I Can Statements
–
Physical Science
Physics
Motion (Kinematics)
1.
I can
describe motion in terms of position (x), displacement (Δx), distance (d), speed (s), velocity (v),
acceleration (a), and time (t).
(Ch. 4)
A.
I can differentiate between vector and
scalar quantities in measurement. (4.1)
a.
I can understand that vectors are measurement quantities that have both magnitude and direction
and depend on a frame of reference.
(4.1)
b.
I can list examples of vector quantities in motion. (4.1)
i.
Displacement
ii.
Veloci
ty
iii.
Acceleration
c.
I can understand that scalars are measurement quantities that have only magnitude but
not
direction. (4.1)
d.
I can list examples of scalar quantities in motion. (4.1)
i.
Distance
ii.
Speed
iii.
Time
B.
I can use a frame of reference to describe the
position (x) of an object. (4.1)
a.
I can accurately measure the position of an object from an origin with a meter rule using the
correct amount of significant figures in the measurement. (4.1)
b.
I can understand that the positive or negative sign of the measur
ement of position refers to the
distance from the origin as defined by the frame of reference. (4.1)
c.
I can calculate displacement as defined as the change in the position of an object (Δx = x
final
–
x
initial
). (4.1)
d.
I can explain why the displacement does
not always the distance travelled. (4.1)
e.
I can recognize and convert between common units of position, displacement, and distance.
(1.3)
i.
Millimeters
ii.
Centimeters
iii.
Meters (SI unit)
iv.
Kilometers
C.
I can describe the velocity of an object. (4.1)
a.
I can define
velocity as a vector quantity that is equal to the rate of change of displacement per
time (
)
. (4.1)
b.
I can compare and contrast velocity and speed. (4.1)
i.
Velocity
1.
Vector having both magnitude and direction. (4.1)
a.
I can explain why positive and
negative values for velocity correspond to
the direction not the magnitude of the speed.
2.
T
he rate of change of displacement per time (
).
(4.1)
ii.
Speed (4.1)
1.
Scalar having only magnitude.
2.
The rate of change of distance
per time (
).
iii.
Velocity and Speed (4.1)
1.
Both measure the rate of change of motion.
2.
Both are measured in the SI unit of meters per second (m/s).
c.
Given displacement and time, I can calculate the velocity of an object using
. (4.1)
d.
Given displacement and time, I c
an calculate the speed of an object using
. (4.1)
e.
I can differentiate between average velocity and instantaneous velocity. (4.1)
i.
Average velocity (4.1)
1.
I can describe average velocity as the average over a given time period but not
necessarily con
stant. (4.1)
2.
I can calculate average velocity as the total displacement over a given time
period:
(4.1)
̅
3.
I can use lab equipment such as a timer and photogates to calculate the average
velocity of an object. (4.2)
ii.
Instantaneo
us velocity (4.1)
1.
I can describe instantaneous velocity as the velocity at a given instant in time.
2.
I can use lab equipment such as a timer and a photogate to calculate the
instantaneous velocity of an object.
f.
I can construct and interpret a position
time graph. (4.2)
i.
I can identify the independent and dependent variables on the position time graph.
(2.3)(4.2)
1.
Independent variable = time (x

axis)
2.
Dependent variable = position (y

axis)
ii.
I can calculate the slope of the position time graph to represent th
e velocity of the object.
(4.2)
1.
̅
a. If line is horizontal, slope = 0, velocity = 0 m/s. Object is stationary.
b. If slope is horizontal, object is moving in the positive direction.
c. If slope
is negative, object is moving in the negative direction.
d. The steeper the slope (positive or negative), the faster the object is moving.
e. The flatter the slope (positive or negative), the slower the object is moving.
f. If the slope is increasing (grap
h is a curve), the velocity is changing and
acceleration is occurring.
D.
I can describe the acceleration of an object.
(4.3)
a.
I can define acceleration as a vector quantity that is equal to the rate of change of velocity per
time (
).
1.
I can understand that a negative value for acceleration means that the object is
slowing down (if moving in the positive direction).
2.
I can understand that because acceleration is a vector, an object that is mov
ing at
a constant speed but changes direction is still accelerating.
3.
I can define the SI unit for acceleration as m/s
2
.
b.
Given the change in velocity and time, I can calculate the acceleration of an object using (4.3)
c.
I can construct and interpret a velocity time graph. (4.3)
i.
I can identify the independent and dependent variables on the velocity time graph.
(4.3)(2.3)
1.
Independent variable = time (x

axis)
2.
Dependent variable = velocity
(y

axis)
ii.
I can calculate the slope of the velocity time graph to represent the acceleration of the
object. (4.3)
1.
2.
a. If line is horizontal, slope = 0, accelerat
ion = 0 m/s. Object is moving at a
constant velocity.
b. If slope is horizontal, object has a positive acceleration.
c. If slope is negative, object has a negative acceleration.
d. I can understand that all objects in freefall accelerate at t
he same rate due to the Earth’s
gravitational acceleration (

