8. Polysaccharides.pptx - imtech

zapuruguayanBiotechnology

Dec 9, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Polysaccharides


Biopolymers (
polyhydroxyalkanoates
)


POLYSACCHARIDES

Microbial

polysaccharides

are

used

for

food,

pharmaceutical,

and

medical

applications
:

this

wide

range

of

usefulness

derives

from

the

great

diversity

in

structural

and

functional

properties
.


Applications

of

commercially

available

microbial

polysaccharides

including

xanthan,

xylinan
,

gellan
,

curdlan
,

pullulan
,

dextran,

scleroglucan
,

schizophyllan
,

and

cyanobacterial

polysaccharides


The

commercial

value

of

polysaccharides

is

based

on

its

ability

to

modify

the

flow

characteristics

of

solutions

(Rheology)
.

They

can

incr

viscosity

and

hence

used

as

thickening

and

gelling

agents
.


Polysaccharides

made

by

microrganisms

are

secreted

from

the

cell

to

form

a

layer

over

the

surface

of

the

organism,

often

of

substantial

depth

in

comparison

with

the

cell

dimensions

(Figure

1
)
.



Because

of

their

position

they

are

characterized

as

exopolysaccharides
,

to

distinguish

them

from

any

polysaccharides

that

might

be

found

within

the

cell
.



The

functions

are

thought

to

be

mainly

protective,

either

as

a

general

physical

barrier

preventing

access

of

harmful

substances,

or

more

specific

as

a

way

of

binding

and

neutralizing

bacteriophage
.

In

appropriate

environments

they

may

prevent

dehydration
.

Exocellular

or ‘capsular’ polysaccharide layer
(labeled P) from
Streptococcus
pneumoniae


Prevent

phagocytosis

by

other

micro
-

organisms

or

the

cells

of

the

immune

system
.

The

capsular

polysaccharides

(CPSs)

are

often

highly

immunogenic
,

and

may

have

evolved

their

unusual

diversity

as

a

way

of

avoiding

antibody

responses
:

advantage

of

this

feature

can

be

taken

in

the

development

of

vaccines
.



adhesion

and

penetration

of

the

host
;

Plant

lectins

(glycoproteins)

that

have

specific

binding

properties

with

respect

to

carbohydrate

structures
;

general

defense

of

plants

against

bacterial

infection
.



Polysaccharides

can

be

involved

in

pathogenicity
.

Pseudomonas

aeruginosa
,

commonly

found

in

respiratory

tract

infections,

produces

alginate

which

contributes

to

blockage

in

the

respiratory

tract



polysaccharide

biotechnology
:

xanthan,

priced

at

about

US
$
14

per

kg,

used

mainly

in

food

applications,

to

cyclic

dextrans
,

valued

at

about

US
$
50
perkg

and

used

in

high
-
value

applications

in

research

and

pharmaceuticals



Certain

microbes

are

known

to

produce

nearly

all

the

major

plant

polysaccharides

such

as

glucans
,

alginate
-
like

materials,

and

even

cellulose



as

well

as

the

complex

bacteria
-
specific

materials
.


Production

Batch culture

Excess of carbon supply

Carbon/nitrogen ratio of 10:1

When acidic PS limited polysaccharides are synthesized

90% oxygen saturation

Biosynthesis

Starting

with

glucose

or

appropriate

sugar

and

several

enzymatic

reactions,


Recovery

Marked increase in viscosity of culture broth

Can be precipitated by salts, acids or organic solvents

Microbial PS






Plant PS

Cheap

Uncontrolled

Occurs for a short duration

20 PS of commercial
adv

and value

Dependent of rheological property

Only

microbial

polysaccharide

currently

produced

on

a

Large

scale
:

XANTHAN

XANTHAN
:
polysaccharide polymer
produced by
Xanthomonas

campestris

Long

chain

polysaccharide

composed

of

the

sugars

glucose,

mannose,

and

glucuronic

acid
.

The

backbone

is

similar

to

cellulose,

with

added

sidechains

of

trisaccharides

(
3

sugars

in

a

chain)

Gram

negative

bacteria,

plant

pathogen

causes

black

rot

in

Brassica

(cauliflower

and

broccoli)

produces

a

slimy

gel

that

protects

bacteria

from

viruses

and

prevents

it

from

drying

out
.

