Nutrition: Nutrients, This or That, Q & A

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23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 3 mois)

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Nutrition: Nutrients, This or That, Q & A

Fall 2012

Nutrients


Nutrients are substances the body needs to live


Humans need six nutrients


Three contain energy (calories)


Three do not contain energy


Energy
-
Containing Nutrients


Carbohydrates


4 calories per gram


Protein


4 calories per gram


Fat


9 calories per gram




Image source: public domain

Game: Eat This, Not That

Nutrients Without Energy


Vitamins


Organic substances found in
plant and animal sources



A, C, D, E, K, & B vitamins (8
of them)


Minerals


Inorganic substances found
in many of the body

s
structures (teeth, bones,
muscles, blood cells, etc)


Examples: calcium, sodium,
iron, chromium, potassium



Vitamins Schmitamins


Fat
-
soluble


Water
-
soluble


The fat cat is in the attic (OR)


(The) FAT (cat is in the) ADEK


Fat
-
soluble vitamins are Vitamins A, D, E, K

Vitamins Schmitamins


Your
Turn

Water
-
Soluble Vitamins (B
Vitamins)


Vitamin B1 =
T
hiamine


Vitamin B2 =
R
iboflavin


Vitamin B3 =
N
iacin


Vitamin B5 =
P
antothenic Acid


Vitamin B6 =
P
yridoxine


Vitamin B7 =
B
iotin


Vitamin B9 =
F
olic Acid


Vitamin B12 =
C
obalamin

Vitamins Schmitamins: Results

Student Question: Do we need all
vitamins? A combination?


A: We need all vitamins. What one person needs, however,
will differ from another person based on their dietary
behaviors.


Example: person who consumes many fruits & vegetables vs

fast food


eater


Example: a person with nutrient absorption issues may need
larger doses than average individual

Student Question: Do we need all
vitamins? A combination?


Common dietary needs are those vitamins found in fruits &
vegetables since many of us do not consume enough


Recommendations:


RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowances


AI = Adequate Intake, if no RDA value set


UL = Upper Limit (highest intake without negative side effects)

Student Question: If calories convert to energy,
how do things like low calorie energy drinks
provide energy?


Student Question: How are things like guarana
and taurine converted in the body and made into
extra energy?





Student Questions: Energy



Energy:


calories or
alertness?


Energy drinks = sugar and
caffeine (sugar = energy,
caffeine = alertness)


Taurine: amino acid that
interestingly activates GABA
receptors (inhibitory)


Might actually be linked to
energy drink

crash



More research needed on
energy drinks & brain for
conclusions

Student Question: How are things like guarana and
taurine converted in the body and made into extra
energy?


Guarana: contains caffeine, so can provide acute stimulant
effects (improved cognition, reduced fatigue, appetite
suppression)


Main issues occur when individuals have sensitivities to
stimulants, or mix beverages with other substances (alcohol,
stimulants)

Student Question: What are most valued "Superfoods"
to include in one's diet?


Brightly
-
colored berries


Raspberries, blueberries,
blackberries, strawberries


Vitamin C, fiber, water,
antioxidants, low calorie


Freeze for eating in winter


Beans


Black beans, lentils,
edamame


Fiber, protein, omega
-
3 fatty
acids


Mix with salads


Student Question: What are most valued "Superfoods"
to include in one's diet?


Nuts


Fiber; plant sterols to
reduce cholesterol;
omega
-
3 fatty acids for
heart health


Mixed in salads makes
texture interesting

Student Question: What are most valued "Superfoods" to
include in one's diet?


Salmon and flounder


Omega
-
3
-
rich foods for heart health; flounder is generally
low in mercury and may help prevent cancer


Salmon: sugar, lemon rind, salt, pepper
--
dry rub, let chill
for 1
-
2 hours, roast


Brightly
-
colored vegetables (leafy greens, peppers,
tomatoes, etc)


Vitamins, fiber, antioxidants


Bok choy preparation
video

Student Question: What are the nutritional
differences in fruits and vegetables?


Both have nutrients


Generally, vegetables
are favored over fruits


Sugar content in fruits


Fructose


Too much = fat storage


Slower absorption rate

Student Question: What are the nutritional
differences in fruits and vegetables?


Both have nutrients


Generally, vegetables
are favored over fruits


Sugar content in fruits


Fructose


Too much = fat storage


Slower absorption rate

Student Question: Is a
vegetarian diet healthy?


Vegetarian diets can
be

healthy


or

unhealthy



Whole foods: grains,
vegetables, fruits,
herbs


Fried tofu, mashed
potatoes with butter,
mac and cheese, candy

Student Question: What foods are
low
-
calorie but also filling?


Carbohydrate
-
based foods are usually digested more quickly,
resulting in hunger


Since the body needs carb as its primary energy source, cutting
isn

t terribly helpful


Complex carbohydrates take longer to digest than simple
carbohydrates


Brown (instead of white) rice

Student Question: What foods are
low
-
calorie but also filling?


