slide show - Psycholosphere

almondpitterpatterIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 5 mois)

73 vue(s)

Poet John Godfrey Saxe (1816
-
1887)
based the following poem on a fable that
was told in India many years ago.


It was six men of Indostan

To learning much inclined,

Who went to see the Elephant

(Though all of them were blind),

That each by observation

Might satisfy his mind


The First approached the Elephant,

And happening to fall

Against his broad and sturdy side,

At once began to bawl:

“God bless me! but the Elephant

Is very like a wall!”


The Second, feeling of the tusk,

Cried, “Ho! what have we here

So very round and smooth

and sharp?

To me ’tis mighty clear

This wonder of an Elephant

Is very like a spear!”


The Third approached the animal,

And happening to take

The squirming trunk within his

hands,

Thus boldly up and spake:

“I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant

Is very like a snake!”



The Fourth reached out an eager hand,

And felt about the knee.

“What most this wondrous beast is like

Is mighty plain,” quoth he;

“ ‘Tis clear enough the Elephant

Is very like a tree!”



The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,

Said: “E’en the blindest man

Can tell what this resembles most;

Deny the fact who can

This marvel of an Elephant

Is very like a fan!”


The Sixth no sooner had begun

About the beast to grope,

Than, seizing on the swinging tail

That fell within his scope,

“I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant

Is very like a rope!”


And so these men of Indostan

Disputed loud and long,

Each in his own opinion

Exceeding stiff and strong,

Though each was partly in the right,

And all were in the wrong!



Psychology’s blind men are the theorists who
seem to devalue opposing theoretical explanations
for the phenomena they have tried to explain.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Psychological
Perspectives

or Theories

What is a scientific theory?

Scientific theories are explanations of phenomena that account for
much of the relevant empirical research findings and are created for
this purpose. These explanations are presented in the form of
propositions and postulates from which additional hypotheses can be
derived and tested in order to further confirm or disconfirm the
theories. They are then modified if research results show a need.
Theories emerge from the research of many, and are verified by
detached groups of researchers. They are not opinions or beliefs and
are never “believed
-
in” by true scientists who are skeptical and always
looking for ways to improve upon current theoretical explanations.




Gordon Vessels, 2005.

How do philosophical theories differ?

Philosophical theories also explain phenomena but are the product of
logical thinking, not scientific research, and are viewed as doctrines,
dogmas, tenets, isms, or belief systems. Their deep
-
thinking creators
and followers want others to accept these theories as truth.

Written and arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004
©

1.
Free will vs. Determinism or Active Agent vs.

Passive Organism
:

Is the free will
to make choices an illusion? Are we completely shaped by genetic and
environmental events? Are we active agents who direct, shape, and control our own
development and destiny?

2.
Nature vs. Nurture or Stability vs. Placticity
:

To what extent are we a product of
our genetic inheritance ("nature") or a product of our experiences ("nurture")?


Are people essentially programmed by their heredity and evolutionary past or can
they be effectively shaped by others through intentional acts?

3.


Unconscious vs. Conscious Motivation
:

Is much or all of our behavior and
determined by unconscious factors? Or is little or none so determined? How much of
our behavior is determined by conscious forces?

4.


Uniqueness vs. Universality
:
Are we each unique, or will psychology eventually
discover laws that explain all our behavior and our seemingly unique combinations of
personal traits?

5.


Physiological vs. Purposive Motivation
:
Are we more "pushed" by physiological
needs? Are we more "pulled" by our perceptions, knowledge, virtues, higher
-
level
needs, and personal goals, values, and principles?

6.


Cultural Determinism vs. Cultural Transcendence
:

Do our cultures shape and


control? Can we rise above or transcend cultural influences? This repeats the free
-
will question with specific reference to environmental as culture.

UNAVOIDABLE PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT VARY

From Theory to Theory

Paraphrased and arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Source: Boeree, George (1997). Personality theories: an introduction, philosophical assumptions. Retrieved from http://www.sh
ip.
edu/~cgboeree/persintro.html







What is person’s role and control?







Passive

= shaped by





genetic & environmental







influences








or





Active

= agents

who shape, control, and direct their own development


Active Person

versus

Passive
;

Free Will

vs
.

Determinism

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Relative Influence of Heredity/Biology
& Environment/Learning

Nature versus Nurture

Each major perspective on psychology, or theoretical approach to psychology, can
be placed on the nature
-
versus
-
nurture continuum with most placing more
emphasis on nurture or environment and how it affects human characteristics.

Written and arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004. Pictures from Clip Art.

Nature
versus

Nurture


Nature

refers to the biological make
-
up or
genetic structure that pre
-
determines (to a
limited degree) each person’s attitudes,
behavior, temperament, health, intellectual
potential, etc. Innate genetic influences are
inherited from our biological parents.



Nurture

refers to behaviors, attitudes,
knowledge, values, etc. learned while being
raised in a specific environment. These are
environmental and life experiences that
shape us through the socialization process.