Has

very

high

viscosity

and

is

stable

at

extreme

physical

and

chemical

environments,

shows

physical

and

chemical

properties

like

plastic,

used

in

many

ways
:

eg
.

oil

drilling

Production: 20,000 tonnes per year

Pentasaccharide
:

Glu
-
man
-
glcA
-
Ac
-
Pyr

Branched

polymer

with

b
-
1
,
4

linked

glucan

(glucose

polymer)

backbone

bound

to

trisaccharide

(Man,

GlcA
,

Man)
.

Man

has

Acetate

or

Pyruvate

groups

(number

is

variable

dependent

on

bacterial

strain)

Viscosity

is

denpendent

on

contents

of

pyruvate

and

acetate

E415

B
-
glc

(1
-
4)
-
B
-
Glc

(1
-
4)

1
-
3

b
-
Man
-
(1,4)
-
b
-
GlcA
-

(1
-
2)
-
a
-
Man
-
6
-
O
-
Ac

Trisaccharide

chain

Glucan

backbone

Pyr

4

6

Commercial production of Xanthan Gum

X. Campestris

should be grown on a cheap and abundant source of carbon

Wild type can use glucose, sucrose and starch but not lactose

Whey is a waste product of cheese making industry used as filler in several foods



95% water, 3.5
-
4% lactose and small amounts of proteins, minerals LMW organic cpds

Due to lactose intolerance alternatives are required

Disposal of whey in rivers can lead to depletion of dissolved O2

Transporation of whey to landfill sites is exceptionally expensive

Groundwater leaching and contamination a concern

Only advantage is that it can be used as a carbon source for growing industrial MO


Genetic engineering of
X. campestris

to grow on WHEY

E
.
coli

lacZY

(b
-
galactosidase

and

lac

permease)cloned

to

broad

host

range

plasmid

under

transcriptional

control

of

X
.

campestris

bacteriphase

promoter
.

Introduced

in

E
.
coli

and

transformed

to

X
.

campestris

by

tripartite

mating


Transformants

wgich

maintained

the

plasmid

expresses

lacZY

and

used

lactose

as

sole

carbon,

produced

hih

levels

of

xanthan

gum

with

glucose,

lactose

or

whey

as

carbon

source
.


Compared

to

wild

type

which

produced

xanthan

only

when

grown

on

glucose

Helped

to

convert

a

nuisance

waste

product

into

a

substrate

for

production

of

economically

valuable

bopolymer
.

DEXTRANS

They are
glucans

(polymers of glucose)

A(1
-
6) linkages some have a
-
1,2 and a1,3, and 1,4

MW is 15,000
-
500,000

Applications
: Blood plasma expanders for prevention of thrombosis





Wound healing and dressing





purification of biomolecules

Production

Microorganisms

like

Leuconostoc

mesentroides

They

are

produced

by

extracellular

enzymes

like

dextransucrase

which

act

on

sucrose

and

bring

polymerization

of

glucose

residues

and

liberates

free

fructose

in

medium


Batch

fermentation

Multi
-
celled
Algae (
divided into several groups across
classification)



Have a similar function as plants do on land



Photosynthesize, base of food chain, provide habitat for
other organisms



Most live attached to rocks



Structures are different from plants

Division

(Phylum)
Chlorophyta

Green
algae

Division (Phylum)
Rhodophyta

Red

Algae

Division (
Phylum
)
Phaeophyta

Brown
algae

Algae
Structures

Photosynthesis, takes up water and
nutrients


Buoyancy
: air filled, allows algae to
float in water








Photosynthesis
, takes up water and
nutrients

Attaches algae to rock, doesn’t
grow into rock, only for attachment


Seaweed

and

marine

algae

have

been

valued

for

centuries

in

Asia

and

the

Pacific

Islands

for

their

nutritional

and

healing

properties

as

they

are

packed

with

potassium,

vitamins

A,

B,

C,

D,

and

E
.



They

are

very

high

in

iodine

content

and

are

used

to

treat

some

thyroid

conditions
.



A

brown

seaweed

(
kelp
),

is

found

to

have

antibacterial

and

antiviral

properties

and

has

been

extensively

used

in

clinical

trials

to

lower

blood

pressure

in

heart

patients
.

Several

marine

seaweeds

and

submerged

vegetation

in

seawater

are

reported

to

have

antagonistic

activity

and

have

been

found

effective

against

various

viruses
.



