Chapter 13: Human and

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Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Chapter 13: Human and
Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

What Do You Consider Intelligence?

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Intelligence Is…


Capacity to learn from experience


Ability to adapt to different contexts


The use of metacognition to enhance
learning


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Emotional Intelligence


Mayer & Salovey (1997)


“The capacity to reason about emotions, and of
emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the
abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to
access and generate emotions so as to assist
thought, to understand emotions and emotional
knowledge, and to reflectively regulate
emotions so as to promote emotional and
intellectual growth”



Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Social Intelligence


Ability to get along with others


Knowledge of social matters


Insight into moods or underlying
personality traits of others

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Artificial Intelligence


The computational part of the ability to
achieve goals in the world


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Historical Trends


Emphasize psychophysical abilities


Galton


Examine relationships of sensory abilities


Emphasize on judgment


Binet (1904)


Identify children needing special instruction


Compared child’s abilities to what the
average

child at that age could do

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Historical Trends


Terman (1900s)


Created an English version of Binet’s
test (called it the Stanford
-
Binet)


Created the
intelligence quotient (IQ)
:
divide mental age by chronological age
then multiply by 100


Became the first modern “intelligence”
test


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Types of items on the Stanford
-
Binet


Age

Task

4

Fill in the missing word when asked, "A puppy is a
dog, a kitten is a _______.

9

Answers correctly when the examiner says,
“Yesterday, the scientist went into the swamp to
capture a dinosaur. What is foolish about that?

12

Fills in the missing words of sentences like "The
rivers are flooding because…."

Adult

Can describe the difference between happiness and
elation, and virtue and morality.

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Wechsler Intelligence Scales


Wechsler created scales for adults,
children, and preschoolers


Yield 3 scores


Verbal score


Performance score


Overall score


Most widely used intelligence test

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Types of Items on the Wechsler

Verbal Scales

Performance Scales

Information

Picture completion

Digit span

Picture arrangement

Vocabulary

Block design

Arithmetic

Digit symbol

Comprehension

Object assembly

Similarities



Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Measurement or Process?


Measurement structure


Identify most relevant factors


Process emphasis


Identify and examine the speed and
accuracy of mental manipulations

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Nature, Nurture, or Both?


Is intelligence genetic?


Is intelligence acquired?


Is intelligence a combination of both?

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Factor Analysis



Primary method used to describe intelligence
structure


Correlations among many dependent variables
are examined with the goal of discovering
something about the nature of the factors that
affect them


How many different factors are needed to
explain the pattern of relationships among these
variables?

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Factor Analysis Matrix



Reading

Numerical

Visual

Paragraph comprehension

0.84

0.10

0.06

Sentence completion

0.86

-
0.05

-
0.01

Word meaning

0.81

0.04

-
0.02

Counting dots

0.08

0.91

0.04

Identifying shapes

0.02

0.82

0.10

Multiplication

-
0.24

0.87

-
0.02

Paper folding

0.05

0.20

0.77

Block patterns

-
0.03

-
0.01

0.65

Series completion

0.02

0.04

0.57

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Number of Factors in the Structure of
Intelligence


Spearman says two


Thurstone says seven


Guilford says 150


Cattell, Vernon, and Carroll propose
hierarchical models

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Spearman’s “g” Factor


Two
-
factor theory of intelligence


All intellective functioning was due to an
overall mental ability


“g”


Accompanied by specific abilities for
differing mental tasks

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities


Verbal comprehension


Verbal fluency


Inductive reasoning


Spatial visualization


Number


Memory


Perceptual speed

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Guilford


SOI Model


Structure of
Intelligence


Each cube represents
an intersection of
operations, products
and contents to
create 150
components of
intelligence

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Cattell’s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence


Fluid intelligence


Ability to reason and use information


Peaks approximately at age 20


Crystallized intelligence


Acquired skill and learned knowledge


Continues to increase into old age



Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Carroll’s Three
-
Strata Model

g

fluid

crystalized

memory

Visual

perception

Auditory

perception

retrieval

Cognitive

speed

Processing

speed

Stratum II: Broad abilities

Stratum III: General

Stratum I: Narrow abilities

Listening

Perceptual

speed

Word

fluency

Word

recognition

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Historical Trends & Intelligence


In the past, focus was on the product,
identify aptitudes, measure, and create
models based on data


During 1960’s & 1970’s conceptualization
changed to what are the processes involved?


