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Industrial Microbiology


STUDY GUIDE FOR

MKBN 322 (E)


FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCES


Dr. S. Claassens

10 March 2008


Cliff Smuts



ii


































Date for revision: 2008

Printing and distribution managed by Telematiese Leersisteme

Copyrig
ht


2004 edition

North
-
West University (Potchefstroom Campus)

Copyright reserved. No section of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without the written permission of the publishers. This includes photocopies of the whole
book or sect
ions of the book.


iii

TABLE OF CONTENT

WORD OF WELCOME

................................
................................
................................
.........

IV

LECTURER

................................
................................
................................
..........................

IV

OUTCOMES OF

MODULE

................................
................................
................................
...

IV

RATIONALE

................................
................................
................................
.........................

IV

STUDY MATERIAL

................................
................................
................................
..............

IV

HOW TO STUDY

................................
................................
................................
...................

V

TIME ALLOTMENT
AND CREDITS FOR THIS

MODULE

................................
...................

VI

PRACTICAL SESSIONS

................................
................................
................................
......

VI

EVALUATION OPPO
RTUNITIES

................................
................................
.........................

VI

ABSENCE

................................
................................
................................
..........................

VIII

ACTION VERBS

................................
................................
................................
.................

VIII

STUDY ICONS

................................
................................
................................
.....................

IX

MICROORGANISMS IN IN
DUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOG
Y AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

..........

12

THE GROWTH OF MICROO
RGANISMS IN CONTROLL
ED ENVIRONMENTS

................

15

MAIN PRODUCTS OF IND
USTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY

................................
.....................

18

MICROBIAL GROWTH IN
COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTS

................................
...................

22


iv

WORD OF WELCOME

This module has b
een compiled for students studying Microbiology. I do trust that you will
find it informative and stimulating. The module (MKBN 322) will serve as an introduction to
Industrial Microbiology, and thus gives an overview of the application of microorganisms

in
the industrial field.

LECTURER

Dr. S. Claassens

JS Van der Merwe Building

Room 215

Tel: 018 299 2321

Fax: 018 299 2330

OUTCOMES OF THE MODU
LE

After the successful completion of this module you should be able to:



Give an overview of the application an
d manipulation of microorganisms in industria
l
microbiology and biotechnology
;



Demonstrate your skills in the management of microbial growth in industrial
environments by means of the development of media and reactor technology;



Give a general overview of
the different main products of industrial microbiology;



Give an overview of biodegradation and bioremedy, as well as the supplement of
microorganisms for the improvement of agricultural products;



Demonstrate your knowledge of different biotechnological app
lications of
microorganisms;

RATIONALE



Microorganisms cannot be observed by the naked eye, yet they influence every aspect of
our lives in different ways.



A sound knowledge of industrial microbiology provides the microbiologist with a strong
base for the
study of reactions and processes in microbes, underlying interactions
between microbes, as well as interaction between microbes and their biotic and abiotic
environments.

STUDY MATERIAL

Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. & Klein, D.A. 2005. Microbiology. 6
th

ed
. McGraw
-
Hill. (referred
to as
Prescott
in

the rest of this study guide).


McGraw
-
Hill Online Learning Centre


Interactive study guide. Use Netscape or Internet
Explorer to visit the following web address:
http://www.mhhe.com/prescott6e
. Here you have
t
o register in order to use the prescribed textbook (Prescott, Microbiology, 6
th

ed.). Use the
special registration code supplied in the prescribed textbook to register for use of the web
page.



v

The following textbooks may be consulted for further enrichme
nt:

Harley, J.P. and Prescott, L.M. 2002. Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology, 5
th

edition,
McGraw
-
Hill, New York.


HOW TO STUDY



This study guide contains important information. Read he first section (up to Study Unit
1) attentively so that you know exac
tly what is expected of you in this module and how
you will be able to reach it.



Carefully and conscientiously prepare for each lecture
.