Written and arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

1

2

3

4


1806
-
1873


1632
-
1704


1875
-
1961

The “Great
Schools”


1844


1924

Ebbinghaus


1896
-
1980

The “Great
Schools’”
Influence


1842

-
1910


1822
-
1911


1809
-
1882


C. Darwin

G. Hall

Modern
Foundations


Modern
Explorations

L. Vygotsky

D. Titchener

Eysenck



Philosophy


Physiology

Helmholtz

C. Pierce


Pragmatism



Mind
-
Body

Dualism


1632
-
1677



1821
-
1894

Renouvier




Associationism


Utilitarianism


Empiricism

Mental Chemistry

S. Freud


1801
-
1887


1867
-
1927

C. Jung

William James


1832
-
1920

Francis Galton


Free Will

John Locke

Spinoza


Intelligence


Hereditary

C. Burt

John Stewart Mill


1896
-
1934


1860


1944

Heredity;

Eugenics


Anthropo
-


metric Lab


Psycho
-


physical

E. Thorndike

G. Miller

Information
Processing
Psychologists

Gestalt
Psych:
Wertheimer,
Koffka,
Kohler

Ebbinghaus

A. Adler

G. Mendel


Principle of Heredity


1822
-
1884

A. Bandura


1839
-
1914


1870 1937

Click Here


Click Here

B. Skinner


1874
-
1949

Descartes


Mechanistic View


Man; Rationalism

Sensationalism


Man explained by


examining sensation

Rousseau



Idealism


Eclectic


treatment


of the
Insane


(Reason/Emotion)


Cognition Memory


Experimental


Psychology



Nerve Impulse Speed

Kant

1724
-
1804

1712
-

1778


Idealism

(Reason)

E. Erikson


1902
-
1994



1925
-
Present


1596


1650


1904 1990


Functionalism

Structuralism


1850
-
1909

1850
-
1909

Fechner


1806
-
1873




Psycho
-


physics


1711
-

1776

G. Miller

N. Chomsky

J. Bruner


1890
-
1958


Schema; Memory


Cortical Spec.

K. Lashley


1915 Present


1928 Pres.


1920


Pres.

Feuerstein


Cognition;


Memory;


Experimental


Psychology



Zone of


Proximal


Development;


Mediated


Learning


Accommodation


Assimilation


Adaptation



1920
-

Pres.


1921
-

Pres


Evolutionary


Biology

H. Spencer


1820


1903

A. Comte


Social Darwinism



Mind as Adaptive


Function

David Hume

John S.
Mill


1789


1857

Durkheim

J.M. Cattell


1858
-
1917

Bell, Muller
Flourens
(nerves)

Wilhelm Wundt

Sociology

Gall


1758


1828

J. Piaget

J. Watson

Gardner

Sternberg

Dewey

Roots in
Philosophy

3

Cognitive

Psychoanalytic

Behavioral

Biological

Evolutionary

Developmental

Developmental

Psychometric


Philosophy

Sociology

L. Kohlberg

W. Damon

M. Hoffman

J. Kagan

Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004; modeled after R. Plucker, 2001.

J. Angell


1859
-
1952


1869
-
1949

I. Pavlov


1849
-
1936


1870
-
1937

F. Bartlett

M. Bentley

McDougall

J. Charcot

P. Pinel

P.
Broca

1886 1969


1870


1955

McClelland

1948
-

present

Associationism



Empricism


Association
-


ism, Free Will




Empiricism


Anti
-
Rationalism



Pragmatism



Pragmatism


Please Use Inserted Links to Websites: Click Underlined Words and Rectangles

=
Student of;


=
Influenced by

THE NEXT 10 SLIDES ARE OPTIONAL STUDY FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN
THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY

Created by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

David Hume

(science unpromising and based on faulty concepts)

Francis Bacon

(science essential for the betterment of humanity)



Hume
saw science as an amusing pastime that revealed habits of the mind and had no chance
of producing useful explanations. He saw philosophy similarly.
Bacon

saw science as
something that needed to be done in order to replace doctrine and tradition with

scientific facts
that could improve the human condition.


Hume

did, however, endorse
Francis Bacon’s

inductive method. For
Bacon

inductive
reasoning and experimentation were parts of the “constructive” part of his scientific method
and were the only two methods by which facts should be determined

“deconstruction” was
the other part of his scientific method.


Hume’s

phenomenalism

distinguished between sense impressions and ideas.


Hume’s

types of ideas are . . .


Simple:

directly from simple perceptions;


cannot be false


Complex:

combination of simple ideas;


m
ay not match reality

(skepticism)


Hume

viewed inferences about
causality

as


unfounded based on the fact that two events


have occurred together or in succession and


have caused in people an
expectation

from which cause should not be inferred.


He rejected the concept of

self


and saw nothing in his study of the inner workings of the
mind to justify it.


He tried to portray causality as non
-
existent and a matter of conjunction and our personal
expectations.


Primary source: (Ballantyne, 2003). Retrieved from http://www.comnet.ca/%7Epballan/section3(210).htm
Paraphrased here with the author’s written permission. Paraphrasing and arrangement by Gordon Vessels.

BACON

HUME

Hume’s Laws of Association

Association of
Ideas Only
:




Law of resemblance


Thoughts run naturally from


one idea to similar ideas




Law of contiguity


One object causes other objects
encountered at the same time
to be remembered



Law of Cause and effect


Effects bring up events that
come before


Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

“There is a secret tie or union among particular ideas, which causes the mind to conjoin
them more frequently together, and makes the one, upon its appearance, introduce the
other.”
Hume, David (1739).

