOUS RECOLLECTION TO HAVE PAST LEARNING OR
EXPERIENCES IMPACT OUR PERFORMANCES.


PROCEDURAL MEMORY INVOLVES SKILLS LEARNED AS WE MATURE
SUCH AS DRIVING A CAR OR LEARNING TO TIE YOUR SHOES.


AS WE GAIN SKILL WE WILL LEARN THE ABILITY TO DESCRIBE WHAT
WE ARE DOING. IT WILL ACTUALLY SLOW US DOWN.




ANOTHER FORM OF PROCEDURAL MEMORY IS
PRIMING.


ASSASSIN

BARREL

MONKEY

_SS_SS__

BARR__

MO__EY


HOW LONG DID IT TAKE YOU TO GET THE
PUZZLE RIGHT?


M_ _ E _ _ Y R _ _

_ I _ YE

C_
_
C _ _NG _
_
R_



MILEY CYRUS

KIMYE

CATCHING FIRE




HOW LONG DID IT TAKE YOU THIS TIME?

MEMORY AND THE BRAIN


SOME PSYCHOLOGISTS THEORIZE IT IS CHANGE IN THE NEURONAL
STRUCTURE OF NERVES.

OTHERS CONTEND THAT LEARNING IS BASED ON THE MOLECULAR OR
CHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE BRAIN.

PROCEDURAL MEMORIES
-

INVOLVES ACTIVITY IN YOUR BRAIN CALLED
THE STRIATUM, DEEP IN THE FRONT PART OF YOUR CORTEX.

DECLARATIVE MEMORIES

RESULT FROM ACTIVITY IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS
AND AMYGDALA. (MISHKIN & PETRI 1984)

IT IS NOT CLEAR HOW NERVE CELLS (
NEURONS
) ESTABLISH
CONNECTIONS WITH ONE ANOTHER WHEN LEARNING OCCURS.

COMPLEX PROCESS OF CHEMICALS PRECEDES THE FORMATION OF NEW
CONNECTIONS OF NEURONS.

INCREASE LEVELS OF CALCIUM, PROTEIN AND LEVELS OF GLUCOSE.
HAVE BEEN EVIDENT WITH NEW BRAIN RESEARCH. (KALAT 1992) WHAT
TYPE OF FOOD WOULD HELP WITH MEMORY ACCORDING TO THIS
STUDY?

OUR TARGETS


RETRIEVING
INFORMATION
LECTURE


AUTISTIC SAVANT TWINS


NOTE ON MEMORY


RETRIEVING INFORMATION


Recognition provides insight how information is stored
in memory.


Recall

is the active reconstruction of information.


deals with attitudes and personal knowledge.


Eidetic memory
-
photographic memory only 5% of us
has that.


Relearning


Forgetting
-
inputs fade away and disappear.

IMPROVING MEMORY


1.
Associate items with things you know.


2. Don’t over learn or over study. Study a little at a time.


3. Mnemonic devices are techniques using associations to


memorize information.

OUR TARGETS


COGNITIVE LECTURE


THINKING


PROBLEM SOLVING


EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATION
LECTURE


AUT SAVANTS



THINKING


Changing and
reorganizing the
information stored in
memory in order to create
new information.


Units of thought


Image

a mental
representation of a
specific event or object.


Symbol

a sound or design
that represents an object
quality.


Concept
is when a symbol
is used to label a class of
objects. Ex: animals.
Concept helps us chunk
large information.


Directed thinking

is a
systematic and logical
attempt to reach a specific
goal.


Non directed thinking

has
no order and tends to
random
.


PROBLEM SOLVING



Strategies
-
specific methods.


Set
-
when a particular strategy becomes
a habit.

Creativity


Is the ability to use information in such a
way that the result is somehow new,
original and meaningful.

Flexibility


The ability to overcome rigidity.


Recombination when the elements of the
problem are familiar but the solution is
not.

Insight


Occurs when the problems have proved
resistant to all problem solving efforts
and strategies. Frustration happens and
you stop and temporarily abandon the
task but recombination happens at the
unconscious level. And you have an
“AHA” experience
.