Consider the module as a box of
tools. You must not only be able to identify and describe each tool (knowledge), but
you
must also be able to use them in new situations (insight). You will quickly discover what
you do not understand when you are preparing for the lecture.



Keep to the time schedule and
carefully
plan you study and time management
. There
is an applicabl
e proverb in English, saying,

He who fails to plan, plans to fail

.
Constantly keep this in mind.



Conscientiously follow the study guide and stick to the deadlines in the time schedule
and work program.



Do all assignments according to the instructions an
d guidelines.



Practical and Theory form a unit in Microbiology, and jointly contribute to reaching the
outcomes. During practical sessions theory becomes reality, when examples, concepts,
processes, systems, structures etc. are dealt with in a concrete wa
y. For this reason it is
imperative that you work systematically through the program at each practical session
and accurately record exactly what you have by means of reports, results, sketches,
charts, etc. Sketches must be large and clear (at least on h
alf an A4


i.e. A5


page);
drawn by using a pencil (HB) and provided with captions. STRIVE TO ENSURE THAT
YOU HAVE REACHED ALL THE OUTCOMES SET FOR THE PRACTICAL SESSION
BEFORE YOU LEAVE.



Students have different styles of learning. You are, however, ad
vised to specifically
learn through association in Microbiology, and do that deductively (from the whole to the
composite parts) in the learning process. Consult and read Study Unit 3 in LEER111,
Learning Styles, once more.



Make sure that all the learning

activities in the study guide is completed in full so that
contact sessions may be utilised for the discussion of possible problem areas. You
should therefore make a list of questions or problems you would want to be discussed
during the contact session.

This is a very important step in
monitoring

your progress.



If you conscientiously follow the study guide and perform all the activities, you will be
able to add value to the total process of learning and understanding by making notes
and jotting down add
itional information during contact sessions. Lecturers assume that
students attend the classes fully prepared, and therefore plan value
-
adding activities for
the sessions


AND DO NOT PREPARE TO LECTURE.



By conscientiously following the study guide and ac
curately performing the learning
activities, you will contribute to your successful preparation in writing the exam.



Return to the outcomes on each level and determine whether you have reached all of
them after completion of a study section/ study unit/
module. Guard against continuing
before having fully reached all previous outcomes.



Keep record of all your marks and
continuously evaluate
your progress and success.


vi



By maximally utilising the lecturer and the study guide, you will be enabled to fully an
d
successfully reach the outcomes through good
planning, monitoring and evaluation

and pass the exam. Strive to become a self
-
regulating, life
-
long learner who is able to
process new information to knowledge through ‘intensive learning’ and develop new
st
udy fields in Microbiology through the acquisition of your own skills.

TIME ALLOTMENT AND C
REDITS FOR THIS MODU
LE

Study unit

Title

Total time
allotted

Credits

1

MICROORGANISMS IN
INDUSTRIAL
MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

14 hours

1.47

2

THE GOWTH OF MIC
ROORGANISMS IN
CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS

17 hours

1.78

3

THE MAIN PRODUCTS OF
INDUSTRIAL
MICROBIOLOGY

14 hours

1.47

4

MICROBIAL GROWTH IN COMPLEX
ENVIRONMENTS

17 hours

1.78

5

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF
MICROORGANISMS

14 hours

1.47


76 hours


EXAMI
NATION AND SEMESTER TEST (2 hours each)

4 hours


Total

80 hours

8

PRACTICAL SESSIONS

During practical sessions experiments will be done to complement the theory and explain
concepts. Practicals are thus viewed as an important component of the module and
you are
strongly advised to attend all practicals and pay full attention to the work that will be dealt
with during these sessions. (Also see Evaluation of Practicals below).

EVALUATION OPPORTUNI
TIES



Evaluation of theory and practicals will take place on
a continuous base, as indicated
in the schedule.



The participation mark will be compiled by the following evaluation activities that
contribute marks:


Continuous evaluation

% of the
final marks

Class tests and
assignments

20


vii

Practical reports, tests and

Practical examination

50

Semester test

30




A minimum of 40% is required


The participation mark that adheres to the minimum requirements automatically becomes the
proof of participation
that admits the holder to the examination. The following
requireme
nts for this are explained in the yearbook of the Faculty of Natural Sciences.
Please note that the
completion of practical work
is a prerequisite for a proof of
participation.