Treatise of Human Nature.
Edited by L. A. Selby
-
Bigge, 2nd Ed.by P.H. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

“Hume locates ‘three principles
of connexion’ or association:
resemblance
,
contiguity
, and
cause and effect
. Of the three,
causation is the only principle
that takes us ‘beyond the
evidence of our memory and
senses.’ It establishes a link or
connection between past and
present experiences


with events that we predict or
explain, so that ‘all reasonings
concerning matters of fact seem
to be founded on the relation of
cause and effect.’”


Hume, David (1748).

Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
In
Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning
the Principles of Morals
(1975).

Edited by L. A. Selby
-
Bigge, 3rd
edition revised by P. H. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

James Mill
(1773
-
1836)



Mental Physics or Mechanics of Mind



All mental experience (ideas) are


sensations



Simple ideas combine in a simple additive’




way to create complex ideas



Complex ideas combine additively to create


more complex ideas



Associations



Frequency



Vividness

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

James Mill

limited the number of possible “
laws of
association
” to two but also described the process of
transition among associations as
passive

rather than active.
According to Ballantyne (2003) some of the deficiencies of
James Mill's account were overcome by
John Stuart Mill

who put forth a distinction between “mental physics” and
“mental chemistry.”

Ballantyne (2003). Retrieved from http://www.comnet.ca/%7Epballan/section3(210).htm

John Stewart Mill, British Associationist



Associationism


Frequency


Vividness


Similarity




similar ideas


trigger each other



Mental chemistry


Complex ideas have


different properties
than simple ideas.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

"The

general

law

of

[mental]

association

is

that

if

sensations

have

often

been

experienced

together,

the

corresponding

ideas

will

tend

to

occur

together
;

if

A

has

been

associated

with

B,

C,

and

D

in

sensory

experience,

the

sensory

experience

A,

occurring

alone,

will

tend

to

arouse

the

ideas

of

b,

c,

and

d,

which

accompanied

it
.

Association

may

be

either

successive

or

simultaneous
.

The

former

determines

the

course

of

thought,

in

time
;

the

latter

accounts

for

the

formation

of

complex

ideas“

(Heidbreder,

1933
,

p
.

54
)
.

Edna

Heidbreder

(Chapter

2
)

"Prescientific

Psychology"

(pp
.

18
-
70
)
.

In

Heidbreder,

E
.

(
1933
)
.

Seven

Psychologies
.

New

York
:

D
.

Appleton
-
Century

Co
.



Mill drew on a direct analogy to . . .
chemistry to argue that: (1) mind plays


an active
-


creative role in




the formation


of simple ideas


and; (2)


complex ideas


are more than


the sum of their


parts because


they contain


properties not


found in simple


ideas. He . . .
[Distinguished] between mental physics
and mental chemistry. . . the formation
of complex ideas from simple . . . is an
active and transformative (rather than
merely interactive) process that contains
its own internal motion . . .”
(Ballantyne,
2003): Retrieved from http://www.
comnet.ca/%7Epballan/section3(210).htm

Position

Causal Relation

Proponents

Dualism

(general term)

(mind and body separate and may or
may not interact


neither implied)

The mind and body are totally different with mind equivalent to
soul. Plato and the Greek philosophers also saw them as totally
separate with mind predating and surviving body. Most religions
are strictly dualistic as well.

Descartes, “I think,
therefore I am.”

Parallelism

(general term)

(mind and body don’t interact)

Mind (consciousness) and body are viewed as separate irrespective
of why; proponents describe or measure each.

Associationism; Wundt
and Structuralists; Gestalt
and Humanistic psychology

Interactionism

(general term)
(can co
-
exist with dualism)

The view that: (1) the mind and the body comprise different classes
and; (2) they have a two
-
way causal relationship; mind influences
body and vice versa.

Descartes; James and the
Functionalists

Cartesian Interactionism

Cartesian Dualism

Both mind or 'soul' and body are distinct and independent but
interact and have a two
-
way causal relationship.

Descartes, La Mettrie

Double
-
Aspect Theory

(mind and body are in harmony
but do not interact)

Body and mind are parts of one entity, God; they are coordinated or
in harmony yet independent; mental events only determine other
mental events; physical events only determine other physical
events; there is no interaction between.

Spinoza, Fechner and the
Psychophysicists

Psychophysical Parallelism

(mind and body do not interact)

Mind and body run parallel due to a “winding of two clocks” that
operate harmoniously; events between are correlated but not
causally related; there is no interaction between the two.

Leibniz, Spinoza, Wundt,

Hartley (Agnostic version)

Epiphenomenalism

(dualism and body
-
to
-
mind influence)

Mind is real but unimportant and not causal; body acts on mind but
not vice versa; study bodily mechanisms or behavioral operants.

Hobbes, Skinner

Epistemological Dualism

All we can know is our consciousness or personal experience.

Kant, Carl Jung

Phenomenalism

Matter including the body does not exist

(immaterialism), only
perceptions; reality is independent of thinking; mind is impossible

Berkeley, Hume

Reductive Materialism

Mind doesn't exist
; study bodily mechanisms, the nervous system,
and behavior.

Hobbes; Materialists;
Physiologists; Watson

Vitalism

No soul but the mind and body, and a life principle or force exist;
mind depends on but cannot be reduced to a nervous system.

Müller; other Physiologists

Emergentism
(compatible with interactionism)

Non
-
reductive functional relationship between body and mind as a
transformative process; they study the evolutionary development
of the process.

William James and the
Functionalists; Dewey



Philosophical Ideas About the Relationship of Mind & Body As Psychology Began

Primary Source: Ballantyne, Paul (2003). Retrieved from http://www.comnet.ca/%7Epballan/mind
-
body.htm

Paraphrased here with the author’s permission.