An epiphany happens and you solve the proble
m.


EMOTION/ MOTIVATION THEORY

BRIEF BIO HISTORY


Genetics


evolutionary
theory


Homeostatic drive
theories (Cannon 1929)


Hypothalamic
theory


Glucostatic

theory (
Tardoff
, 82
)


Lipostatic

theory


Drive
-
reduction theory
(
Hull
, 1943
)


physiological needs + psychological drives
.


Hierarchy of needs
(
Maslow
, 1954
)


Cognitive theories of
motivation


combine
with
social motivational
needs or
desires


Curiosity (need to explore), cognitive
consistency (to think and act in
consistent way
-

Festinger
), need for
control (to assert control over one’s life


otherwise, e.g.
learned helplessness
),
need for achievement (
MacClelland



Thematic Appreciation Test
). (Crane
2013)





Cognitive
labelling

theory


Schachter

and Singer
(’62)


all
emotional experiences are
preceded by
a
generalized
state of arousal. The nature of the subjective
experience is determined (“
labelled
”)
by the
individual’s cognitive assessment based on external,
situational cues or internal ones such
as imagination
.


the study


emotions
are learned
, as
an emotional label is derived from previous experiences of emotion in similar
situations.

Cognitive appraisal theory


extension of the above


Lazarus (’91)




the
experience of emotion
is related
to how one appraises it


his study: participants who viewed a film
of industrial
accidents experienced
less stress if told that the characters were actors (denial condition)
or were asked
to consider
the film in terms of its value for promoting safety at work (intellectualization)
than
when given
no instructions.



EMOTION/ MOTIVATION THEORY

James
-
Lange theory of
emotion (1880’s)


bodily changes come first
and form
the basis of
an emotional
experience

Cannon
-
Bard
theory of emotion


(1927
)


changes of emotional state and changes
in
ANS occur simultaneously

Role
of brain
structures


The
Papez

circuit
(’37)


hypothalamus
(emotional expression) + limbic system
(
emotional feeling
); (
-
) it is oversimplified;


Papez
-
MacLean limbic model
(‘49)


improvements to
Papez
, increased emphasis on
the hippocampus
and amygdala (:aggression). (
-
)
the model deals mainly with
high
-
intensity
emotions
, such as rage and fear.


LeDoux’s

modified limbic theory
(‘95)


two
separate brain circuits involved in emotion: rapid


emotional response (thalamus


amygdala) and
slower emotional response (thalamus


cortex,


thereby affected by higher mental processes)




the limbic system is a network of structures
in the forebrain, including the
hypothalamus
, thalamus
, hippocampus, and
cingulate cortex.

OUR TARGETS


PERCEPTION


Optical Illusion Lecture

WATCH SECRETS OF THE WILD
CHILD


TAKE NOTES ON THE
FOLLOWING:


When and where was Genie
"discovered"? Under
what
conditions

had she been held?


What particular
question of
importance

to science and
society (and to this course!)
was it thought that the careful
study of Genie might be able to
answer?


Describe Genie's apparent
linguistic

abilities at the time of
her "discovery." What
explanation

is given for the
state of her language?


Optical Illusions


An
optical illusion

(also called a
visual illusion
) is characterized by
visually perceived

images that differ from objective reality.


The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a
percept

that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus
source.


Physiological ones that are the effects on the eyes and brain of
excessive stimulation of a specific type (brightness, tilt, color,
movement)



C
ognitive

illusions where the eye and brain make unconscious
inferences. They can also be known as "mind games".






Changizi
, Mark A. et al. (2008): Perceiving the Present and a
Systematization of Illusions.
Cognitive Science

32,3

: 459
-
503.