9.8 m/s
2
) (4.3)
Forces (Dynamics)
1.
I
can
describe types of forces as anything having the ability to change the motion of an object.
a.
I can identify and classify various types of forces.
(5.1)
i.
Contact forces
(5.1)
1.
Applied forces that push or pull
2.
Frictional forces (5.2)
1.
Forces that oppose the direction of motion
2.
Air resistance
3.
Normal (5.3)
1.
Forces that act perpendicular to the surface of an object.
4.
Tension
1.
Forces that occur due to the pull
ing force of cables or ropes.
5.
Elastic
1.
Forces that occur due to the elastic nature of springs or other objects.
ii.
Field forces (5.1)
1.
I can order the elementary field forces from strongest to weakest.
1.
Strong nuclear force
2.
Electromagnetic force
3.
Weak nuclear
force
4.
Gravitational force
2.
Other field force examples
1.
Magnetic force
2.
Electric force
3.
I can relate the inverse square law to various types of field forces.
2.
I can recognize forces as vector quantities having both magnitude and direction. (5.1)
a.
I can construct
free body diagrams showing the force vectors that are acting on an object. (5.3)
b.
I can identify the SI unit of force is the Newton (N).
i.
I can define a Newton to be the amount of force needed to cause a 1kg object to
accelerate at 1 m/s
2
.
3.
I can use Newton
’s Laws of Motion to
describe how forces affect the motion of an object.
a.
I can define and apply Newton’s First Law of Inertia. (5.3) (6.1)
i.
Objects in motion will stay in motion and objects at rest will stay at rest unless acted
upon by an outside force.
ii.
I
can define inertia as the tendency of an object to remain in its present state of motion.
1.
I can understand that the inertia of an object increases with the mass of an object.
iii.
I can explain that forces may be present even if an object is at rest because the
net force is
zero.
iv.
I can explain how an object may still be moving at a constant velocity
if there is a net
force of zero.
b.
I can define and use Newton’s Second Law to describe how forces affect the motion of an object.
(6.2)
i.
I can understand that the rate
at which an object changes its velocity is directly
proportional to the net force acting on the object.
ii.
I can understand that the rate at which an object changes its velocity is inversely
proportional to the mass of an object.
iii.
I can explain Newton’s Second Law in terms of the equation F
net
= ma.
1.
Given the mass and acceleration I can calculate the net force acting on an object.
c.
I can define and use Newton’s Third Law to describe how forces affect the motion of an object.
(6.3)
i.
I
can explain how every action must have an equal and opposite reaction
ii.
I can identify force pairs acting on an object.
4.
I can differentiate between the weight and the mass of an object. (2.1)
a.
I can explain how weight is a force due to gravitational
attraction between objects.
(5.1)
i.
I can explain how the gravitational attraction is caused by both the masses of objects and
the distance between the two objects.
1.
I can explain how the gravitational force increases as the mass of an object
increases.
1.
Com
parison of gravity on the Earth vs. the moon
2.
I can explain how the gravitational force decreases as the distance between
objects increases.
1.
Comparison of weights of mass at sea level vs. Mt. Everest
b.
I can recognize that 1 pound is equivalent to 4.448 Newt
ons.
c.
I can calculate the weight of an object on Earth in Newtons using the formula:
(5.1)
Weight = 9.8 x mass of the object
or F
g
= mg where g =