PRAGMATISM: ANOTHER PHILOSOPHICAL
CORNERSTONE FOR PSYCHOLOGY

Charles

Sanders Peirce

first used the term
pragmatism
.

The
principle means that the meaning

and truth of ideas or concept are

determined by the effect they

have (consequences, outcomes,

real
-
world value). Basic to the

idea of pragmatism is what can

be described as an “anti
-

absolutism,” or a belief that

all principles, concepts, ideas, and propositions formed in the
mind must be viewed as working hypotheses. This rule or
concept was ignored for twenty years until it was picked up by
William James
. It was developed by his student,
John Dewey
.


Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Primary Source: Ballantyne, Paul (2003). Retrieved from http://www.comnet.ca/%7Epballan/mind
-
body.htm Paraphrased here with the

author’s permission.

“The empiricist doctrine was first
expounded by the English philosopher

. . .
Francis Bacon

early in the 17th

century, but
John Locke

gave it . . .

expression in his
Essay Concerning

Human Understanding (1690)”

Microsoft® Encarta® Online

Encyclopedia, http://encarta.msn.com.



Empiricists Locke & Bacon

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

“Locke's empiricism emphasizes the

importance of the experience of the senses

in pursuit of knowledge rather than intuitive

speculation or deduction. . . He regarded the

mind . . . at birth as a tabula rasa [or] a blank slate upon which
experience imprinted knowledge, and [he] did not believe in intuition
or . . . innate conceptions.”
Microsoft® Encarta® Online

Encyclopedia, http://encarta.msn.com.



Johannes Müller was one of the first to shift away from purely
philosophical explanations of mind
-
body relations and toward
conducting empirical research into these relations. This meant
focusing on the human beings and their “vitalism” (life force),

a concept he used to account for the otherwise hard
-
to
-
explain
organization and functioning of complex life. Darwin’s theory
later eliminated the need for this concept.










Kant attempted to account for the orderly mind
-
to
-
world
connection by proposing that perceptual order is imposed on
sensory experiences by a priori categories of understanding
inside the mind
― what we now call top
-
down perception
.
Müller's account of the structural aspects of perception fits
Kant’s. His 'order and necessity' comes from inside being
“given by the nerves.” Müller's doctrine of the “specific energy

of nerves” can be seen as a physiological version of Kant’s
“philosophical” explanation.

The three physiological stages of Müller's theory about
perception (making sense of sensory input) are an active version
of philosopher Locke's three
-
stage “outside
-
to
-
inside” account:
1= External nature; 2 = Senses (including the energy

of nerves); 3 = the Sensorium (his word for the perceiving mind).

Kant

Locke

Müller

Paraphrasing and Arrangement by Gordon Vessels, 2005. Primary Source: Ballantyne, Paul (2003). Retrieved from

http://www.comnet.ca/~pballan/section3(210).htm

Fechner

was among the first to shift away from purely philosophical
explanations of mind
-
body relations and toward conducting

empirical research into these relations. For him it was

"psycho
-
physical" relations, or “psychophysics.”

Kant
(1781), our epistemological dualist,

claimed that psychology could not become

a science because mind could not be

investigated using math and

experimentation.
Fechner's

(1860) contended that


psychological events are tied







to physical events and


could be measured.








The

Weber
-
Fechner

Law

was

a

math

bridge

between

the

stimulus

on

one

side

of

the

formula,

and

the

sensation

of

it

on

the

other
.

He

thought

he

had

effectively

countered

Kant’s

epistemological
-
dualistic

assertion

that

the

mind

could

not

be

scientifically

studied
.

In

actuality,

he

had

replaced

it

with

a

formula

that

operationalized

it

or

translated

it

into

numbers

reflecting

the

strength


of

sensory
-
perceptual

events
.

Now

we

know

that

his

formula

just

defined

the

sensation

side

in

terms

of

the

stimulus

side
.

It

did

not

explain

the

actual

relations

between

the

two
.

So

he

gave

us

a

correct

explanation

of

what

nerves

do

situated

within

an

incorrect

theory

of

perception

(Ballantyne,

2003
)
.

Paraphrasing and arrangement by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Source: http://www.comnet.ca/%7Epballan/section3(210).htm

Helmholtz adopted a practical Lockean
approach that

got into the work of

investigating the

senses without

getting involved

in the metaphysical

debates of German

philosophy. He

accounted both

experimentally and

physiologically for

the rate of nerve

impulses and defined

sensory transduction


without appealing

to a mysterious


“vital force.”




Finally Helmholtz was
among the first to

shift away from

philosophical
explanations

of mind
-
body

relations

and toward

conducting

empirical

research

into these

relations.

For him it

was a search

for the

“elements”

of sensation.

Helmholtz’s questions were empirical: “How fast is the
neural impulse of motor nerves versus that of the sensory
nerves?"; “How is physical energy from stimuli
transduced for the senses of vision and hearing?”; and "Is the perception of
space learned or innate?“ (Ballantyne, 2003).

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

http://www.comnet.ca/%7Epballan/section3(210).htm

Ballantyne, Paul (2003). Retrieved from

http://www.comnet.ca/~pballan/section3(210).htm

William

James

Analyzed consciousness
into basic elements such
as images, sensations,
and feelings and studied
how they are related

Investigated the
function, or purpose, of
consciousness rather
than its structure

Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings)

Structuralism

Functionalism


Wilhelm

Wundt

All Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology Emerged from the Early
Functionalism and Structuralism of Wundt and James.

