Principles of Chemical Engineering

zapuruguayanBiotechnology

Dec 9, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Program
Studi

Teknik

Kimia

FTI
-

ITB


Paradigm is a constellation that defines a
profession and an intellectual discipline


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0.

Pre
-
paradigm
-

engineers with no formal
education


1. The first paradigm
-

Unit Operations
, 1923

2. The second paradigm
-

Transport Phenomena
, 1960

3. The third paradigm
-

?

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Fire (300,000 BC) as the first chemical technology


Led to
pyro
-
technologies: cooking, pottery, metallurgy,
glass, reaction engineering



Chemical technology as
empirical art
, with no
reliable scientific foundation or formally educated
engineers.


Ecole

des
Ponts

et
Chausee
, 1736
, first modern
engineering school.

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Arthur D. Little, industrialist and chair of
visiting committee of chemical engineering
at MIT, wrote report in 1908


Unit Operations
should be the foundation of
chemical engineering”



First textbook Walker
-
Lewis
-
McAdams

Principles of Chemical Engineering
” 1923

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Became


core of chemical engineering
curriculum:
unit
operations
,
stoichiometry
,
thermodynamics


principle to organize useful knowledge


inspiration for research to fill in the gaps in
knowledge



Effective in problem solving


graduates have a toolbox to solve processing
problems in oil distillation, petrochemical, new
polymers

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The

"unit

operations"

concept

had

been

latent

in

the

chemical

engineering

profession

ever

since

George

Davis

had

organized

his

original

12

lectures

around

the

topic
.



But,

it

was

Arthur

Little

who

first

recognized

the

potential

of

using

“Unit

Operations"

to

separate

chemical

engineering

from

other

professions



While

mechanical

engineers

focused

on

machinery
,

and

industrial

chemists

concerned

themselves

with

products
,

and

applied

chemists

studied

individual

reactions
,

no

one,

before

chemical

engineers,

had

concentrated

upon

the

underlying

processes

common

to

all

chemical

products,

reactions,

and

machinery
.



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In transforming matter
from inexpensive raw
materials to highly
desired products,
chemical engineers
became very familiar
with the
physical and
chemical operations

necessary in this
metamorphosis.

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Vacuum Dryer

Rotary Dryer

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Crystallization tank

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Fluid Catalytic Cracking

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World War II creation of new technologies by
scientists
without engineering education
: atomic
bomb, radar.



Engineering students
needed to master new
concepts and tools

in chemistry and physics.



Unit
Operations
no longer
created streams of
exciting new research problems that were
challenging to professors and students, and useful
in industry.

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First textbook “
Transport Phenomena
” by Bird
-
Stewart
-
Lightfoot, 1960, based on kinetic theory of
gases


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Textbook by
Amundson


Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering
”, (1966
).



A new burst of creative research
activities.



American
chemical industry
dominated world, DuPont and
Exxon content to recruit
academically educated graduates,
willing to teach them technology.

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The
Engineering Science movement
became
dominant in the US, and was taught at all
the leading universities
.



AIChE

accreditation requires differential
equations, transport phenomena
.



Research
funding agencies and journals turn
their backs on
empirical and qualitative
research as
“old fashioned”.

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Phasing out of formerly successful products: tetra
-
ethyl
lead, DDT, cellophane,
freon

or CFC.


End of the parade of new polymers: celluloid,
bakelite
,
nylon,
kevlar
.


To attract the best students, the lure of new products to
enhance lives
-

laptop computers, cellular phone and
internet.


Cost
-
cutting and environmental protection is no match for
glamorous new products.


We need to give chemical engineers the intellectual
toolbox, to
innovate exciting new products
that people will
learn to love.

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Product engineering is innovation and design of
useful products
that people
want.



Core of creative engineering
:

1.
Define
a product, study the customers & needs

2.
Understand
property
-
structure

3.
Design
and innovate the product

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Production of Synthetic Ammonia and Fertilizers,


Production of petrochemicals,


Commercial
-
scale production of antibiotics
(biotechnology/ pharmaceuticals),


Establishment of the plastics industry,


Establishment of the synthetic fiber industry,


Establishment of the synthetic rubber industry,


Electrolytic production of Aluminum,


Energy production and the development of new sources of
energy
,

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Production of fissionable isotopes,


Production of IT products (storage devices,
microelectronics, ultraclean environment),


Artificial organs and biomedical devices,


Food processing,


Process Simulation tools,


Environmental control,


Membrane technology,


New material based on
nano

technology.


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