Foods higher in fiber tend to take longer to digest


Whole grains (barley, bran flakes, oatmeal)


Nuts & seeds (almonds, flax seeds, pistachios)


Fruit (raspberries, pear, strawberries, prunes)


Legumes (lentils, black beans, split peas)


Vegetables (peas, greens, corn, artichoke)

Student Question: What foods are
low
-
calorie but also filling?


Water
-
based foods: soups/broths


Leafy green vegetables


Including protein and healthy fats with
carbohydrate at meals can slow digestion


Eggs


Fish


Chicken


Tofu


Almond butter/peanut butter


Avocado


Student Question: What Harms
Might Vitamins Cause the Body?


WebMD shows RDA or
AI, and UL values for
vitamins and minerals


Dangers are usually
associated with
megadoses


Besthealth

Student Question: What food chemicals should we
look out for?


Challenge: People have varying sensitivities


Challenge: Often, the issue is accumulation rather than one
dose at a given time


Challenge: Combinations of chemicals


Challenge: chemicals used for a variety of attractive
purposes


Challenge: some chemicals are naturally occurring
(estrogenic foods)

Student Question: What food chemicals should we
look out for?


Challenge: Chemicals used for a variety of purposes
attractive to consumer


Preservatives


Sweeteners, flavorings


Fat replacers


Emulsifiers, thickeners


Color additives


List at
FDA

Student Question: What food chemicals should
we look out for?


Guideline: the more
processed the food,
the more chemicals
present


Guideline: shopping
around the perimeter
of a grocery store
usually the healthiest
approach

Student Question: What food chemicals should we
look out for?


Per
Center for Science in the Public Interest


Sodium nitrite


Found in salty, processed meat products


World Cancer Research Fund, May 2011:
processed meats
too dangerous for human consumption
(totalhealthbreakthroughs.com)


Saccharin, aspartame,
Acesulfame
-
K


Beverages, snack foods, dairy products, gums, soups, snacks


Increased cancer risk

Student Question: What food chemicals should we
look out for?


Caffeine


Addictive


Stimulant properties


Olestra


Fat substitute in snack chips


Digestive problems


Reduce absorption of some fat
-
soluble vitamins


Food dyes


Blue 2
, Green 3, Orange B, Red 3, Yellow 5, et. Al.


Candy, baked goods, beverages


Student Question: What food chemicals should we
look out for?


High fructose corn syrup


Beverages, cereals, candy, cookies, condiments


Increases sweetness of food products


Consumers not consuming less sugar


Connection to corn allergies?


Metabolic problems? (insulin resistance)


Bisphenol A in cans, plastics (cancer, reproductive health, CV
disease)

Student Question: What benefits
does fasting have?


Fasting: willfully
restricting food
and/or beverage
consumption


Various reasons
throughout history:
spiritualism, religion,
therapy, famine


Practice empties the
colon

Student Question: What benefits
does fasting have?


Benefits:


Sense of control, other
psychological benefits


Increased endorphins
in the brain


If food allergies are
present, physical relief

Student Question: What benefits
does fasting have?


Keep in mind:


Liver, kidneys, lungs

detoxify


blood 24/7


Brain needs glucose


No glucose = fat & protein sources removed from body


Fasts meant generally for short term


Metabolism may shift to adapt to starvation mode


Registered dietician or naturopathic physician may help reduce
risks

Student Question: How do some of the fad diets
impact the body?


Most diets feature a
calorie restriction,
which results in
weight loss


Many diets also
promote physical
activity, which also
results in weight loss

Student Question: How do some of the fad diets
impact the body?


Acute symptoms:


GI distress


Gas


Fatigue


Emotional upset


If stimulant pills:
palpitations, nervousness


Chronic symptom:


Adaptation to caloric
restriction

Student Question: How do some of the fad diets
impact the body?


No favorites: use what works, what makes nutritional sense,
what is likely to last


That acknowledged, I appreciate programs like Weight
Watchers that promote lifestyle change, provide education
& support


Least favorites: anything involving pills, powders, processed
items


Guilty pleasure

Student Question: What would you say are the
most valuable (if any) supplements to take?


Depends on a person

s individual circumstances (diet,
activity, general health)


First & foremost: improve diet


Fat
-
soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) = careful with megadoses


Multivitamin


Lactobacillus for gut health

Student Question: Are there any
favorite dieting

tricks?



When tempted to eat something off the

diet,


busy yourself with something
-

a chore, a walk, a
drive, etc.


Recording food and beverage consumption
(annoying, can improve awareness)


Regular physical activity, include high
-
intensity
exercise


Include lean protein and/or fiber with most meals


De
-
centralize meat on the plate


Chew food thoroughly


Student Question: Are there any
favorite dieting

tricks?



Avoid misery


Drink water regularly


Assess alcohol
consumption


Use smaller plates


Make dietary change a
lasting lifestyle change