Click on pictures, names, and this text

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Three Tasks of Titchener’s
Structuralism


Discover basic elements of sensation to
which all complex processes can be
reduced;


Determine how simple sensations are
connected to form more complex
perceptions, ideas, and images;


Involving his Law of Association


Explain how the mind works.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Functionalism


Its goal was to understand how the mind and
behavior work to help an organism adjust to


its environment.


William James launched Functionalism.


It developed at two universities simultaneously:



The University of Chicago



John Dewey



James Angell



Harvey Carr




Columbia University in New York



James M. Cattell



Robert Woodworth



Edward Thorndike


Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Gestalt Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology

Psychoanalytic Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Social
-
Cultural Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Humanistic Psychology

Behavioral Psychology

Biological Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology

Created by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004
©

The relative prominence of three major schools of thought in psychology

Weiten, Wayne (2002).

Psychology, Themes and Variations
. Pacific Grove, Calif. ; London : Wadsworth.
.


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20

18

16

14

12

10


8


6


4


2


0

1953

1956

1959

1962

1965

1968

1971

1974

1977

1980

1983

1986

1989

1992

1995



Cognitive Psychology



Behavioral Psychology



Psychoanalytic Psychology















































































































































































































































































































Graph recreated from this source by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Assumptions of Behavioral Theories


Nurture

(the environment), not nature



Principles of “learning” determine
behavior change and development



Learning (
passive

responses to incoming
stimuli)



Plasticity
, not stability: development is
gradual and continuous.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004


CLASSICAL CONDITIONING


Unconditioned stimulus
-
unconditioned response


Conditioned stimulus
-



conditioned response


OPERANT CONDITINING


Positive & negative reinforcers


Positive & negative punishment


Schedules of reinforcement


SOCIAL LEARNING


Modeling


Vicarious reinforcement


BEHAVIORISM

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Behaviorism

John Watson

Ivan Pavlov

Mental processes cannot
be studied directly; so
psychology should focus
on
observable behavior
.

B.F. Skinner

The behaviorists’
view is that nurture
is more important
than nature; that
problem behaviors
can be decreased;
and that good
behaviors and
emotions can be
shaped and
strengthened.

Social learning
via observation
and modeling


Albert Bandura

Pavlov’s
Stimulus

Response

Psychology

Classical
Conditioning

Role of conditioning
in the development
of emotional
responses to
stimuli


Skinner’s Operant Conditioning:
consequences of behavior
increase or decrease behavior

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004


He was a trained as



a medical doctor and



was interested in



blood circulation



and digestion.


The work that made



Pavlov famous in



psychology began as



a study in digestion.


He was looking at



digestion in dogs: the


relationship between salivation



and reactions in the stomach.


He realized they were closely linked by


reflexes in the autonomic nervous system.

Ivan Pavlov

1849
-
1936

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

BEHAVIOR CHANGE

METHODS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE through OPERANT CONDITIONING

Mechanism

Definition

Examples

Positive
Reinforcement

Encouraging a behavior by
giving a desired reward or
reinforcer thereafter

Giving a child candy when he
brings in a homework assignment;
Saying “good girl” to a baby who
swallows a spoonful of food.

Negative
Reinforcement

Encouraging a behavior by
removing an aversive
stimulus thereafter

Ceasing to scold a child when he
hangs up his clothes; Giving in to a
roommate or spouse in order to
bring an argument to an end

Punishment

Giving an aversive stimulus
in response to an undesired
behavior to suppress it

Slapping a child for swearing at his
parent; making a child do chores
after getting into a fight with a
classmate

Negative
Punishment

Removing a desired reward
or activity in response to
undesirable behavior

Sending a child to her room
without toys because she refused
to share her toys; refusing to
speak to a spouse who was rude.

Extinction

Gradually eliminating a
behavior by removing the
reinforcers that follow it

Ignoring a child when he has a
temper tantrum; drastically cutting
the possible winnings in a state
lottery

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Stimulus and response (behavior) in

classical

and
operant

conditioning

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Result: Siren Eye Blink


TIME

OPERANT CONDITIONING
Result: Clap Sit Up

Antecedents

Consequences

Behavior

A

B

C

Reinforcer
Candy

Stimulus
Clap

Behavior

Stand Up

The whistle is an antecedent discriminative
stimulus. Behavior occurring in its
presence will continue if reinforced.

Key Relationship

Key Relationship

Stimulus
Siren

Behavior

Eye Blink

CS

UCS

UCR

CS

CR

Stimulus
Siren

Stimulus
Air Puff

Behavior

Eye Blink

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Types of

Reinforcement
and
Punishment

negative
reinforcer
received

Punishment

positive
reinforcer
removed

Negative
Punishment

Negative
Reinforcement


negative


reinforcer


avoided

Positive
Reinforcement


positive


reinforcer


received

After a Behavior, a Reinforcer is
:


Removed Presented


Type of Operant Event

Pleasant Unpleasant

Positive Reinforcers: (
Primary
) (
Secondar
y)
food

&

water
;
money

&
praise

Negative Reinforcers: (
Primary
) (
Secondar
y)
shock

&
headach
e;
rejection

&
criticism

Assumptions of Cognitive Theories


People

construct

their own
understanding.


