Schema & Scripts

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Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Schema & Scripts


Schema


knowledge of what is involved in a particular experience


Brewer & Treyens (1981)


P
s tend not to remember schema
inconsistent items in the faculty office (like wine bottle) and
inferred that books should be there (there were none).


F 7.12,
p. 257


Script


a sequence of actions that describe an activity, Schank &
Abelson’s (1977) AI study


General information about routine events


Eating in a Restaurant


Attending a Lecture


The Visit to the Dentist’s Office


Scripts have typical roles


(customers, waiter, cook)


(lecturer, students),


(dentist, assistant, patient, and the drill)


Scripts influence memories


Bower et al. (1979) visit to a dentist’s office,
P
s read script, then delay, shown titles as asked to write down as much
as remembered


p. 258


P
s Included material not included in the original story.

Figure 7.12:
Office in which Brewer and Treyens’ (1981) participants waited
before being tested on their memory for what was present in the office. (From
“Role of Schemata in Memory for Places,” by W. F. Brewer & J. C. Treyens,
Cognitive Psychology, 13,
pp. 207

230. Copyright 1981. With permission from
Elsevier.)

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Personal Bias Effects on
Memory


Egocentric bias


Sanitioso et al. (1990)


told group that
extroverts were more successful and told another group that
introverts were more successful. On a memory test
P
s were
asked to list autobiographical memories.
P
s tended to list more
memories that matched the trait they were told was more
successful.


Consistency Bias


Marcus (1986)


people perceive their
attitudes and behaviors are more consistent over time than
they are. Survey in 1973 and then 1982 about attitudes and
opinions, attitudes shifted, r = .39


see Slide 11


Additionally,
P
s were asked to look back to how they felt in
1973, the correlation was higher r = .80.


Positive change bias


things are getting better


Sprencher (1999) found in a study of 101 couples every 4
years, after 4 years 41 were together and rated the
relationship as better each year, even though there was no
change.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Group A

“How fast was the car going when it passed the barn”

Loftus (1975)


viewed film of car accident



(There was no barn)


filled out a questionnaire

1 Week later, “Did you see a barn?”

Group A respond “Yes” (more than 20%)

Group B respond “No”

Group B

“How fast was the car going when it passed the stop sign”

Misleading post
-
event information can lead to false memories

Effects of misleading
information

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

View: Series of slides including either

Group A



Group B

The effects of misleading information

Loftus, 1975


Slide 15

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


50% in each group asked



Did another car pass the Datsun when it was at the
Yield

sign.

50% in each group asked



Did another car pass the Datsun when it was at the
Stop

sign.

Which slide did you see?

The effects of misleading
information
-

Slide 16

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

The effects of misleading
information


Loftus (1975)

Results

Saw Stop Sign



Saw Yield Sign

Asked about Stop Sign


Asked about Stop Sign

Picked Stop Sign 75%


Picked Stop Sign 59%

Conclusion

Post
-
event question can lead to false memory


Loftus, Miller, & Burns (1978)


showed similar
results for the
Misleading Post event
Information (MPI)


F 7.14, p. 262.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Figure 7.14 (p. 262)

Picture of traffic accident similar to one seen by the participants in the Loftus et
al. (1978) “misleading postevent information “ experiment.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Post Event Memory Effects


Loftus & Palmer’s (1974)
car
-
crash
experiment


Experiment 1


Participants saw a film of a car accident.
They were given a questionnaire of the accident and
asked to estimate the speed of the cars involved in the
accident.
“How fast were the cars going when
they (verb) each other?”

A different “verb” was
used.


Participants were only shown the film of the car accident
once during the study.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Loftus & Palmer’s (1974) car
-
crash experiment 1 results

V
E
RB
E
s
tim
a
t
e o
f
S
peed

(
M
ph)
Sm
ash
e
d
40
.
8
Co
lli
ded
39
.
3
Bu
m
ped
38
.
1
H
it
34
Con
t
a
ct
ed
31
.
8
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
Smashed
Collided
Bumped
Hit
Contacted
Verb Used in Question
Estimated Speed (mph)
Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Loftus & Palmer’s (1974) car
-
crash experiment

Experiment 2


Two of the groups, “smashed
(40.8 mph)” and “hit (34 mph)” were asked the
following question one week later.


Did you see any broken Glass?



Smash

Hit


Yes

16


7


No

34

43



Loftus & Palmer’s (1974) car
-
crash experiment 2

Power of Suggestion


Retroactive interference


More recent learning interferes with memory for something in
the past


Lindsey (1990)


Heard a story; two day later again with some details
changed


Told to ignore changes


Same voice for both stories created source monitoring errors


Changing voice (male to female) did not create as many
errors


F 7.15, p. 263


Table 7.2


Explanation for the Misinformation Effect






False Memories


Hyman and coworkers (1995)


p. 264
-
265


Participants’ parents gave descriptions of childhood
experiences
-

about a wedding reception


Participant had conversation about experiences with
experimenter; experimenter added new events


When discussing it later, participant remembered the new
events as actually happening


about 20% recall of details.