Class tests

Takes place during the first 20
-

30 minutes of specific determin
ed contact sessions. The
purpose of these evaluation opportunities is to test whether the terms/ concepts/ etc. That
have been discussed in the recently completed study section, have been grasped/
understood by the learner. This is also an opportunity t
o do remedial teaching, if necessary.



Semester test

This is a comprehensive evaluation opportunity that takes place in September. This is an
integral part of the participation mark and contributes 30% to the module mark.



Practical assignments

Are submitte
d every week before the next practical starts.



Practical tests

This will take place during the first 15 minutes of the practical session. The evaluation will be
aimed at evaluating your mastering and understanding of the practical.



Practical examination

This will take place during the last practical week of the module. The evaluation will be
aimed at comprehensively evaluating your mastering and understanding of all the practicals.



Semester examination



A semester exam of 2 hours will be written.



A minim
um of 50 % is required to pass the exam.

According to the new exam structure, as contained in the A rules, two opportunities to write
an exam are given the students who have a satisfactory proof of participation.

It is, however, important to keep the fol
lowing remarks in mind:

1.

The second exam opportunity is the
last opportunity
.

2.

Should the student be absent during the second opportunity (regardless of the
reason, or fails,
no
further opportunity is available. Should the exam not be passed

viii

during
the first or the second exam opportunity, the module can only be repeated by
registering and obtaining a proof of participation once more.



Calculation of the module mark



The ratio between the
participation mark
and the
exam mark
is 1:1 respectively.



A min
imum of 50 % is required to pass he module.

ABSENCE

Should you be unable to write a test or submit an assignment due to illness (or any other
reason), you must submit a medical certificate (or any other valid document in the case of
any other valid reason)

to the lecturer
as soon as possible
. Medical certificates and valid
documentation must be submitted
within ten days
after the date of absence. Should you
fail to do this you will receive a zero mark for the relevant test(s) or assignment(s).


ACTION VER
BS

You will find a lot of action verbs in this study guide. It is important that you understand the
meaning of these words in order to correctly execute instructions. It is therefore imperative
that you pay specific attention to the list of action verbs
following below.



Name

Here you merely need to write down the facts briefly and factually.



Describe

Here achievement on knowledge level is expected. Features, facts or results are reproduced
in a logical, well
-
structured way. No comment or argumentation
is expected.



Define

Reproduction of knowledge is required. It is a clear, core and authoritative description of a
concept so that the meaning thereof is clear.



Give an overview

A large volume of knowledge must be summarised and reproduced in a logical and

systematic way without missing the essence of the matter.



Explain

The issue is stated in a simple way so that the reader may understand it. Here you have to
make use of illustrations, descriptions and examples, while reasons for statements and
results sh
ould also be given.



Prove

State the facts by a logical submission of acceptable facts.



Compare

Handle this question with caution. Do not describe or discuss one issue in full before turning
to the next. Facts, events, or problems are contrasted, and si
milarities and differences are
highlighted.


ix



Discuss

This

type of question assumes insight and the ability to distinguish when making an
application or a judgement of value. Here an issue or statement is investigated and stated in
an analytic way.



Analyse

The content is divided into parts/ elements and discussed. Cause and consequence are
determined and mutual relations determined.



Distinguish between

Highlight the differences that clearly distinguish between the relevant aspects.



Evaluate

With ‘evaluate’
it is expected that a matter be judged in view of certain criteria. A judgement
of value is given on the matter and has to be motivated.


STUDY ICONS


Outcomes



Number of periods needed by the lecturer for chapter, total number of hours
needed by stude
nt (includes attending classes, preparation, tests and
examination).



This is necessary knowledge, you need to know and understand the work
and be able to apply it. Important points are highlighted in the study guide
.