People form mental representations of
their world (images, schemas, etc.)


People are

active

in their environment


Nature

and

Nurture

interact as
causes.


Plasticity
, not stability.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Origins of Cognitive Psychology


1950’s


1970’s


No agreed upon date


Ulric Neisser’s book
Cognitive Psychology

was published in 1967.


Why did Cognitive Psychology begin?


Two important factors
:


Dissatisfaction with behaviorism’s account


of complex behaviors (e.g., Chomsky’s


model of language challenged this)


Convergence of several fields during WWII
such as Linguistics, Human Performance,
Artificial Intelligence, etc.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Cognitive Psychology

Noam Chomsky

“Language”

Advent of computers (late 1950s)
provided a new model for thinking
about the mind (AI)

Interested in cognition: the mental
processes involved in acquiring,
processing, storing, and using
information and investigates
learning,
attention, memory, perception, language
development, and problem solving, etc.


Hermann
Ebbinghaus

Howard Gardner

Jerome Bruner

George Miller


Cognitive psychology is different
from other psychological
perspectives. It adopts the
scientific method and rejects
introspection. Unlike behavioral
psychology, it posits the existence
-
of, and importance
-
of, internal
mental states such as beliefs,
desires, thoughts, and motivations

Noam Chomsky

Clich Here for Website

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

John Anderson

Gestalt Psychology

Max Wertheimer

Phi Phenomenon,

Illusion of movement.

A reaction against the analytical
“breaking down of the whole”
by Structuralists; an attempt to
focus attention back on
conscious experience, that is,

the mind
, so it links with
functionalism in this way.

The word Gestalt means a
unified or meaningful whole.

Experience is more than simply
sensations; seeing is an effect of
the whole event and the sum of the
parts.


We are built to experience
the structured whole as well as the
individual sensations. The
Law of
Pragnanz

says that we are innately
driven to experience things in as
good a gestalt as possible. “Good”
can mean regular, symmetry,

orderly, simplicity. Other gestalt
Laws include Closure and
Similarity. Gestalt psychologists
were interested in Learning and
known for the concept of
insight
learning
. Gestalt counseling
stresses that for every
characteristic we also
have its opposite.

Wolfgang Kohler

Kurt Koffka

Kurt Lewin

Gestalt Psychology

The whole is different
than the sum of its parts.

For every undesirable
characteristic there is
the opposite that can
be strengthened and
made dominant.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Assumptions of Psychodynamic Theories



Nature and Nurture
, as interactive
causes


Stability

over

plasticity: invariant,
expected stages of development


Active
,
not passive: children strive
to resolve developmental crises

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Unconscious expressed in

dreams & “slips of the tongue”

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytic Theories Propose the idea of
the Unconscious and Subconscious


Thoughts, memories and desires
exist below conscious awareness
and exert an influence on behavior.

Attempt to explain personality,
mental disorders, motivation, and
behavior in terms of unconscious

Karl Jung


Erik Erickson

Early developmental crises must be
solved, and related needs met in
order to develop normally;
psychosocial theory brought the
social to psychoanalytic theory

Psychoanalysis;
id, ego, superego;
human nature bad

Unconscious
determinants of
behavior
: contents
in the depth of the
psyche must be
integrated with the
conscious mind to
produce a healthy
human personality.


Alfred Adler

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Alfred Adler 1870
-

1937


Adler originally worked with Freud
but left over the issue of sexuality
determining personality;


Adler concluded that the need

for power motivates people

and shapes their personalities

and not unconscious

sexual drives;


He developed what he called

individual psychology,
” which was
based on the idea that people can
be made aware of the many goals

and values that guide them;


He introduced the well
-
known
concept of “inferiority complex.” He
believed that all people at some time
feel inferior (e.g. as children) and try
to compensate by seeking
experiences that give

them power.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Carl Jung

1875
-

1961


Jung worked with Freud and Alder
at the turn of the century, and, like
Adler, he split with Freud over the
personality
-
sexuality connection.


Adler originated the concepts of

extroversion” and “introversion

as personality types or
characteristics. The extrovert is
characteristically the active person
who is most happy when around
other people; the introvert is
typically a deliberate and
contemplative person who enjoys
self
-
isolation and the inner world
of their own ideas and feelings.


Jung originated the scheme of
four psychological functions:
sensation, intuition, thinking and
feeling.

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004


Erikson was interested in “human
development” and “personality
development”;


He proposed the way individuals
resolve or fail to resolve
“epigenetically” determined
developmental crises determines
their traits and virtues and how
they will relate to others
throughout life;


He coined the terms “identity
crisis” to describe the conflict
within adolescents as they
consolidate social roles and
values to form


their own identities.

Erik Erikson
1902
-

1994

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Assumptions of Humanistic Theories



Nurture
,
not

Nature

with focus on
needs and interpersonal support


Plasticity
, not

Stability
: no predictable
stages of development


Active
,
not

passive
: children take
action based on inherent growth need

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Dissatisfaction with both the behavioral
and the psychodynamic perspectives
led psychologists Abraham Maslow and
Carl Rogers to develop the humanistic
perspective.

Humanists believe that other
perspectives pay too little attention to
uniquely human characteristics such as
free will and individual control.