Polysaccacharides

from

marine

environment


Purple

layer

contains

a

sulphated

polysaccharide

called

Porphyran
,

which

is

a

complex

galactan,

and

has

shown

higher

gelling

capacity

reported

to

inhibit

the

growth

of

Sarcoma

180

tumors

in

mice
.

A

substance

named

porphyosin

isolated

from

Porphyra

exhibited

anti

ulcer

activity
.


red alga
Porphyra umbilicalis

4
-
linked 6
-
O
-
sulfo
-
α
-
L
-
galactopyranose residue

(the biological precursor of the 3,6
-
anhydro
residue (agarose)

3
-
linked 6
-
O
-
methyl
-
β
-
D
-
galactopyranose residue

Agar

polysaccharides

are

effective

against

poliovirus,

herpes

simplex,

dengue

viruses,

etc
.


Agar
: well known gelling agent.
Gelidium

spp.
Gracilaria

(Red seaweeds (Rhodophyceae)

Agarose

Agaropectin

(1 4)
-
3,6
-
anhydro
-
α
-
L
-
galactopyranosyl
-
(1 3)
-
β
-
D
-
galactopyranan

Agarose

is

purified

form

of

agar
.

Both

have

variety

of

uses

in

biochemistry,

molecular

biology,

microbiology
.


Used

as

gelling

agent

for

meats,

confectionery,

icing

stabilizer

in

baked

goods

in

food

industry


Used

as

laxative

(as

it

cannot

be

metabolized)

in

medicinal

applications

Also

as

flexible

moulds

in

dentistry

and

criminology

RED ALGAE

BROWN ALGAE

Alginates
soluble in water and form gels with addition of calcium or bivalent ions

Phaeophyceae

Laminiaria
spp
.

Sargassam
spp.

Calcium ions form a link b/w G molecules

If ions removed gel will break

Alginate

gels

cannot

be

reversed

and

are

not

stable

at

low

pH
.


But

high

viscosity

and

hydration

make

them

useful

for

salad

dressings,

frozen

foods,

icings

and

film

formation
.


Textile

and

paper

industry

uses

to

thicken

inks,

coat

papers

and

reduce

staining

Enzyme immobilization

Calcium

alginates

provide

a

moist

healing

environment

by

converting

the

exudate

into

a

gel
.


A

reaction

between

the

calcium

in

the

dressing

and

the

sodium

in

the

wound

exudate

results

in

a

chemical

ion

exchange,

which

forms

a

gel
-
like

substance
.


The

gel

conforms

to

the

wound,

providing

a

soft,

moist

healing

environment
.

Due

to

it

s

dehydrating

effect,

this

dressing

should

not

be

used

with

dry

wounds
.


Also

shows

hemostatic

activity

30000 tonnes per year and supply much more than this

Sorbsan

is made from seaweed
into delicate fibers and cut into
unwoven sheets

Sorbsan

can be easily
separated and fluffed up
before placing it into a wound
bed

RED ALGAE

Rhodophyceae

Carrageenans

First in Ireland

Carrageenans

are

ideal

food

additives
:

they

have

a

range

of

gelling

and

emulsifying

properties

ranging

from

a

soft

slime

to

a

brittle

gel

that

one

could

nearly

walk

upon
.


They

also

have

a

high

reactivity

with

a

range

of

materials

including,

most

importantly,

milk

proteins,

being

widely

used

at

low

concentrations

in

dairy

products

to

prevent

fractionation

of

milk

constituents
.




In

fact,

a

major

application

is

found

in

chocolate

milk,

a

very

popular

daily

drink

in

the

USA

and

Europe,

and

now

spreading

elsewhere
.



Carrageenans

are

also

very

good

at

keeping

chocolate

in

suspension
.

Best quality from Philippines

SCLEROGLUCAN

GLUCOSE POLYMER (
glucomer
)

Neutral

polysaccharide

with

b
-
1
,
3

glucan

backbone

and

single

glucose

residue

branches

b

(
1
,
6
)

Branching

occurs

at

a

regular

sequence

at

every

3
rd

glucose

unit

in

the

polymer

backbone

chain


Scleroglucan

is

a

fungal

hexopolysaccharide

Useful

for

stabilizing

latex

paints,

printing

inks

and

drilling

muds

GELLAN

Linear
heteopolysaccharide

2glu, 1GlcA and one
rhamnose

Pseudomonas elodea

A
deacetylated

gellan

forms
fim

brittle gels : GELRITE (US company)


