Potential innovative impact of ICT and computer science in education

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Feb 17, 2014 (2 years and 9 months ago)

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN

61, avenue du Président Wilson 94235 Cachan Cedex
-

Tel. : 33 1 47 40 20 00
-

http://www.stef.ens
-
cachan.fr

Potential innovative impact

of ICT and computer science

in education


Education for Innovation:

the Role of Arts and STEM Education

Eric BRUILLARD,

STEF, ENS Cachan


IF
É



UniverSud


OECD / France workshop

23
-
24 May 2011

2

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

End of the industrial model?

3

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Presentation of STEF

4

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

STEF: S & T curriculums

Contents choice and teaching

organizations taking into account:



Evolution of sciences and techniques


Transformation of scientific and technical practices


Links with politics, economy and culture


Computerization issues


Changes: content, instrumentation, working
conditions of teachers and students


Societal issues


curricular changes in line with societal issues

5

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

STEF
Contemporary
Sciences
Technologies
Education
Formation
formal
non formal
Society
Expertise ?
Institutions, communities,
professions
From sciences to education: complex and not direct ways


No well shaped science to simplify



No simple update of contents (more complex mapping)



Old disciplinary model from 19
e

century to be modified



Links to elaborate with professions

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Stream 1
Reconfiguration of
S & T curriculums:
prescribed and
produced curriculums
Evolution of teaching
specialities
STEF
Contemporary
Sciences
Technologies
Education
Formation
formal
non formal
Society
Expertise ?
Institutions, communities,
professions


EIST (Integrated teaching of science and technology


Learning stages and competences (paliers d’apprentissage,
socle commun)


Evolution of teaching disciplinary identities



Coordination to “make learn with several teachers”

7

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Stream 2
Educative and cultural
Implications of
technoscientific
mutations
Developmental and
environmental issues
STEF
Contemporary
Sciences
Technologies
Education
Formation
formal
non formal
Society
Expertise ?
Institutions, communities,
professions

Epistemological and sociological analysis of in
-
progress
knowledge



Socioscientific controversies


New public spaces and modalities of debate, of expertise, of
decision (national debates, citizen conferences…)


Argumentation, reasoning ways of students

8

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Stream 3
Information culture
and information
technologies :
didactical issues
Beyond machines and networks, impact on humans, activities
and organizations :



IT (computer science) as university discipline / Use of IT or
ICT technology in education / “Computerized” disciplines



Educative technology / working platforms

9

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Instrumented activities



Calculus
instruments



Communication
Instruments



Writing
instruments

Delink writing from physical support

Passage from 2D to 3D


From tabular form to graph


Large scale collective sharing


Trace of the writing process


Associate production spaces and
discussion spaces

Shared external representations

10

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Current projects
:



LIMIN’R: links between media literacy, information
literacy and digital literacy



Digital textbooks and working platforms



PREA2K30 project (
ready for 2030
) is a one
-
year action:


prospective reflection workshop supported by the French
national agency for research (ANR).


aims to identify and precise main issues for the next twenty
years concerning knowledge and key tools for learning and
teaching taking into account economical, industrial and
social dimensions.

More concretely: producing groups of scenarios helping
ANR to launch new research streams.


See
http://prea2k30.risc.cnrs.fr/

11

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

ICT in classrooms


A huge literature devoted to

the impact of ICT in classrooms


90% to be thrown out


No consistent results


See EDU’SUMMIT 2011 (Unesco)



According to many researchers

(Cuban, Collins & Halverson, etc.)


School system is robust and cannot


integrate seriously ICT


Some disruptive innovations (Christensen…)


ICT as a lever of change


Towards a new schooling model

12

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Disruptive Innovation


Increase of blended learning (presence and
distance)


According to Christensen, in 2019, 50% of all
courses (high schools) will be on line


In US, number of students having taken an online
course:


In 2000, 45000 students


In 2009, more than 3 millions

13

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Future of the school system


Towards a new system:


Schools will not very soon disappear.


Change seeds are here, eroding identification
between learning and schooling.


School has been a good answer to increasing
urbanization issues. Several elements have been
combined to create a robust and adapted system.
Can it change? Integrate technologies?



Technological developments can raise several
issues: equity, social behavior and cultural
cohesion of the society.

Allan Collins, Richard Halverson (2009).
Rethinking Education in the Age of
Technology: The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America
. New York:
Teachers College Press, 176 p.

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

ICT for education


Some up to date (
very modern
)
words:



Personalization


Interactivity


Extend education: any place, any
time with seamless devices

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011




Example



From the 19th century until now


From
electric life

to
smart life
,

what has changed?

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Albert Robida

(1892).
The 20th century, the electric life
(Wallet, 2006)

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Seoul Subway

Service not provided by
institution: Personal
objects. Advertisements,
security messages…

What about the news? (Not consulted in Robida’s picture
)

For doing what?

Learning ?

18

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

A global world newspaper?

Metro is the world’s largest international newspaper

and is recognised by the Guinness World Records. Metro International and its commercial
partners publish 68 daily editions in 22 countries around the world. Every day, Metro is read
by more than 21 million readers in over 150 major cities across Europe, North and South
America and Asia.

