Design Your Own Genes- Poster Presentation - fall2011bsc307

zapuruguayanBiotechnology

Dec 9, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Design Your Own
Genes

A Unit on Genetic Engineering

Parameters


Grades: 9
-
12


AP Biology; Biotechnology Class, Biology 2


Can use the full lesson plan


Honors Biology


Can use full plan, but slightly simplified


Regular Biology


A simplified version of this plan will be needed


Time Needed


10
-
12 days

Objectives


To
review genetic principles, including DNA, DNA replication, Genetic
Inheritance (Knowledge Level
-
review)


To have students know what biotechnology is. (Knowing Level)


To have students know that genetic engineering is a branch of biotechnology,
and what genetic engineering is, and its history. (Knowing Level)


To have students understand how genetic engineering is done.
(Knowledge/Understanding level)


To have students know how genetic engineering is used in real world
applications. (Knowledge/Understanding level)


To have students compare the difference between natural selection, artificial
selection, and genetic engineering (Understanding Level)


To have students apply the knowledge that they have learned about genetic
engineering to create their own genetically modified organism. (Application
Level)


After watching the video, “The Future of Food” students should be able to
discuss the pros and cons of genetic engineering in agriculture, and its
implications affect the world around them. (Analyze/Evaluation Level)


Students should be able to write an essay about their opinion of genetic
modification as it applies to agriculture. (Analyze/Evaluation Level)


Standards


Illinois State Learning Standards:


Standards:12A
-

Stage G3; Stage J2;Stage J3;Stage J5. 12B
-

Stage I1.



Goals: 13
-
B: 4d, 5d 4e, 5e


Time Line


Day 1


Consists
of reviewing what we had learned about in the DNA and Genetics
units. The information covered during the review would be relevant to the
information needed for Genetic engineering.


A
review worksheet would be done in class. (Obj. 1)


Day 2



we would introduce the topic of genetic engineering by


defining
what biotechnology is,


how
genetic engineering falls under biotechnology and its definition,


how
genetic engineering is done (literally and through a comparison model),
and how it applies to real world applications.


This
may take more than one day to accomplish, so an extra day would be
added just in case
.



Students would take notes in class and have a homework assignment
where they
would



compare the differences between natural selection, artificial selection, and
genetic
engineering


as
well as questions about what they had learned that day
.



(
Obj

2
-
6).



Day 3 would be an extra day for notes if needed, if it is not, we would skip
ahead to Day 4.


Day 4 would start the beginning of a 1
-
2 day in class activity.


groups
of 2
-
4
students will be given
an envelope containing the “Design Your Own Genes”
Activity worksheet, and certain materials.


In
each envelope, they would be given a certain organism (corn, tomato, etc) that they
would have to modify, and what parameters (need to make it cold resistant, etc).


Each group would have a booklet of all the genetic material available with a description of
what they did
.



The booklet would also have what bacteria/yeasts are available to use as “factories”.


They
would then have to obtain the materials from the designated folders/bins, and
attach the new DNA segment to the old DNA strand.


After
they make the DNA Strand, they would have to demonstrate putting it in the
bacteria/yeast for replication, and then eventually
into
the cell of their organism.


This activity would be done with the worksheet.


Students would have to create a poster about their genetically modified organism and
what they did, which they would have to present to the class. (Obj. 7)



Day
5



would be an extra day for the activity if needed or an extra day to work on the poster.


Day 6


would
be a presentation day for their projects
.


Day 7


Watch
the video, “The Future of Food” with a guided worksheet.


This
would take 2
-
3 days depending on class period length
.



The entire video is needed to express what needs to be learned.


Day 10/11
:



A full day of discussion about the video.


First
we would separate students into groups to discuss on their own, and discuss the
video and the pros and cons of genetic engineering and its implication on agriculture.


Then
a full classroom discussion with students
.



Their assignment would be to write a 2 page minimum essay on their opinions on genetic
engineering in regards to agriculture based on what they had learned the past two weeks.



Rationale


By
doing a full unit that covers almost all of blooms taxonomy
is so students what biotechnology is, how it is done, and how
it impacts their world. This will help them be able to make an
informed decision on an controversial issue. It will also help
them learn the process system.


Lets Review


What is Biotechnology


In its purest form, the term "biotechnology" refers to the use
of living organisms or their products to modify human health
and the human environment
.


Biotechnology in one form or another has flourished since
prehistoric times.


When
the first human beings realized that they could plant their
own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use
biotechnology


The discovery that
fruit
juices fermented into wine, or that milk
could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be
made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of
biotechnology


When the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy
bread rather than a firm, thin
cracker, with the use of yeast,
they
were acting as fledgling biotechnologists.


The first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could
be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals,
engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.


Using the techniques of gene splicing and recombinant DNA
technology, we can now actually combine the genetic elements of
two or more living cells.