Humanistic

Psychology

Hierarchy
of needs:
you must
satisfy
lower
-
level
needs
before
higher
-
level

With interpersonal
-
environmental
support, people
can and will grow
and solve their
own problems

Abraham

Maslow

Carl Rogers

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Philosophical Assumptions of Social
-
Contextual Theories


Children
actively

seek out and
interact with social and physical
environments and situations.


Nature
and
Nurture
are causal


Plasticity
(people changeable)


Social and cultural contexts

are key

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Emile Durkheim

Kurt Lewin

Erving Goffman


George
Herbert Mead

Social Psychology

Group
Dynamics;
Field Theory

How behavior and
thinking vary
across situations

and cultures.

Socialization &
Social
Transmission of
Moral Standards

Herbert Spencer


Sample Issues



How are we, as members of


different races and


nationalities, alike as members


of one human family?



How do we differ, as products


of different social contexts?



Why do people sometimes act


differently in groups than


when alone?

August Comte


“From its origin in the works of Auguste Comte
and Herbert Spencer, social psychology has
struggled with the fact that human beings are both
social and biological in nature. For Comte, the
course of mental development was one in which
social conditions came to modify the operation of
biological laws. Spencer, on the other hand, gave
a distinctly individualistic and biological cast to
his social theory. For Spencer, mental and social
evolution were continuous with the biological
evolution of the species” (Wozniak, 1999)

.

Lev Vygotsky

Symbolic
Interactionism;
the social
emergence of
the self

Zone of
Proximal
Development;
Cognitive/

Socio
-
cultural
Theory

William McDougall (1908). Historical Essays: An Introduction to Social Psychology. In

Wozniak, Robert (1999).
Classics in Psychology

1855

1914.


Developmental Psychology

Lawrence Kohlberg

Moral
-
Cognitive

Erik Erikson
Developmental Crises

Developmental psychologists focus on all
aspects of development including
cognitive, affective or emotional, moral,
social, artistic, linguistic, physical, and
academic.

Some focus on the types of adult
-
child
relationships that best promote
development (Erikson, Damon) using
terms such as “respectful engagement”
and “authoritative parenting.”

They are interested in all things that
influence development including biology
and heredity (“natural development” or
nature) and social/environmental
influences (nurture).

Many have identified levels or stages of
development including the three pictured to
the left.

Most have recommendations for both
teachers and parents.

Jean Piaget Cognitive
& Moral Development

William Damon

Moral
-
Affective
-
Social

Jerome Kagan
Moral
-
Affective


Lev Vygotsky
Cognitive


Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Sample Developmental Stages Chart: Erikson

Erik H. Erikson was a developmental psychologist known for his theory of
psychosocial development and for coining the phrase 'identity crisis.' The theory
describes eight stages through which developing humans invariably pass during
the lifespan. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new
challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages.


(Approx. ages)

Stage

Psychosocial
crisis

Significant
relations

Psychosocial
modalities

Psychosocial
virtues

Maladaptations
& malignancies

(0
-
1)

Infant

trust vs
mistrust

mother

to get,

to give in
return

hope,

faith

sensory
distortion

withdrawal

(2
-
3)

Toddler

autonomy vs
shame and
doubt

parents

to hold on,

to let go

will,

determination

impulsivity

compulsion

(3
-
6)

Preschooler

initiative vs
guilt

family

to go after,

to play

purpose,

courage

ruthlessness

inhibition

(7
-
12)

School
-
age
child

industry vs
inferiority

neighborhood
and school

to complete,

to make things
together

competence

narrow
virtuosity

inertia

(12
-
18)

Adolescent

ego
-
identity vs
role
-
confusion

peer groups,
role models

to be oneself,

to share oneself

fidelity,

loyalty

fanaticism

repudiation

(20
-
45)

Young adult

intimacy vs
isolation

partners,
friends

to lose and find
oneself in a

another

love

promiscuity

exclusivity

(30
-
65)

Middle aged
adult

generativity vs
self
-
absorption

household,

co
-
workers

to make be,

to take care of

care

overextension

rejectivity

(50+)

Old adult

integrity vs
despair

mankind or my
kind?

to be,

through having
been, to face
not being

wisdom

presumption

despair

Created by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004
©


View of
"Right"


Primary Levels


Motivation


Perspective

Age/Grade


That Which


Gains

Approval


From


Others


That Which


Adheres


to


Rules or


Principles


Pre
-

Conventional

(self
-
serving)

Conventional

(other
-

serving)

Post
-
Conventional

(principle
-
serving)


Punishment


Avoiding


Pleasure/


Reward Seeking


Acceptance/


Approval Seeking

Rule Following/

Status Seeking


Law Abiding/

Rights Respecting

Justice Seeking/

Conscience Driven


Egocentric


Individualistic


Interpersonal


Organizational


Societal


Universal

Preschool

Early Childhood


Grades
K
-
2


Middle Childhood


Grades
3
-
5


Late Childhood


Grades
6
-
8


Early Adolescence


Grades
9
-
12


Late Adolescence


Adulthood

Developed by Gordon Vessels
2000

©

KOHLBERG'S
BEHAVIORAL
-
SOCIAL
-
COGNITIVE

THEORY

Sample Developmental Stages Chart: Kohlberg


Havighurst

Erikson

Hoffman

Kagan

Hay

Selman

Damon


Infants


A
ge 0
-
1


Preschool


Early Child
-


hood

4
-
5


Early



Elementary


Middle


Childhood


Late


Elementary


Late


Childhood


Middle School


Early


Adolescence


High

School


Late


Adolescence


Toddlers


Age 2
-
3

emotions

of

shame


and

guilt


natural

n
on
-

selective

prosocial

tendency


prosocial

behavior

more

selective


and

declining

G
lobal
E
mpathy

discomfort at

another's distress

S
elf
-
R
egulatory

E
mpathy

feelings of concern
that

limit
aggression


b
egin
ning of
moral

r
esponsibility
;