Used in food industry as low temperature
thickner

POLLULAN

CURDLAN

A GLUCOSE POLYMER (
a
-
glucan
) with a
-
1,4 and few a 1,6

70% of glucose is converted to
pollulan

A GLUCOSE POLYMER (
b
-
glucan
) glucose
hed

by b
-
1,3


Alcaligenes

faecalis
,
Rhizoium

trifolli
,
Agarobacterium

rhizogenes

Fungus:
Aurobasidium

pollulans

Forms strong gels
ehen

heated to 55oC, gelling agent,
immuno

modulator and immobilization of enzymes

Pectin

Pectin

is

a

long

chain

of

pectic

acid

and

pectinic

acid

molecules
.

Because

these

acids

are

sugars,

pectin

is

a

polysaccharide
.

It

is

prepared

from

citrus

peels

and

the

remains

of

apples

(pomace)

after

they

are

squeezed

for

juice
.


In

the

plant,

pectin

is

the

material

that

joins

the

plant

cells

together
.

When

fungus

enzymes

break

down

the

pectin

in

fruit,

the

fruit

gets

soft

and

mushy
.


During

ripening,

pectin

is

broken

down

by

the

enzymes

pectinase

and

pectinesterase
;

in

this

process

the

fruit

becomes

softer

as

the

cell

walls

break

down
.

α
-
(1
-
4)
-
linked D
-
galacturonic acid


Pectin

is

a

thickener

in

many

products
.

If

there

is

sufficient

sugar

in

the

mixture,

pectin

forms

a

firm

gel
.




Jams

and

jellies

are

thickened

with

pectin
.

Pectin

binds

water,

and

thus

keeps

products

from

drying

out
.

It

stabilizes

emulsions
.




Pectin

combines

with

the

calcium

and

whey

proteins

of

milk,

stabilizing

foams

and

gels

made

with

cream

or

milk
.




In

the

cigar

industry
,

pectin

is

considered

an

excellent

substitute

for

vegetable

glue

and

many

cigar

smokers

and

collectors

will

use

pectin

for

repairing

damaged

tobacco

wrapper

leaves

on

their

cigars
.



Pectin

is

also

used

in

throat

lozenges

as

a

demulcent
.

In

cosmetic

products,

pectin

acts

as

stabilizer
.

Pectin

is

also

used

in

wound

healing

preparations

and

specialty

medical

adhesives
,

such

as

colostomy

devices



Pectin

is

not

digested,

and

is

considered

a

beneficial

dietary

fiber
.


In

human

digestion,

pectin

passes

through

the

small

intestine

more

or

less

intact
.

In

the

large

intestine

and

colon,

microorganisms

degrade

pectin

and

liberate

short
-
chain

fatty

acids

that

have

positive

influence

on

health

(
prebiotic

effect
)

Uses

Ghum or Gum Materials

Natural

gums

are

polysaccharides

of

natural

origin,

capable

of

causing

a

large

viscosity

increase

in

solution,

even

at

small

concentrations
.

In

the

food

industry

they

are

used

as

thickening

agents,

gelling

agents,

emulsifiers

and

stabilisers
.