Functioning
lengths of DNA can be taken from one organism and placed
into the cells of another organism.


As
a result, for example, we can cause bacterial cells to produce human
molecules.


Cows
can produce more milk for the same amount of feed.


And
we can synthesize therapeutic molecules that have never before
existed.

Biotechnology Overview


Biotechnology seems to be leading a sudden new biological
revolution.


It
has brought us to the brink of a world of "engineered" products that
are based in the natural world rather than on chemical and industrial
processes.


Biotechnology has been described as being Two
-
sided.


On
one side, biotechnology techniques lets
DNA to be manipulated to
transfer
genes from one organism to
another


On the
other side, biotechnology
involves
fairly
new technologies
whose
consequences
are
unproven
and should be met with
caution.


There is a common misconception that biotechnology only refers to
DNA and genetic engineering.


It has been
emphasized
that the
techniques of DNA science as the
"end
-
and
-
all" of biotechnology.


This is not true, Humans have been manipulating life for millennia.


Where did Biotechnology
Begin?


Certain practices that we would now classify as
applications of biotechnology have been in use since
man's earliest days.


Nearly 10,000
years
ago


Our
ancestors were producing wine, beer, and bread by using
fermentation, a natural process in which the biological activity of
one
-
celled organisms plays a critical role
.


Discovery of the fermentation process allowed early peoples to
produce foods by allowing live organisms to act on other ingredients.


Our
ancestors also found that, by manipulating the conditions under
which the fermentation took place, they could improve both the
quality and the yield of the ingredients themselves.



Crop
Improvement


When early man went through the crucial transition from nomadic hunter
to settled farmer, cultivated crops became vital for survival.


These
primitive farmers, although ignorant of the natural principles at
work, found that they could increase the yield and improve the taste of
crops by selecting seeds from particularly desirable plants.


Farmers long ago noted that they could improve each succeeding year's
harvest by using seed from only the best plants of the current crop.


Plants
that, for example, gave the highest yield, stayed the healthiest during
periods of drought or disease, or were easiest to harvest tended to produce
future generations with these same characteristics.


Through
several years of careful seed selection, farmers could maintain and
strengthen such desirable traits.



The possibilities for improving plants expanded as a result of
Gregor

Mendel's investigations in the mid
-
1860s of hereditary traits in peas.


Once
the genetic basis of heredity was understood, the benefits of cross
-
breeding, or hybridization, became apparent: plants with different desirable
traits could be used to cultivate a later generation that combined these
characteristics
.


An understanding of the scientific principles behind
fermentation and crop improvement practices has come only
in the last hundred years
.



But the early, crude techniques, even without the benefit of
sophisticated laboratories and automated equipment, were a true
practice of biotechnology guiding natural processes to improve man's
physical and economic well
-
being.


Harnessing Microbes for
Health


the distinguished German
scientist who invented the
Buchner
Funnel made
the vital discovery (in 1897) that enzymes extracted
from yeast are effective in converting sugar into alcohol.


Major
outbreaks of disease in overcrowded industrial cities led
eventually to the introduction, in the early years of the present
century, of large
-
scale sewage purification systems based on
microbial activity.


By
this time it had proved possible to generate certain key industrial
chemicals (glycerol, acetone, and
butanol
) using bacteria.


Another major beneficial legacy of early 20th century biotechnology
was the discovery by Alexander Fleming


(in
1928
) Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin
, an antibiotic
derived from the mold
Penicillium.Mass

production
of penicillin was
achieved in the 1940s.


However
, the revolution in understanding the chemical basis of cell
function that stemmed from the post
-
war emergence of molecular
biology was still to come.


It
was this exciting phase of bioscience that led to the recent
explosive development of biotechnology.


Biotechnology in the 20
th

Century


Biotechnology at the beginning of
the20th century
began to
bring industry and agriculture together.


During
World War I, fermentation processes

that were
developed

produced acetone from starch and paint solvents for the rapidly
growing automobile industry.


Work
in the 1930s was geared toward using surplus agricultural
products to supply industry instead of imports or petrochemicals.


The
advent of World War II brought the manufacture of penicillin
.



The biotechnical focus moved to pharmaceuticals
.



The "cold war" years were dominated by work with
microorganisms


This was in
preparation for biological warfare, as well as antibiotics
and fermentation processes
.



Biotechnology in Modern Times


Biotechnology is currently being used in many areas


DNA
fingerprinting is becoming a common practice in forensics.


Similar
techniques were used recently to identify the bones of the last
Czar of Russia and several members of his family.


Production
of insulin and other medicines is accomplished through
cloning of vectors that now carry the chosen gene.


Immunoassays
are used not only in medicine for drug level and
pregnancy testing, but also by


farmers
to aid in detection of unsafe levels of pesticides, herbicides, and
toxins on crops and in animal products.