Lindsay et al. (2004) study


F 7.16 p. 265


Descriptions of real childhood experiences supplied by
parents and experiences that never occurred (slime toy on
teacher’s desk)


Used photograph of first
-

or second
-
grade class


Group presented photograph experienced twice as many
false memories


enhances false memories






Figure 7.16:
Photograph of a second
-
grade class like the ones shown to
participants in Lindsay et al.’s (2004) experiment. (From “True Photographs and
False Memories,” by D. S. Lindsay, L. Hagen, J. D. Read, K. A. Wade, & M. Garry,
Psychological Science, 15,
pp. 149

154. Copyright 2004. With permission from the
American Psychological Society.)

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Creating False Memories


Loftus & Pickrell (1995)



“Lost in the mall”

study use three
real events and one false event. About 25% of
P
s reported
some recollection of the false experience.


video in class


DuBreueil et al. (1998)




Participants told hospitals used mobiles over cribs around the time
they were born


Hypnotized, told to go to the day they were born


Reports of mobiles; believe it is a real memory


were able to created false memories of events in infancy


crib
mobile with 61% reported seeing the mobile in the crib. About 33%
reported that this was a real memory.


Explanation: familiarity, source misattribution


Loftus (2003)


false memories rates are about 31% over
studies.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Brain Damage & Constructive
Nature of Memory


Confabulations: are sincere, but
exaggerated false memories.
Muskovitch (1995) case of H. W. who
had prefrontal cortex damage (p. 252


253). Normal checks for memory
reasonableness is suspended, frontal
lobes are involved in reasonableness as
well as “filling in the blanks”.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Eyewitness Testimony


Fact: 200 people per day are
incriminated based on eyewitness
testimony. Many innocent people are
convicted.


Frontline program of one case of Ronald
Cotton:
What Jennifer Saw?


Elizabeth Loftus (2005):


Has studies this issue for over 30 years.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Eyewitness Testimony


Stanny & Johnson (2000) study of the use of
weapons indicates the importance of
weapons focus.


F 7.17 p. 269.


errors associated with attention


Participants view security videotape with gunman in view for
8 seconds


Everyone identified the gunman from photographs
afterwards, even though the actual gunman’s picture was not
present


Attention and arousal


Low


attend to irrelevant information


High


focus too narrowly


Moderate


best for being aware of relevant information


Eyewitness Testimony


Errors due to familiarity, the case of
Donald Thompson who was talking on
T.V. about memory errors at exactly the
same time a woman was attacked in her
home. The woman implicated Thompson
as the person who raped her.


Ross et al. (1994) did an experiment of
familiarity and eyewitness testimony


F
7.18a (design) and F 7.18b,c (results).
This is a source misattribution.


Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Figure 7.18a (p. 270)

(a) Design of Ross et al.’s (1994) experiment on the effect of familiarity on
eyewitness testimony (continued on next slide). Note: Photospread include male
teacher, but not actual robber.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Figure 7.18b.c (p. 270, continued)

(b) Results of experiment when the actual robber was not in the photospread. In
this condition, the male teacher was erroneously identified as the robber 60
percent of the time. (c) Results when the actual robber was in the photospread.
In this condition, the male teacher was erroneously identified less than 20
percent of the time.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Eyewitness Testimony


Errors due to suggestion: This can occur many times like in a police
lineup (see example p. 271) and a police officer’s question.


Wells & Bradfield (1998) conducted “Good, you identified the suspect”
experiment


F 7.19, p. 272.


Increase confidence due to postevent questioning


Shaw (1996) study


F 7.20, p. 273


A witness can go from being very uncertain to very certain based on
choices in lineups, when given suggestions. Consistency bias is evident
from the trial that follows.


What is Being Done?


Suspect may not be in the lineup


use fillers similar to suspect


Lindsay & Wells (1980) F 7.21, p.
274,


use sequential rather than simultaneous presentations


improve interviewing techniques


Cognitive interview


Eyewitness Evidence: A guide for Law Enforcement
was developed to
assist law enforcement in the best way to handle evidence and
witnesses.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Figure 7.19

(p. 272)

Design and results
Wells and Bradfield’s
(1998) “Good, you
identified the suspect”
experiment. Feedback
from the experimenter
influenced the
participants’
confidence in their
identification.

perpetrator not
included

MPI

Figure 7.20:
Results of Shaw’s (1996) experiment. (a) Asking questions about
objects a person saw in a room had little effect on confidence for objects that
were remembered correctly, but (b) increased confidence for objects that were
remembered incorrectly.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Memory Wars


Repressed/Recovered memories


Cases


Laura Pasley


false memories planted by
therapist


Eileen Lipsker


father George Franklin was
convicted of murder


Man who recovered memory of priest molesting
him as a child that later was corroborated by
others.


Many other cases have been reported


Courage to Heal



Bass and Davis (1988,
1994) “If you think you were abused and
you life shows the symptoms, then you
were.”


False Memory Syndrome Foundation


false
memory advocacy group

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Memory Wars


Repressed/Recovered memories


Schacter (1996, p. 251) “… a debate
about accuracy, distortion, and
suggestibility of memory”


Elizabeth Loftus position on repressed
memories


Jeopardy in the Courtroom : A Scientific
Analysis of Children's Testimony (1999)
by "Stephen J. Ceci and Maggie Bruck"


APA 1995 guidelines on “Memories of
Child Abuse”

Cognitive Psychology: Mind,
Research, and Everyday
Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce
Goldstein. Copyright © 2008 by
Wadsworth Publishing, a division
of Thomson Learning. All rights
reserved.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience,
2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright © 2008 by Wadsworth
Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Psychology: Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, 2nd Ed. by Bruce Goldstein. Copyright ©
2008 by Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.