9.8m/s
2
Waves
1.
I can describe how various types of waves transfer energy
.
(23.1)
a.
I can define
and identify characteristics of waves.
(23.1) (23.2)
i.
Period
1.
Given the frequency,
I can use the equation (T =
) to calculate the period of a
wave
as measured in seconds
.
2.
I can understand how period and frequency are
inversely proportional.
ii.
Frequency
1.
Given the period
I can use the equation (f =
) to calculate the frequency of a
wave
as measured in Hertz (Hz).
iii.
Wavelength
1.
I can understand how wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional.
iv.
Wave speed
1.
I can use the equation v = λf to calculate wave speed given the wavelength and
frequency.
2.
I can understand that the wave speed remains constant as long as the material
through which the wave is passing remains uniform.
3.
I can contrast how waves can change s
peed depending on the medium.
v.
Cycle
vi.
Amplitude
b.
I can use simple harmonic motion to explain the basic characteristics of waves.
(23.1)
i.
I can define simple harmonic motion in terms of restoring force and oscillations.
ii.
I can give examples of simple harmonic m
otion.
iii.
I can interpret of graph of simple harmonic motion and label the basic characteristics of
waves.
1.
Period
2.
Frequency
3.
Wavelength
4.
Cycle
5.
Amplitude
6.
Crest
7.
Trough
iv.
I can explain how damping affects simple harmonic motion.
c.
I can compare and contrast transverse
and longitudinal waves
(23.3)
.
i.
Transverse waves
1.
I can explain how transverse waves move perpendicular to their direction of
motion.
2.
I can list examples of transverse waves.
1.
Water waves
2.
Light waves
3.
Electromagnetic radiation
ii.
Longitudinal waves
1.
I can explai
n how longitudinal waves move parallel to their direction of motion.
i.
I can define compression and rarefication in explaining the movement
of longitudinal waves.
2.
I can explain how sound waves are longitudinal waves and require matter to
transport them.
d.
I ca
n
interpret the electromagnetic spectrum.
i.
I can rank electromagnetic radiation based on order of the following:
1.
Wavelength
2.
Frequency
3.
Energy
ii.
I can use the speed of light in a vacuum as 3.0 x 10
8
m/s to all types of electromagnetic
radiation when using the equation v = λf in order to calculate wavelength and frequency.
iii.
I can explain how electromagnetic waves do not need matter to be present to travel and
therefore are able to transmit energy throu
ghout the universe.
e.
I can compare and contrast types of wave motion.
i.
Reflection
1.
I can diagram how a plane wave experiences reflection when meeting a boundary.
2.
I can predict the angle at which a wave will reflect when meeting a boundary.
ii.
Refraction
1.
I can ex
plain how waves can change direction as it passes through differing types
of materials.
2.
I can explain how waves travel at different speeds depending on the type of
material.
iii.
Diffraction
1.
I can diagram how waves bend when passing through a small slit or open
ing.
iv.
Absorption
1.
I can explain how waves can be absorbed by certain materials.
f.
I can predict wave behavior when two or more waves exist at the same point in terms of the
principle of superposition.
i.
Constructive Interference
1.
I can diagram and explain how wa
ves in the same phase exhibit constructive
interference.
ii.
Destructive Interference
1.
I can diagram and explain how waves that are out of phase exhibit destructive
interference.
g.
I can use the Doppler Effect to describe the how the behavior of a wave can change
based on the
position of the observer.
(24.1)
i.
I can describe how a wave moving away from the observer experiences a longer
wavelength and shorter frequency.
1.
I can use the Doppler effect to explain red shifts in the universe.
ii.
I can describe how a wave mov
ing towards the observer experiences a shorter
wavelength and longer frequency.
1.
I can use the Doppler effect to explain blue shifts in the universe.
Energy
1.
I can define and apply the Law of Conservation of Energy to closed systems in which energy is never
lost nor gained but transformed from one type to another.
(7.1) (7.2) (7.3)
a.
I can
use pie graphs and bar graphs to illustrate energy usage.
(7.3)
b.
I can evaluate the efficiency of energy systems based on their energy loss.
(7.3) (8.2)
2.
I can compare and co
ntrast various types of energy.
(7.1)
a.
Kinetic Energy
(7.1)
i.
I can describe kinetic energy as the energy due to the movement of matter.
(7.1)
ii.
I can use the equation E
k
= ½ mv
2
to calculate the amount of kinetic energy in Joules (J).
(7.1)
iii.
I can use the Law of
Conservation of Energy to convert between kinetic and gravitational
potential energy in a closed system using the equation
:
(7.2)
Total Mechanical Energy =
E
k
+ E
g
= ½ mv
2
+ mgh
b.
Potential Energy
(7.1)
i.
Gravitational
1.
I
can define gravitational potential energy as the energy due to an object’s height
or position in a gravitational field.
2.
I can use the equation E
g
= mgh to calculate potential energy in Joules (J).
3.
I can describe gravitational potential energy in terms of m
utually attracting
masses.
ii.
Elastic
iii.
Electrical
(20.1)
1.
I can describe gravitational potential energy in terms of mutually attracting
charges.
c.
Electrical Energy
(20.1) (20.2)
i.
I can explain electrical energy as the movement of electrons.
(20.2)
ii.
I can construc
t basic electric circuits.
(20.2)
1.
I can determine if a circuit is open or closed.
iii.
I can define and identify basic circuit elements and their symbols.
(20.2)
1.
Battery
2.
Wire
3.
Resistor
4.
Bulb
iv.
I can differentiate between series and parallel circuits.
(20.2) (21.1)
(21.2)
v.
I can define and contrast electrical quantities.
(20.3)
1.
Charge
(20.1)
2.
Current
(20.3)
3.
Potential Difference
(20.3)
4.
Resistance
(20.4)
d.
Thermal Energy
(10.2)
i.
I can explain thermal energy based on the vibrations of atoms at the molecular level.
e.
Sound
Energy
(24)
f.
Light Energy
(25)
g.
Nuclear Energy
(18.3)
3.
I can use work to explain how energy can be transferred over a specified distance.
(7.1) (8.1)
a.
I can define work as the amount of force applied over a certain displacement.
b.
I can understand that to do wo
rk, the applied force must be in the same direction as the
displacement.
c.
I can realize that if the force applied is perpendicular to the direction of the motion that no work
has been done.
d.
I can use the formula W = FΔx to calculate how work is the product
of the applied force times
the displacement as measured in Joules (J).
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