Typical background knowledge or
elaboration of the work, completed
examples that you have to study intensively and understand well. The study
guide will indicate exactly what you must
know
.


Individual exercise. Make your own summary/ interpretation etc., as
instructed in the study gui
de; do the problems provided. The latter is an
especially necessary exercise to master the

work.



General overview.



x


Assignment
.




Bring your answers along to the contact session/ group meeting for discussion.




Revision.




Date of submissio
n.




Experiment.





xi

MODULE PLAN

MKBN 322



STUDY UNIT 1

Microorganisms in
industrial
microbiology and
biotechnology


Study section` 1.1

Microorganisms in
the environment


Study section` 1.2

Molecular
manipulation of
microorganisms





STUDY UNIT 2

The growth of
microorganisms in

controlled
environments


Study section`2.1

The development of
media


Study section`2.2

The growth of
microorganisms in
industrial
environments


Class test 1



STUDY UNIT 3

Main products of
industrial
microbiology


Study section`3.1

Antibiotics


Study sec
tion`3.2

Amino acids and
organic acids


Study section`3.3

Biopolym
e
rs and
biotransformations


Assignment 1

Semester test

STUDY UNIT 4

Microbial growth in
complex
environments


Study section`4.1

Biodegradation with
natural microbial
populations



Study sec
tion`4.2

The stimulation of
biodegradation
processes


Study section`4.3

Biostimulation


Class test 2





STUDY UNIT 5

Biotechnological
application of
microorganisms


Study section`5.1

Biosensors


Study section`5.2

Microarray
technology


Study section`5.3

Biopesticides


Assignment 2

Examination




12


MICROORGANISMS IN
INDUSTRIAL
MICROBIOLOGY AND
BIOTECHNOLOGY



You will need approximately 14 hours to successfully complete and master this
study unit.


At the successful completion of t
his study unit you should be able to give an
overview of the application and manipulation of microorganims in industrial
microbiology and biotechnology and use terms and concepts in this field
sensibly.



This study unit is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.
1, pp 963


970.



This study unit gives an overview of the application and manipulation of
microorganisms in industria
l microbiology and biotechnology

in terms of the
application and manipulation of the various relevant microorganisms. The text in
Chapt
er 42 pp 963


970 provides an explanation of the various terms. This forms
the base for further discussion of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Ensure that you
master the necessary terms and concepts that are commonly used in microbiology and
b
iotechnology right from the start.



1.1



MICROORGANISMS IN TH
E ENVIRONMENT



You need approximately 2 hours to successfully master this study section.





13

At the end of this study section you should be able to give an overview of and
explain the various nat
ural microorganisms that have the potential to be used in
industrial microbiology and biotechnology.


This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42, pp 964


965.

When reading this section, specifically focus on:



The potential of thermophylic Arc
haea in biotechnology (Box
42.1);

Refer to Tables 42.1 and 42.2 for an indication of the total and the known number
of microbial species that occur in various environments. Note the small
percentage of species that can be cultivated in a laboratory.


Ans
wer Questions 1 and 2 in Prescott, Chapter 42.1 p 966.

The answers will be discussed during the contact session.




1.2

MOLECULAR MANIPULATI
ON OF MICROORGANISMS


You need approximately 12 hours to successfully master this study section.



At the end of th
is study section you should be able to discuss the different
techniques that are used for genetic manipulation of microorganisms. You
must also be able to give an overview of the transfer of genetic material
between various microorganisms in order to inc
rease productivity and the
manipulation of metabolic ways to increase the productivity of industrial
microorganisms.


This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.1, pp 965
-

970.



When reading this section, specifically focus on:



The mutation
away from
P. chrysogenum

(Figure 42.1).



The use of combination biology in
E. Coli
for

propandyol production (also refer to
Table 42.3).



14



Preservation of microbial cultures for biotechnological processes (refer to Table
42.6 as well).


1.

Answer Questions 3
to 5 in Prescott, Chapter 42.1, p 966.

2.

Answer Questions 1 to 3 in Prescott, Chapter 42.1, p 967.