the

D
awn of

C
onscience

Authoritarian

Conscience:

voice of parent taken

in as a moral guide
via
love &
discipline

Rational

Conscience:

thr
ough
cooperation

with peers and an

understanding

of rules

Complete Set

of
Moral

Principles

c
an
’t

distinguish their

perspective from that
of others;
know

self

in
terms of unrelated

surface characteristics

know people have

different

viewpoints
but take one at a time

and favor their own;
understand self in
terms of comparisons

better understanding

of
different view
-

points and

know they

can have more

than
one
&

mixed feelings;

same as above for self

step outside situation
and
see

as
complex;
have third
-
party
view
of
self, others,
and
relationships;
know

self in terms of effects
o
n

other pe
ople

understand self in

terms of personal

philosophy
&

plans

for the future



no


information



no


information



no information



no information

moral emotion of

guilt

presumably

experienced when

aggression is not

controlled

P
erspective
T
aking

the
cognitive
component

of empathy combines

with affective compo
-

nent that is present

at birth;
guilt

and

self
-
scorn

related to

irresponsibility and

over
-
indulgence are
presumably
experienced here

moral emotion of

A
nxiety

related to

inconsistency

between beliefs and

actions

presumably

emerges sometime

after late childhood

or during

adolescence



no information

need to become

T
rusting
, open, and
H
opeful

or will
be

fearful through life

need to become

I
ndependent
, and
W
illful


or be self
-
doubting

need to take

I
nitiative

and
I
magine

or may
be cruel and critical
throughout life

mov
e

from
a
need

for
initiative to

need
for
I
ndustry
,
S
kill
,

and competence

need to
be

C
ompetent


or do things well

or


will feel
inferior

and

be unable to work well

with others thereafter

need to form an

I
dentity

or consolidate

roles, identifications,

and characteristics or

will be
insecure
,

compulsive
, or even

deviant
; tend to be

clannish and preoccu
-

pied with how they are

perceived by peers




no information



no information

Sample
Develop
mental stages chart.
Prepared

by Gordon Vessels
1999
©

Affective Development

Assumptions of Biological Theories



Nature
,
not nurture


Stability
,
not plasticity: invariant,
predictable stages of development


Passive
,
not active: children
passively respond and adjust

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Focus

How the body and
brain create
emotions,
memories, and
sensory
experiences.

Sample Issues



How do evolution and heredity influence behavior?



How are messages transmitted within the body & brain?



How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?



What emotional and mental traits are we born with?



To what degree are mental disorders determined by


heredity?

Francis Galton

The collection of data for his first important
book,
Hereditary Genius
, marks the beginning of
his psychological work. The thesis of the book
is that "genius" or "talent" is genetically rather
than environmentally determined (Forrest, 1995).


Biological Perspective

Pierre Paul Broca

Gustav Theodor Fechner

Fechner’s greatest achievement was in his
study of exact relationships in psychology
and aesthetics. He formulated Fechner's
law, which says that, within limits, the
intensity of a sensation increases as the
logarithm of

the stimulus.

William James

Mind Body Duality

Studied intelligence and the role of the
frontal lobes of the brain. He espoused
the theory of cortical specialization for
both senses and motor operations and
challenged the idea of localization in
the brain. He studied memory and
learning by looking at the affects of
brain damage in lab animals.

Lashley
brought to light the controversy
between localization and those
proposing holistic brain function.


K.S. LASHLEY


Created by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE


GENETIC FACTORS


THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


THE BRAIN


THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


THE NEUROSCIENCE REVOLUTION


NEUROPHARMACOLOGY


PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY


INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL
AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

BEHAVIOR GENETICS

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.0

Twin Concordance Rates

Alcoholism
(Female)

Autism

Dizygotic

Alcoholism
(Male)

Schizophrenia

Alzheimer’s
Disease

Affective
Disorder

Reading
Disability

1.0

Monozygotic

Reproduced by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004

Evolutionary Psychology

Konrad Lorenz

Evolutionary psychology is an
approach

wherein knowledge
and principles from biological
evolution are used to guide
research on the human mind and
its structure. It is a
way of
analyzing

ant topic in
psychology
.

Natural selection preserves
and gathers minor
advantageous genetic
mutations. If a member of a
species developed a
“functional advantage” such
as growing wings, its
offspring would inherit this
and pass it along their
offspring. Natural selection
involves preserving a
functional advantage that
allows a species to function
better in the wild.

Charles Darwin

Herbert Spencer

Among other things he was a
EUGENICIST: Eugenics is the
“pseudoscience” which deals with
improving the inborn qualities of a
race through selective breeding.
This movement and its misuse of
evolutionary theory supported
racist ideas in the 1800s.

Francis Galton

Heinroth Lorenz discovered imprinting, a fast
and irreversible learning process that occurs
early in life. His claim that aggressive impulses
are innate, and the analogies he drew between
human and animal behavior have caused much
controversy over the years.

Click Picture

Click Picture

Arranged by Gordon Vessels, Ed.D. 2004