Introduction to Cognitive

almondpitterpatterIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 4 mois)

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Introduction to Cognitive
Psychology


Chapter 1


Outline:


1.
Cognitive Psychology Defined

2.
From Plato to Cognitive Psychology

1.
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology

2.
Psychological Antecedents of Cog Psychology

3.
Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

3.
Research Methods in Cognitive
Psychology

4.
Key Themes in Cognitive Psychology

1. Cognitive Psychology Defined


Cognitive Psychology


The study of how people perceive, learn, remember,
and think.


Examples


How people perceive various shapes


Why they remember some facts and forget others


How they learn language


Cognition (Ashcraft, 2002)


The collection of mental processes and activities used
in perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, and
understanding, and the act of using those processes


?

If you wanted to understand how people
think which method would you use?
What would you focus on?


2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.1.
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology

PLATO (ca. 428
-
348 B.C)


Rationalism


Nature of reality


Reality resides not in the concrete objects we perceive but
in the abstract forms that these objects represent


How to investigate reality


Observation is misleading


The route to knowledge is through logical analysis



2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.1.
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology

ARISTOTLE (ca. 384
-
322 B.C)


Empiricism


Nature of reality


Reality lies only in the concrete world of objects that our
bodies sense


How to investigate reality


The route to knowledge is through empirical evidence,
obtained through experience and observation


Observations of the external world are the only means to
arrive at truth


2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.1.
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology

RENE DESCARTES(1596
-
1650)


Rationalism


“Cogito ergo sum”


Mental representations


Descartes raised, directly or indirectly, virtually all the significant
issues related to the foundations of the science of the mind


He had taken the principles from his writings on meteors, optics,
mathematics, and mechanics and considered their applicability to
human phenomena


Innate ideas

2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.1.
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology

JOHN LOCKE (1632
-
1704)


Empiricism


“tabula rasa” (“blank slate”)


both sighted and blind people ought to be able to learn the
meanings of words like statue and feel but the blind ought
to be unable to acquire words like picture and see…


Learning


Humans are born without knowledge


No innate ideas

2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology

Structuralism


Goal of psychology


To understand the structure of the mind and its
perceptions by analyzing those perceptions into their
constituent components


Method


Introspection


looking inward at pieces of information
passing through consciousness


Proponents


Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener


2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology

Functionalism


Goal of psychology


To study the processes of mind rather than its contents


Method


Various methods


introspection, observation, experiment


Proponents


William James


Principles of Psychology (1890)


2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology

Behaviorism


Goal of psychology


To study observable behavior


Any hypotheses about internal thoughts and ways of
thinking are nothing more than speculation


We can not say anything meaningful about cognition


Method


Animal experiments, conditioning experiments


Proponents


John Watson, B.F. Skinner



2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology

Gestalt Psychology


Goal of psychology


To understand psychological phenomena as organized,
structured wholes


The whole differs from the sum of its parts


Method


Various methods


experiment, observation


Proponents


Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang K
öhler



2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

Karl Lashley (1890
-
1958)


Psychobiological arguments against behaviorism


Playing piano


On a behaviorist, stimulus
-
response account, an activity
such as rapidly playing a correct sequence of notes from
memory on an instrument would involve an associative
chain of stimuli and responses


Such associative chains can not explain the behavior;
input is never put into a a static system, but always into a
system which is actively organized



2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

Noam Chomsky


Linguistic arguments against behaviorism


Arguments from language acquisition


Behaviorists can not explain how children can produce
novel sentences they never heard


Infinite number of sentences we can produce can not be
learned by reinforcement


there must be a cognitive
algorithmic structure in our mind underlying language


2. From Plato to Cognitive
Psychology

2.2.
Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

Alan Turing


Development of first computers


His “Colossus” computer helped break the German
“Enigma” codes during the World War II


It has been estimated that this work shortened the war in
Europe by two years


Analogy between computers and human minds


Hardware (brain), Software (mind)


Thinking can be described in terms of algorithmic
manipulation of some information


These ideas gave rise to the information processing
paradigm in psychology


cognitive psychology

?

What can humans do that computers
can not?


What can computers do that humans
can not?

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

How does scientific investigation work?


Theory development


Hypotheses formulation


Hypotheses testing


Data gathering


Data analysis

Ecological validity


The degree to which particular findings in one context
may be considered relevant outside of that context

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

1. Controlled laboratory experiments


Characterization


An experimenter conducts research in a laboratory
setting in which he controls as many aspects of the
experimental situation as possible


Advantages


Enables isolation of causal factors


Excellent means of testing hypotheses


Disadvantages


Often lack of ecological validity

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

2. Psychobiological research


Characterization


Studies the relationship between cognitive performance
and cerebral events and structures


Examples: postmortem studies, animal studies, studies
in vivo (PET, fMRI, EEG)


Advantages


“hard” evidence of cognitive functions by relating them
to physiological activity


Disadvantages


Often very expensive; risk of making inferences about
normal functions based on abnormal brain functioning

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

3. Self
-
reports


Characterization


Participant’s reports of own cognition in progress or as
recollected


Advantages


Introspective insights from participant’s point of view,
which may be unavailable via other means


Disadvantages


Inability to report on processes occurring outside
conscious awareness


Data gathering may influence cognitive process being
reported

?


Try reporting aloud the various steps
involved in grasping a pen?


Now, actually grasp your pen, reporting
aloud the steps you take. Do you notice any
differences between the first task and this
task?


Can you report exactly how you pulled the
information into conscious awareness?

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

4. Case studies


Characterization


Intensive study of a single individual


Advantages


Richly detailed information about individuals, including
information about historical and current contexts


Very good for theory development


Disadvantages


Small sample; questionable generalization to other
cases

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

5. Naturalistic observation


Characterization


Observing real
-
life situations, as in classrooms, work
settings, or homes


Advantages


High ecological validity


Disadvantages


Lack of experimental control

3. Research Methods in
Cognitive Psychology

6. Computer Simulations and Artificial
Intelligence


Characterization


Simulation: Attempt to make computers simulate human
cognitive performance


AI: Attempt to make computers demonstrate intelligent
cognitive performance (regardless of its resemblance to
human cognitive processing)


Advantages


Clear testing of theoretical models and predictions


Disadvantages


Limits of hardware and software

4. Key Themes in Cognitive
Psychology

1
.

Data without a theory is meaningless, theory
without data is empty


Example: observation that people’s ability to recognize
faces is better than their ability to recall faces


This is an interesting generalization but it does not explain
why there is such a difference


A theory provides


An explanation of data


Basis for prediction of other data


4. Key Themes in Cognitive
Psychology

2.

Cognitive processes interact with each other
and with noncognitive processes


Even though cognitive psychologists often try to study
specific cognitive processes in isolation, they know
that cognitive processes work together


Examples


Memory processes depend on perceptual processes


Thinking depends on memory


Motivation interacts with learning

4. Key Themes in Cognitive
Psychology

3. Cognition needs to be studied through a variety
of scientific methods



There is no one right way to study cognition


Cognitive psychologists need to learn a
variety of different kinds of techniques to
study cognition

4. Key Themes in Cognitive
Psychology

4.

Basic research in cognitive psychology may
lead to application, applied research may lead
to basic understanding


Basic research often leads to immediate application


Example: finding that learning is superior when it is spaced
out over time rather than crammed into a short time interval


Applied research often leads to basic findings


Example: eyewitness testimony research has enhanced our
basic understanding of memory systems and of the extent to
which humans construct their own memories