3.

Answer Questions 1 to 4 in Prescott, Chapter 42.1, p 970.


Bring your answers along to the contact session where it will be discussed.



Return to the

outcomes set for this study unit and the study sections and evaluate
to what extent you have reached them.





15


THE GROWTH OF
MICROORGANISMS IN
CONTROLLED ENVIRONME
NTS



You will need approximately 17 hours to successfully complete and
master this study
unit.



After having successfully completed this study unit you should be able to
demonstrate your expertise on the control of microbial growth in industrial
environments by means of the development of media and reactor
technology.


This study unit is
based on Prescott, Chapter 42.2, pp 970
-

974.



The text in Prescott provides an explanation of the development of
media, the growth of microorganisms in industrial environments,
alternative methods of mass culture, and the difference between primary
and secondary meta
bolites. This forms the base for a further discussion of the
control of
metabolism in industria
l environments, and i
t is important that you
have a sound understanding of the relation between primary and secondary
metabolism and the growt
h of microorganisms in

industria
l environments.
Ensure that you are able to use the necessary terms, concepts and processes
sensibly right from the word ‘go.’







THE DEVELOPMENT OF M
EDIA




You need approximately 10 hours to successfully master
this study
section.


At the end of this study section you should be able to explain the various
components of industrial microbial media.



16




This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.2, pp 970
-

971 and the
article by Elibol, M (2003) (will
be made available by the lecturer).



When reading this section, specifically focus on:



The main components of media in industrial environments (Table 42.8).



The optimalisation of media composition by means of ‘response surface
methodology’ (Elibol, M, 20
03).



1. Answer Question 1 on p 973 (Prescott).


Bring your answer along to the contact session where it will be discussed.





2.2

THE GROWTH OF MICROO
RGANISMS IN
INDUSTRIAL
ENVIRONMENTS



You need approximately 7 hours to successfully master this st
udy section.


At the end of this study section you should be able to explain: the physical
environment in which microorganisms grow under industrial conditions, the
relation between primary and secondary metabolism, and discuss the
alternative methods of
mass culture.


This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.2, pp 971
-

973.

Specifically focus on the meaning of the following when reading this study
section:



Primary and secondary
metabolites;



lot culture;



continuous culture;



fermentation.



17



1. Answer Questions 1 to 5 on pp 973


974 (Prescott).




The answers will be discussed during the contact session.



Return to the outcomes set for the study unit and the study sections
and evaluate to what extent you have reached them.



CLASS TEST
1

Takes place on: ______________ Room: ______________

Questions will be based on the tasks, assignments and exercises that were
done during the contact sessions.





18


MAIN PRODUCTS OF IND
USTRIAL
MICROBIOLOGY




You will need approximately 14 hours to suc
cessfully complete and master this
study unit.



At the end of this study unit you should be able to give an general overview
of the different main products of industrial microbiology and how the
processes by which these products are manufactured can be m
anipulated to
ensure maximum yield of a specific product.


This study unit is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.3 pp 974
-

979.



In this study unit the main products of industrial microbiology is discussed as
an introduction. These products have an impo
rtant influence on man’s life. An
overview of different products, as well as the relevant fermentation processes
for these products and regulation mechanisms of relevant ways of fermentation
that are involved during these processes, are given.




3.1

ANT
IBIOTICS



You need approximately 4 hours to successfully master this study section.



At the end of this study section you should be able to describe and
compare two examples of antibiotic fermentations, i.e. penicillin and
streptomycin.




19



This study

section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.3, pp 974
-

975.

When reading this section, specifically focus on the following:




The main products and relevant microorganisms in industrial microbiology
and biotechnology (Table 42.9)



The penicillin fermentation
process (Figure 42.10)



The streptomycin fermentation process (Figure 42.11)




3.2


AMINO ACIDS AND ORGA
NIC ACIDS



You need approximately 6 hours to successfully master this study section.