Pre digested information, same logo, same format, same
process. “Personalized” content?

19

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

ICT,


renewing schools?

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

A way tor by
-
pass the law

Falls 1880,
Le Charivari
journal
denounces the guiles
of the Jesuits for continuing
their teaching in schools
(forbidden by law, march
1880): hiding their identity,
going abroad with their
students

Using telephone, they could
teach from Belgium! (Wallet,
2006)

http://sticef.univ
-
lemans.fr/num/vol2006/wallet
-
03/sticef_2006_wallet_03.htm

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Private / public school

Beyond public school


Fear of parents and school pressure: going in
public school is not enough


In Korea, young students spend too much time in
private schools. Limitation at 10 p.m., uses of e
-
learning at home to bypass the law.


Creation of a Cyber Home Learning System (CHLS)
in order to reduce the gap with private courses


Hikikomori


(social withdrawal)


people staying at home or in their room, and not participating in any
social activity for more than six months, without any mental disorder as a
cause


Between 300.000 and 1 million in Japan

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Social
effects

and ICT
(Derycke, 2010)


Anyplace, anytime leads to always
connected = always reachable


Only powerful persons may disconnect
themselves


Technological continuity leads to
fragment human activities
(constrained by external events;
trigger to a lot of micro
-
activities)…

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

A story form Iceland:

foreign language learning


Immersion, from a real life to a
virtual reality concept


Spending a period of time in a
foreign country: you become fluent


Interaction continuity (connected
mode with friends and country)
using smart technology: you remain
a beginner

24

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

ICT for education


Some up to date (
very modern
)
words:


Personalization


Interactivity


Extend education: any place, any
time with seamless devices


A new or and old story?


25

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Advertisement,

Rank audio visual,

1966

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

A new context


Convergent elements:


Approaches using competences


New management:


accountability


Management with indicators

(general tendency of quantification of social
objects)


Financial crisis


Cost management


Economical view is dominating

Mechanical Vision with independent elements

27

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Towards a new school
system?


But other stories

28

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Some potential in education


Computer as a Meta
-
instrument
(Alan Kay)


Allowing experimentation in each
subject


Searching for a metaphor in English


What if? Exploring answers of a
search engine


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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Tables and internet


A table structure, links via internet…


Towards a new collective writing,
continuing Jack Goody’s ideas (1977):

“The domestication of the savage mind”

Importance of lists and tables (written vs oral
culture)


From graphical to computational
writing and ideas

From tables to graphs : collective and recording of
the writing process

30

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Digital natives / naives


Strong opposition between school
use and home use of computer
instruments


Same technology


Immature culture (immediate
satisfaction)
vs

distance and
reflection


Giving computers to teenagers
(grade 8 and 9):reserved results


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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

New trends


Communication, Facebook…


New youth culture in several years?


Geo localization


Internet of things


Digital fabrication


Cutting printers


3D printers

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Computational Thinking

Problem
-
solving process with:



Formulating problems in a way that enables us to use
a computer and other tools to help solve them.


Logically organizing and analyzing data


Representing data through abstractions such as
models and simulations


Automating solutions through algorithmic thinking (a
series of ordered steps)


Identifying, analyzing, and implementing possible
solutions with the goal of achieving the most efficient
and effective combination of steps and resources


Generalizing and transferring this problem solving
process to a wide variety of problems

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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011


Yang Zhao


Invent a job, not find a job:


Students as Global Entrepreneurs


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Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

New models


“Democratizing innovation” (Von
Hippel)


Ascending innovation (Cardon) or
bottom
-
up innovation


Not participative design


Collective writing, free encyclopaedia
as Wikipedia (Levrel)


Free software and copyleft



SPIP, Claroline…(Horn)


Communities of practice (Wenger)

35

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Teacher communities
producing resources


Internet allows


collaborative design among distant people


free and immediate access to resources


collective discussion about resources


use with students and


possible improvements after classroom use


Life cycles of educational resources

including initial design and classroom use


Sesamath, mathematical teachers


nearly 1/5 of math textbook market


Free textbooks, activities outside schools, results
for teachers… Loss of classical boundaries

36

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Higher Education:
ECP, top
level engineering school


The engineer has to master sciences, trans
disciplinarity and put science into action in a
complex world where human aspects are key
features


Towards more subjects with strong human
component (innovation, entrepreneurship,
leadership ...),

self
-
esteem, self
-
efficacy, self
-
knowledge


Which pedagogy of trans
-
disciplinarity and
complexity?


we talk about pedagogy grounded in reality
(projects, case studies ...), but what is the
reality for our students?


37

Unité Mixte de Recherche
-

Sciences Techniques Éducation Formation

É
ric Bruillard


Education for Innovation, OCDE, May 2011

Some concluding remarks


From STEM to STEAM,


theory of information: goal of education,
reducing entropy (social cohesion)


The undo button:


Useful to get confidence in computer
systems


To suppress in art (or in life) for
engagement


Sciences of explanation: not only
correlations between huge amounts of
anonymous data, supporting political
decision