Information processing models focus on the
processes that are involved in intelligence

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Information Processing & Intelligence


Inspection time


How long a stimuli has to be viewed
before an accurate judgment can be made


How quickly a person gives their answer is
irrelevant, participants are encouraged to
take their time

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Inspection Time Demonstration

*

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Inspection Time and IQ


Nettlebeck & Lally (1976)


First to note the relationship


Nettlebeck (1987)


Inspection time accounts for 25% of IQ
variance (r =
-
.5)


The higher the IQ, the less stimulus time
needed to accurately inspect the stimuli


Big issue now is direction of causation
between the two variables

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Intelligence and Other Processes


The speed at which we process thought
can explain why one individual is more
intelligent than another


Choice Reaction Time


Jensen


Lexical Access Speed


Hunt


Speed of word retrieval


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Working Memory & Intelligence


Being able to store and manipulate
information in working memory is
related to level of intelligence



Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Componential Analysis


This approach involves identifying the steps in complex
information
-
processing tasks and seeing how each
process contributes to the decision


Sternberg’s componential analysis on solving analogies


Red : Stop :: Green : ____

Graceful: Clumsy :: late : _____


Encode
-

Identify each term of the problem


Inference
-

Discover rule between 1
st

two terms


Mapping
-

Map rule to second set of terms


Application
-

Apply relationship and generate final term


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Sternberg’s Findings


Measured amount reaction time for
each step


Found more intelligent participants
took longer to encode, but less time to
complete the remaining steps


Global versus local planning

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Contextualist View of Intelligence


Culture and definition of intelligence
are intertwined


Differs from one culture to another


Critical in one culture may be
unimportant in another culture


Measurement of intelligence will be
influenced by culture

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Culture Differences


Western cultures view intelligence as a
means for individuals to devise
categories and to engage in rational
debate


Eastern cultures see it as a way for
members of a community to recognize
contradiction and complexity and to
play their social roles successfully


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Evidence Supporting Cultural Influences


Kpelle tribe in Africa


Prefer functional sorting


In Western society, seen as less intelligent


Westerners prefer hierarchical sorting


Italian Americans’ IQ study


First generation median = 87


Ceci (1996) Italian Americans scores were
slightly above average (above 100)


Cultural assimilation is the explanation


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences


Eight types of abilities that are independent
of one another


Visual / Spatial Intelligence


Musical Intelligence


Verbal Intelligence


Logical/Mathematical Intelligence


Interpersonal Intelligence


Intrapersonal Intelligence


Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence


Naturalist Intelligence


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Gardner’s Theory


Is modular, each type is independent of
another


Allows for existence of savants



Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory


Emphasizes how 3 types of abilities work
together to create intelligent behavior


Triarchic Theory

Analytical


Compare,

Evaluate &

Analyze

Creative

Insights,

Synthesis,


Adapting in unique

situations

Practical

Dealing with


Everyday tasks

Relating to world

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory


Intelligence involves not merely adapting to one’s
environment but in some cases modifying the
environment or selecting another


Intelligences are developing abilities not fixed
characteristics of an individual; Traditional
definitions conceptualize intelligence to remain
essentially constant throughout an adult life


Intelligence means adapting using your strengths
and improving or compensating for your
weaknesses



Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Artificial Intelligence


The Turing test


Used to refer to a proposal made by
Turing (1950) as a way of dealing with
the question whether machines can think


Can an observer who has a conversation
with a computer and a human figure out
which conversationalist is the computer?


Computer passes Turing test if the person
cannot

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Computer Programs Better than Humans


Deep Blue and Chess


1,000,000,000,000 positions/sec


100
-

200 billion moves considered


Able to evaluate moves


Beat world champion Kasparov in
1997 match

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Psychotherapy AI


ELIZA


Weizenbaum (1966) created this program to engage in a dialogue
imitative of the style favored in Rogerian psychotherapy


The program can successfully emulate human conversation to a
degree that humans often assumed they were communicating
remotely over teletype with another human


ELIZA's technique of responding to keyword
-
matching
demonstrated the plausibility of natural language understanding by
computers



PARRY


Colby (1963) created a computer simulation of a paranoid human


Psychologists reliably judged PARRY's interactive output as being
paranoid schizophrenic and were unable to distinguish transcripts
of a session with PARRY from that of a session originating from a
human patient

Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Expert Systems


Telephone network maintenance


Credit evaluation


Tax planning


Detection of insider securities trading


Mineral exploration


Irrigation and pest management


Predicting failure of diesel engines


Medical diagnosis


Class selection for students


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Limitations of Expert Systems


Can handle only narrow domains


Do not possess common
sense/intuition


Have a limited ability to learn


Cognitive Psychology, Fourth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg

Chapter 13

Summary


To date, no computer AI can match all
dimensions of human intelligence


For algorithmic problems, computers
can perform faster, however humans
still write the programming