At the end of this study section you should be able to descri
be different
examples of metabolic ways that are responsible for the accumulation of amino
acids and organic acids in terms of fermentation processes. You must have
knowledge of the non
-
antibiotic speciality compounds that are produced by
microorganisms.


This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.3, pp 975
-

977.

Specifically focus on the following when reading this study section:



The production of glutamine acid (Figure 42.10).



The fermentation of citric acid.



The most important organic acids
produced through microbial processes (Table 42.10)



Non
-
antibiotic speciality compounds produced by microorganism (Table 42.11)



Answer Questions 1
-

4, Prescott, p 977.



Bring your answers along to the contact session where they will be discussed.






20

Return to the outcomes set for the study unit and study sections and evaluate
to what extent you have reached them.





3.2


BIOPOLIM
E
RES AND BIOTRANSFORM
ATIONS



You need approximately 4 hours to successfully master this study section.



At the end of
this study section you should have knowledge of the biopolymers,
biosurfactants and microbial transformations that are important in industrial
microbiology and biotechnology.



This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 9, pp 977
-

979.

Specificall
y focus on the following when reading this study section:



The most important uses of biopolym
e
rs and biosurfactants.



What cyclodextrine is and why it is an important supplement to certain
products (see Figure 42.11 as well).



The changes that occur in molec
ules as a result of biotransformation
processes.



Answer Questions 1
-

3, Prescott, p 979.




Bring your answers along to the contact session where they will be discussed.




Return to the outcomes set for the study unit and the study sections and
eva
luate to what extent you have reached them.






21


ASSIGNMENT 1


The assignment will be in the format of a written assignment and will be
explained by the lecturer during the contact sessions.

All assignments have to be typed and you must indicate all refere
nce sources
used for the assignment, in the reference list.


DATE OF SUBMISSION
:

__
______________




SEMESTER TEST


Takes place on: ___________________________

Room: _________________


Questions will be based on the tasks, assignments and exercises of
St
udy Units 1 to 3.




22


MICROBIAL GROWTH IN
COMPLEX
NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS


You will need approximately 17 hours to successfully complete and master this
study unit.



After having successfully completed this study unit you should be able to give
an overvie
w of biodegradation, bioremedy, as well as the supplement of
microorganisms to natural environments for the improvement of agricultural
practices.


This study unit is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.4 pp 979
-

986.



This study unit provides an overview o
f the use of microorganisms for
biodegradation and bioremedy, as well as the supplement of microorganisms
for the improvement of agricultural practices. Ensure that you are able to
identify and discuss the differences that exist between the use of natural

microorganisms and the stimulation thereof when studying each section of the
study unit.



1.3

BIODEGRADATION WITH
NATURAL MICROBIAL
POPULATIONS



You need approximately 8 hours to successfully master this study section.



After having completed this study

section you should be able to give an
overview of the biodegradation potential of natural microbial populations, the
influence of the binding structure on biodegradation processes, and examples
of biodegradation processes.




23

This study section is based
on Prescott, Chapter 42.4, pp 979
-

982.



Specifically focus on the meaning/ significance/ function/ role of the following when
reading this study section:



The definition of biodegradation in terms of the different possibilities of
change of compounds (Fi
gure 42.13).



The
meta

effect during biodegradation (Figure 42.14) and the influence of



enantiomerical structure on the biodegradation processes.



Changes in the features of microbial communities in response to the
supplement of certain substrata (Figure 4
2.15).



The role of methanogenes in biodegradation (Box 42.2).



Answer Questions 1


5 on page 982 in Prescott.




Bring your answers along to the contact session where it will be discussed.




1.4

THE STIMULATION OF B
IODEGRADATION
PROCESSES




You need ap
proximately 6 hours to successfully master this study section.



At the end of this study section you should be able to explain how changes in
the environment can stimulate different biodegradation processes.


This study section is based on Prescott, Ch
apter 42.4, pp 982
-

984.





24

Specifically focus on the meaning/ significance/ function/ role of the following when
reading this study section



The Laws of Liebig and Shelford



The process of co
-
metabolism



The stimulation of biodegradation by means of plants


fitoremedy (Table 42.12)



The stimulation of metalbiologing (Figure 42.19).