E

numbers

are

number

codes

for

food

additives

and

are

usually

found

on

food

labels

throughout

the

European

Union

1.
Agar

(E
406
),

obtained

from

seaweed


2.
Alginic

acid

(E
400
),

from

seaweed


3.
Beta
-
glucan,

from

oat

or

barley

bran


4.
Carrageenan

(E
407
),

from

seaweed


5.
Chicle

gum,

an

older

base

for

chewing

gum

obtained

from

the

chicle

tree


6.
Dammar

gum,

from

the

sap

of

Dipterocarpaceae

trees


7.
Gellan

gum

(E
418
),

produced

by

bacterial

fermentation


8.
Glucomannan

(E
425
),

from

the

konjac

plant


9.
Guar

gum

(E
412
),

from

guar

beans


10.
Gum

arabic

(E
414
),

from

the

sap

of

Acacia

trees


11.
Gum

ghatti,

from

the

sap

of

Anogeissus

trees


12.
Gum

tragacanth

(E
413
),

from

the

sap

of

Astragalus

shrubs


13.
Karaya

gum

(E
416
),

from

the

sap

of

Sterculia

trees


14.
Locust

bean

gum

(E
410
),

from

the

seeds

of

the

carob

tree


15.
Mastic

gum,

a

chewing

gum

from

ancient

Greece

obtained

from

the

mastic

tree


16.
Psyllium

seed

husks,

from

the

Plantago

plant


17.
Sodium

alginate

(E
401
),

from

seaweed


18.
Spruce

gum,

a

chewing

gum

of

American

Indians

obtained

from

spruce

trees


19.
Tara

gum

(E
417
),

from

the

seeds

of

the

tara

tree


20.
Xanthan

gum

(E
415
),

produced

by

bacterial

fermentation


Beta
-
glucan,

from

oat

or

barley

bran


polysaccharides

occurring

in

the

bran

of

cereal

grains
,

the

cell

wall

of

baker's

yeast
,

certain

types

of

fungi
,

and

many

kinds

of

mushrooms
.



The

cereal

based

beta
-
glucans

occur

most

abundantly

in

barley

and

oats

and

to

a

much

lesser

degree

in

rye

and

wheat
.



They

are

useful

in

human

nutrition

as

texturing

agents

and

as

soluble

fiber

supplements,

but

problematic

in

brewing

as

excessive

levels

make

the

wort

too

viscous
.




Yeast

derived

beta

glucans

are

notable

for

their

immunomodulatory

function
.

The

differences

between

soluble

and

insoluble

beta

glucans

are

significant

in

regards

to

application,

mode

of

action,

and

overall

biological

activity
.

Beta

1
,
3
-
D

glucans

are

being

referred

to

as

biological

response

modifiers

because

of

their

ability

to

activate

the

immune

system
.



However,

it

should

be

noted

that

the

activity

of

Beta

1
,

3
-
D

glucan

is

different

from

agents

that

stimulate

the

immune

system
.



Agents

that

stimulate

the

immune

system

can

push

the

system

to

over
-
stimulation,

and

hence

are

contraindicated

in

individuals

with

autoimmune

diseases,

allergies,

or

yeast

infections
.



Beta

1
,

3
-
D

glucans

seem

to

make

the

immune

system

work

better

without

becoming

overactive
.

They

accomplish

this

by

activating

phagocytes
,

which

are

immune

system

cells

whose

function

is

to

trap

and

destroy

foreign

substances

in

our

bodies

such

as

bacteria,

viruses,

fungi,

and

parasites
.



In

addition

to

enhancing

the

activity

of

phagocytes,

beta
-
1
,
3

glucans

also

reportedly

lower

elevated

levels

of

LDL

cholesterol,

aid

in

wound

healing,

help

prevent

infections,

enhance

NK

cell

function,

and

help

in

the

prevention

and

treatment

of

cancer

Gellan gum
:
is a water
-
soluble polysaccharide produced by
Sphingomonas elodea

Also

known

commercially

as

Phytagel™

or

Gelrite®,

is

used

primarily

as

a

gelling

agent,

alternative

to

agar,

in

microbiological

culture
.


It

is

able

to

withstand

120

°
C

heat,

making

it

especially

useful

in

culturing

thermophilic

organisms
.


One

needs

only

approximately

half

the

amount

of

gellan

gum

as

agar

to

reach

an

equivalent

gel

strength,

though

the

exact

texture

and

quality

depends

on

the

concentration

of

divalent

cations

present

Chicle gum

is the natural gum from
Manilkara chicle
,

Wrigley

Company

was

a

prominent

user

of

this

material,

today

there

are

only

a

few

companies

that

still

make

chewing

gum

from

natural

chicle
.

This

is

because

by

the

1960
s

chicle

was

replaced

by

butadiene
-
based

synthetic

rubber

which

was

cheaper

to

manufacture
.

Dammar Gum or Jhuna

used as room freshner,
control of mosquitoes and in worshiping

Glucomannan

is

mainly

a

straight
-
chain

polymer,

with

a

small

amount

of

branching
.



The

component

sugars

are

β
-
(
1

4
)
-
linked

D
-
mannose

and

D
-
glucose

in

a

ratio

of

1
.
6
:
1
.


The

degree

of

branching

is

about

8
%

through

β
-
(
1

6
)
-
glucosyl

linkages
.

Konjac

Guar

gum
,

also

called

guaran
,

is

a

galactomannan
.

It

is

primarily

the

ground

endosperm

of

guar

beans
.



The

guar

seeds

are

dehusked,

milled

and

screened

to

obtain

the

guar

gum
.