OUR TARGETS

Perception video’s
take Notes

Introduction to
Cognitive Project




IB Cognitive Psychology Project
Requirements



Creating a 5 slide PowerPoint on your
study


You need to include the following:


A video that represents your study


What was the aim or hypothesis of the study


Who conducted the study, materials,
participants, method and design of study


Brief bio on the researchers


One specific new study that relate to yours


Why is this study relevant to Cognitive
Psychology? Look at Cognitive Targets


Small replication of the study and example


Each person in your group will have to teach
a slide.



Presentations of this study will start
December 11. You will receive class time to
work on this project but use your time
wisely.




OUR TARGETS



COGNITIVE LECTURE


EYEWITNESS
TESTIMONY


Relapse
-
Prevention
Training


Changing
recollection




EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY


In 1976 the Devlin Committee analyzed all the identification parades held
in England & Wales during 1973 and found that when a suspect had
been picked out 82% were subsequently convicted (
Baddeley
, 1993)



Nickerson & Adams (1975) also found that people are very poor at
recalling the appearance of objects seen every day. They asked subjects
to draw what was represented on each issue of a US penny. They found
that on average people could only remember around three out of eight
critical features and even those features recalled were often placed
wrongly.


THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Attentional

Focus


evidence suggests that memory of a violent event is stronger than that
for a neutral event (
Baddeley
, 1993). For example, Loftus (1975) found
that subjects tend to focus on the weapon rather than on the appearance
of the assailant.

THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Relapse
-
Prevention Training


eyewitnesses are often asked leading questions.

LOFTUS


one study people watched a film of a car crash and one group were then
asked, “About how fast were the cars going when they
hit each
other?”
Other groups were asked the same question, but the word
hit was
replaced with either smashed, collided, bumped
or
contacted.
She
found that speed estimates were highest (40.8 mph) when the word
smashed was used, lower with collided (39.3 mph) and lower still with
bumped (38.1 mph). The lowest estimates were from hit (34 mph) and
contacted (31.8 mph). Added to this, when the same subjects were
contacted a week later and asked about whether there had been any
broken glass, those who had been presented with the word smashed
were consistently more likely to report (incorrectly) that glass had been
broken.

THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Changing recollection

eyewitnesses are often asked leading questions.

LOFTUS


it is possible to change a witness’s recollection by subtly introducing new
information during questioning. Subjects were shown a series of slides
representing a traffic accident in which a pedestrian was knocked down
at a pelican crossing. A green car drove past the accident without
stopping, a police car arrived, and a passenger from one of the cars in
the accident ran for help. Subjects were asked 12 questions about the
incident. Question 10 made reference to the
blue car that
drove past the
accident. When asked 20 minutes later to recall the
colour

of the car that
drove by without stopping who have been given the false information
tended to choose blue or bluish
-
green rather than green!

OUR TARGETS



COGNITIVE LECTURE


FALSE MEMORIES


FACE RECOGNITION




THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Theoretical Interpretation


LOFTUS


“false memories” were not due to social pressure, lack of confidence or failure to
notice important information in the first place. She argues that it is the actual
memory trace itself that is changed by subsequent information. It appears that
what we remember is a combination of what we see and what we subsequently
think.

Bekerian

& Bowers


argue that the original trace survives and can be retrieved given the correct
retrieval cues.


Morton (1995) who makes a distinction between primary memory records and
secondary memory records. He suggests that primary records are the way in
which particular events are represented in the brain and are laid down at the time
of the event itself (like episodic memory). When you then try to recall an event
you create a secondary record. The secondary record results from the retrieval of
primary records. Therefore, there will be two records: the event itself and the
recall of the event subsequently. The secondary record may well be distorted by
leading questions and by information from semantic memory, but the primary
record will not be altered at all: given the correct retrieval cue, therefore, it could
be recalled intact.

THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Theoretical Interpretation



Are you likely to claim “I never forget a face”? How justifiable is such a claim?
Woodhead

&
Baddeley

(1981) carried out a study in which 100 Cambridge
housewives were shown a series of unfamiliar faces and then asked to recognize
them when they were re
-
presented together with a series of similar, but new
faces. These housewives were also asked how good they thought their memory
of faces was. There were huge differences between how well they performed in
the recognition test and how good they though their memory was.


memory for faces depends on a particular system located in a special part of the
brain

Accuracy of face recognition


Penry

invented the Photo
-
fit, which comprises a box containing sets of features
(chins, noses, eyes etc.) which can be put together to form a face.
Penry

believed that in order to perceive and remember a human face one has to
abstract the various features and
categorise

them systematically.


the perception of a face depends on processing the pattern of features, paying
attention to the way in which each feature is related to another, rather than
isolating individual features.

THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Accuracy of face recognition


Penry

invented the Photo
-
fit, which comprises a box containing sets of features
(chins, noses, eyes etc.) which can be put together to form a face.
Penry

believed that in order to perceive and remember a human face one has to
abstract the various features and
categorise

them systematically.


the perception of a face depends on processing the pattern of features, paying
attention to the way in which each feature is related to another, rather than
isolating individual features.

Identity Parades


the suspect is presented together with a number of non
-
suspects who look
broadly like the suspect

subtle influences:


criminal as good
-
looking it would be important to find out what was meant by
“good
-
looking”


bias in recognition in an identity parade is clothing. This issue was studied by
Thomson (1983) who showed that the clothing worn by a criminal could cause
someone else wearing similar clothes to be identified as the perpetrator of the
crime.

THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Identity Parades

subtle influences:


Thomson (1983) also reported a case that actually happened to him. He was
arrested and placed in a line
-
up, identified and charged with rape. He said that at
the time the rape had taken place he was taking part in a television discussion
(on, strangely enough, the unreliability of eyewitness testimony!) and could not
have committed the rape. It turned out that the woman had been 7 raped while
watching the program and had correctly recognized his face but had incorrectly
assigned his face to the crime. This is called
unconscious transference.


identity parade includes the criminal. Since this may not be the case, then there
is clearly a danger that that false identifications will be encourage. Witnesses will
assume the criminal is in the line
-
up and may feel pressured to come up with a


positive identification. One way of avoiding this is to present the people in the
line
-
up one at a time, without telling the witness how many people will be
presented to them. Lindsey et al (1991) tried this and found that this kind of
sequential presentation reduced the occasions on which subjects identified an
innocent person.


SOURCE
-
DIRECTLY FROM
-
http://cranepsych.edublogs.org/files/2009/06/eyewitness_testimony.pdf

THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES

Person Memory


Memory for people and events is thought to be of two types: episodic and
semantic

Memory for people seems to fall into three categories (Fiske & Cox,1979)

1.
memory for appearance: what the person looked like and was wearing. This is
the first thing that people tend to recall and is directly retrievable from episodic
memory because it can actually be observed.

2.
memory for behavior: what the person was doing. This is the second thing that
people tend to recall and can also be retrieved directly from episodic memory.

3.
memory for traits: what kind of person they were. This is the last think that people
recall and, because it involves inference, is usually the least reliable. It is not
directly observable and may involve information from semantic memory.


Memory for personality traits tends to be of two types (Rosenberg &
Sedlak
,
1972)


(a) social desirability
-
(b) competence characteristics


remembering the assailant in an attack then you will tend to be swayed by your
assumptions about their social desirability and competence.


Another thing that seems to improve person memory is encouraging someone to


imagine themselves in the other person’s shoes (
Havey

et al, 1980); doing this
helps them recall more about the other person.

STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES

(+)
Cognitive psychology uses the laboratory experimental method.

(
-
) laboratory experimentation seems
culture
-
biased and gender
-
biased.

(+)
scientific based

(+) uses humans in their experiments

(+) brain scanning techniques for memory, attention, problem solving (: the
field of


cognitive neuropsychology

(+)
case studies on damaged brain patients


(
-
) poor representativeness, poor experimental control

More Methods Used



field experiment

(+) natural conditions, (
-
) poor control of extraneous variables, not


verbal protocol


people reporting on how they solve a problem

(
-
) problem of
introspection


subjectivity;



verbal report

observation


questionnaires


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