The significance of
Phanerochaete chrysosporium
in biodegradation (Box 42.3).



Answer Questions 1
-

5, p 984, Prescott.





Bring your answers along to the contact session where

it will be discussed.





4.3


THE SUPPLEMENT OF MI
CROO
RGANISMS TO

COMPLEX MICROBIAL EN
VIRONMENTS




You need approximately 3 hours to successfully master this study section.



After having completed this study section you should be able to explain the

different ways in which microorganisms may be added to complex microbial
communities.


This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.4, pp 984
-

986.


Specifically focus on the meaning/ significance/ function/ role of the following when
reading
this study section:



Supplement of microorganisms without protecting microhabitats as
opposed to the supplement of those in protective microhabitats.




Answer Questions 1


3 on p 986 of Prescott.



25




Bring your answers along to the contact session where
it will be
discussed.



Go back to the outcomes of the study unit and the study sections and
evaluate to what extent you have reached all of them.






CLASS TEST 2

Takes place on: ____________________________

Questions will be based on the above
-
mention
ed assignments and the
exercises done during the contact sessions.




26


BIOTECHNOLOGICAL
APPLICATIONS




You will need approximately 14 hours to successfully complete and master this
study unit.



After having competed this study unit you should be able
to demonstrate your
knowledge of different biotechnological applications of microorganisms.




This study unit is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.5, pp 986
-

990.



This study section gives an overview of the different applications for the use of
microorg
anisms in biotechnology.




5.1


BIOCENSORS



You need approximately 3 hours to successfully master this study section.




At completion of this study section you should e able to give an overview of different
biocensors. You should also be able to dem
onstrate your knowledge of biocensors
with the aid of examples.




27

This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.5, pp 986
-

987.



Specifically focus on the meaning/ significance/ function/ role of the following
when reading this study section



Pote
ntial biomedical, industrial and environmental applications (Table
42.13).



Biocensory design (Figure 42.20)



Streptavidin
-
Biotyn binding systems (Box 42.4).



Answer Questions 1


3 on page 988 of Prescott.




Bring the answers along to the contact sessio
n where it will be discussed.









MICROARRAY TECHNOLOG
Y





You need approximately 3 hours to successfully master this study section.



At the end of this study section you should be able to explain what ‘microarray’
t散e湯logy 慮搠桯d it i猠慰灬i敤

i渠扩潴散桮ol潧y.



T桩猠獴畤y 獥sti潮 i猠扡s敤 潮 mr敳捯tt, C桡灴pr 㐲.㔬 灰 㤸6
-

㤸㠮




Use Figure 42.21 (Prescott, p 988) to explain how ‘microarray’ systems are
being used for the monitoring of the expression of DNS genes.



28



Bring this answer al
ong to the contact session where it will be discussed.





5.3

BIOPESTICIDES




You need approximately 8 hours to successfully master this study section.




At the end of this study section you should be able to discuss the use of different
groups of mi
croorganisms (i.e. viruses, bacteria and fungi) for the control of insect
pests.




This study section is based on Prescott, Chapter 42.5, pp 988
-

990.



Specifically focus on the meaning/ significance/ background of the following when
reading this s
tudy section:



The use of bacteria, viruses and fungi as bioinsecticides (Table 42.14)



The functioning of the BT toxin (Figure 42.22)




Answer Questions 1
-

4 on page 990 of Prescott.




Bring your answers along to the contact session where they will be

discussed.





Read the summary of Chapter 42 on pp990
-

991 and determine whether you
are able to answer the overview questions on pp 991
-

992.





29



ASSIGNMENT 2


The assignment will be in the format of a poster and will be explained by the
lecturer du
ring the contact session.


DATE OF SUBMISSION
:

__
______________





EXAMINATION


Takes place on ___________________________

Room: _________________


Questions will be based on ALL the tasks, exercises and assignments of
Study Units 1


5.