selective breeding genetic engineering

bewilderedvoyageBiotechnologie

12 déc. 2012 (il y a 8 années et 7 mois)

311 vue(s)

ANSWER KEY



C



Science







Name: __________________________

Period: ____







Date: _____________________


Patterns of Heredity

Test Study Guide

Test is on
Friday
,
February

27
,
2009

Test REVIEW SESSION is on
Wednesday
,
02
/
25

at 7:20am
sign
-
up by
02
/
24
!


How to use the study guide to your advantage:

1.

Read the entire study guide.

2.

Write the lab number and/or page of the lab the topic of study is on next to the topic below.

3.

Highlight the
topics that you need to work on more.


The following may be given as multiple choice, true/false with corrections,

fill
-
in
-
the
-
blanks, and/or short answer questions:

Vocabulary
:



DNA



Adenine



Thymine



Cytosine



Guanine



Codon



Nucleotide bases



Amino acid



Protein



Replication



Mutation



Gene



Allele



Genetic disorder



Pedigree



Cancer



Carcinogen



Selective breeding



Genetic engineering



Transgenic



Genetically modified



Genome



Human genome project



Cloning


To study the above

terms, it is suggested to define and give an example of the above terms,

create note cards, and/or use another study technique.




Be able to describe the structure of DNA and be able to explain how DNA stores information for
a cell.



Be able to describe how

DNA is copied



Be able to explain the connection between nucleotide bases, codons, amino acids, proteins, and
DNA.



Be able to describe the possible effects of mutations on an organism.



Be able to describe the effect of cancer on the cell cycle of an infect
ed cell.



Be able to identify different uses for DNA technology.


OVER

ANSWER KEY



C


Answer the following questions in addition to the above:


Compare and contrast SELECTIVE BREEDING and GENETIC ENGINEERING.






Describe how a

mutation can occur during replication and whether all mutations have an effect upon
an organism, either good or bad.


ANSWER:

A
mutation

can occur when DNA is replicated if the bases are not paired correctly and the
wrong base gets into the DNA sequence. If the mutation occurs in a
non
-
coding

region

of
DNA, then it doesn’t affect the organism. If the mutation occurs in a
gene
, then the m
istake
may lead to the wrong
amino acid

being placed in a
protein
. Some mutations can have a
positive effect and some can have a negative effect. Other mutations may have little or no
effect.








SELECTIVE BREEDING

GENETIC
ENGINEERING

-

Choosing

specific parents to mate and
pass on specific desirable traits to the
offspring.

-

Only works if traits are controlled by
genes

-

Alleles are present in some of the
population.


Example: Breeding dogs

-

C
ombining DNA by removing a part of
the original DNA and
replacing with some
DNA from another organism.

-

Can involve different species.

-

3 steps :

1.

Isolate part of DNA

2.

Insert new DNA

3.

Changes original DNA


Example: Inserting DNA from organisms that
create chemicals that kill insects into plants.