These
assays also provide rapid field tests for industrial chemicals in
ground water, sediment, and soil.


In
agriculture, genetic engineering is being used to produce plants
that are resistant to insects, weeds, and plant diseases.



New biotechnological techniques have permitted scientists to
manipulate desired traits.


Prior
to the
development
of the methods of recombinant DNA,
scientists were limited to the techniques of their time


Today's
biotechnology has its
origins in all three major areas of
science


The eruption
in
new techniques
has
lead to
three
branches
of
biotechnology:


genetic engineering


diagnostic techniques


Cell & tissue
techniques
.


In this class, we are going to be focusing on genetic
engineering.

Genetic Engineering


Genetic
engineering is a process in which recombinant DNA
technology
is used to introduce desirable traits into
organisms.


A
genetically engineered
animal
is one that contains a
recombinant DNA
construct
producing a new trait.


While
conventional breeding methods have long been used to
produce more desirable traits in animals, genetic engineering
is a much more targeted and powerful method of introducing
desirable traits into animals.

Genetic Engineering At a Glance


http://
youtu.be/AEINuCL
-
5wc



Example:



You have a Blue Sweater.








But you want a red sweater




So How do we get it? Lets use the Idea of Genetic engineering to
Solve this.


Well Raspberries are red

So lets extract the “red gene from the raspberry.


First we break up the raspberries, to break up the cells










Then we filter the raspberry puree to get only the parts we
want.



Now we got the red color, but if you pour it right on to the
blue sweater








You Ruin It, as it does not dye it correctly


If you pour it directly onto the sewing machine that makes the
sweater….


It would stop working

So……How do we get it so we can make the sweater?


We need to find something that will help us get to for a
sweater.



How Can we do that?



Well, sweaters are usually made up of woven together wool
yarn.


So….Where can we find wool?


Well Sheep produce wool


So… we prepare the wool and turn it into yarn.


Once we have a lot of red wool yarn spools produced….

We can now put it into the Sweater sewing machine to make the

new sweaters in the red color


And now we have sweaters in red using the same machine
that made the blue sweaters


Design Your Own Genes Activity

Working in a group, you will create your own genetically
modified organism.


Get into groups of 4


Your group will be handed a card with an company name and
group number. You will also be given your student worksheet


You are to go find a packet at station 1 that matches your
company name and group number


Send only one member to obtain that packet


Your company packet will have information on what organism
and problem you will be working on.


Fill out the questions on the Student worksheet




Design Your Own Genes
-

Poster Presentation




You will have to design a poster to present the information
about your newly created Genetically Modified Organism.


The Poster Must Include:


The company you worked for


What your organism was


What you needed to modify


Some previous knowledge about the problem


Where did you obtain your desired gene


Where the gene was located with your organism


Extraction process


What helper organism you used.


An model of your created gene within the cell (using the cell you made
during the activity
.

The Presentation Must:



Cover
all the information above; as well as:



What
will the new gene do for your organism.



The
process that you used.


Everyone
Must speak



You will be graded on your information presented on the
poster and in your presentation. Each member of your
group will receive a group and individual grade.

References


http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/Cells/cell93.gif&imgrefurl=http://library.thinkquest.o
rg/
3564
/gallery.html&h=475&w=437&sz=182&tbnid=4sm2mz6vipbhaM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=83&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcorn%2Bcell%26tbm%3Di
sch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=corn+cell&docid=876kquX_8atCQM&sa=X&ei=79JvTpaCCe__
sQKOuI2_CQ&ved=0CDgQ9QEwBA


Genetic
Engineering Animation
. Dir.
Tfbooker
.
YouTube
-

Broadcast Yourself.

Atlas Foundation. Web. 12 Sept. 2011.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AEINuCL
-
5wc>.


"Genetic Engineering."
U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page
. Web. 12 Sept. 2011.
<http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/GeneticEngineering/default.htm>.


"[GTPS]
Ochrobactrum

Anthropi

ATCC 49188 Chromosome 1 Genome Viewer."
Gene Trek in Prokaryote Space (GTPS)
. Web. 12 Sept.
2011. <http://gtps.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/single/index.php?spid=Oant_ATCC49188>.


"Overview and Brief History."
Access Excellence @ the National Health Museum
. Web. 12 Sept. 2011.
<http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Overview_and_Brief_History.php>.


"The Story of Corn
-

Quick Facts."
Welcome to the
CampSilos

Home Page
. Web. 12 Sept. 2011.
<http://www.campsilos.org/mod3/students/index.shtml>.


Topography of the Chromosome Set
-

An Introduction to Genetic Analysis
-

NCBI Bookshelf
. Digital image. Web. 12 Sept. 2011.
<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22050/figure/A523/?report=objectonly>.