It

is

typically

produced

as

a

free

flowing,

pale,

off
-
white

colored,

coarse

to

fine

ground

powder
.

Guar

gum

retards

ice

crystal

growth

non
-
specifically

by

slowing

mass

transfer

across

the

solid/liquid

interface
.

It

shows

good

stability

during

freeze
-
thaw

cycles

Psyllium seed husks,

plantago

Isabgol

Animal Biomass: Chitin

Chitin

is

a

long
-
chain

polymer

of

a

N
-
acetylglucosamine,

a

derivative

of

glucose
.


It

is

the

main

component

of

the

cell

walls

of

fungi
,

the

exoskeletons

of

arthropods,

such

as

crustaceans

(like

the

crab,

lobster

and

shrimp)

and

the

insects,

including

ants,

beetles

and

butterflies,

the

radula

of

mollusks

and

the

beaks

of

the

cephalopods,

including

squid

and

octopuses
.



Chitin

has

also

proven

useful

for

several

medical

and

industrial

purposes
.


Chitin

is

a

biological

substance

which

may

be

compared

to

the

polysaccharide

cellulose

and

to

the

protein

keratin
.

Although

keratin

is

a

protein,

and

not

a

carbohydrate

like

chitin,

both

keratin

and

chitin

have

similar

structural

functions
.

N
-
acetylglucosamine

b
-
1,4
linkage

Chitin

is

the

second

most

abundant

polysaccharide

in

nature

(after

cellulose)
.

At

least

10

gigatons

of

chitin

are

synthesized

and

degraded

each

year

in

the

biosphere
.


Chitin

is

translucent,

pliable,

resilient

and

quite

tough
.


In

arthropods,

however,

it

is

often

modified,

becoming

embedded

in

a

hardened

proteinaceous

matrix,

which

forms

much

of

the

exoskeleton
.



In

its

pure

form

it

is

leathery,

but

when

encrusted

in

calcium

carbonate

it

becomes

much

harder

Chitin

is

one

of

many

naturally

occurring

polymers
.



Its

breakdown

may

be

catalyzed

by

enzymes

called

chitinases,

secreted

by

microorganisms

such

as

bacteria

and

fungi,

and

produced

by

some

plants
.



Some

of

these

microorganisms

have

receptors

to

simple

sugars

from

the

decomposition

of

chitin
.



If

chitin

is

detected,

they

then

produce

enzymes

to

digest

it

by

cleaving

the

glycosidic

bonds

in

order

to

convert

it

to

simple

sugars

and

ammonia
.

Chitosan

(a

more

water
-
soluble

derivative

of

chitin)
.

It

is

also

closely

related

to

cellulose

in

that

it

is

a

long

unbranched

chain

of

glucose

derivatives
.

Commercially derived from shrimps

Preparation of
chitin and chitosan

Biotechnological Uses of Chitinolytic enzymes

Chitin

has

a

broad

range

of

applications

in

biochemical,

food,

and

various

chemical

industries
.



It

has

antimicrobial,

anticholesterol

and

antitumor

activities



Chitin

and

its

related

materials

are

also

used

in

wastewater

treatment

drug,

wound

healing,

and

dietary

fiber


Industrial

(water purification, stabilizer, pharmaceuticals)

Medicinal

(surgical threads, wound healing, role in immune response to
allergic diseases)

Agricultural
(inducer of plant immune system and hence enhance defense
mech.; fertilizer

In

vertebrates,

chitinases

are

usually

part

of

the

digestive

tract
.



In

insects

and

crustaceans,

chitinases

are

associated

with

the

need

for

partial

degradation

of

old

cuticle
.



Implicated

in

plant

resistance

against

fungal

pathogens

because

of

their

inducible

nature

and

antifungal

activities

invitro

(Chitinase

in

fungi

is

thought

to

have

autolytic,

nutritional,

and

morphogenetic

roles
.


In

viruses,

chitinases

are

involved

in

pathogenesis


In

bacteria,

chitinases

play

a

role

in

nutrition

and

parasitism
.



In

addition

to

the

above

potential

applications,

chitinases

can

be

used

for

the

production

of

chitooligosaccharides,

which

have

been

found

to

function

as

antibacterial

agents,

elicitors

of

lysozyme

inducers,

and

immunoenhancers


Chitinases

can

also

be

used

in

agriculture

to

control

plant

pathogens

Chitinases