IPv6: What is it? Why does it matter?

youthfulgleekingNetworking and Communications

Feb 17, 2014 (3 years and 8 months ago)

154 views

© JANET(UK) 2011

IPv6:

What is it? Why does it matter?

GOETEC Event

Thursday 16
th

February 2012

1

Martin Dunmore

Network Infrastructure Development Team
Manager, Janet

martin.dunmore@ja.net


© JANET(UK) 2011

Agenda


IPv4 Address Exhaustion and Internet Growth


What is IPv6?


Why Deploy IPv6?


IPv6 and Janet


What Now?

2

© JANET(UK) 2011

IPv4 Address Exhaustion


In February 2011, IANA distributed the final five /8s


One to each RIR.


Each RIR has a different amount of address space left


APNIC has less than a single /8


RIPE has 3.7 /8s


Different policies apply when an RIR reaches its last /8


Each ISP is only able to get one more, fixed
-
sized (i.e. not
needs
-
based) allocation


3

© JANET(UK) 2011

IP Addressing Hierarchy

Local Internet Registries (LIRs)

Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)

IANA

RIPE (Europe
& Middle
East)

JANET

Universities

Further
Education
Institutions



Other ISPs…

ARIN (North
America)

APNIC (Asia
Pacific)

AfriNIC

(Africa)

LACNIC (Latin
America)

4

© JANET(UK) 2011

IPv4 Address Exhaustion

IANA Exhaustion

03
-
Feb
-
11

Projected RIR Exhaustion

APNIC

19
-
Apr
-
2011

RIPENCC

28
-
Jul
-
2012

ARIN


21
-
Jul
-
2013

LACNIC

29
-
Jan
-
2014

AFRINIC

28
-
Oct
-
2014

5

Source
:
http
://
www
.
potaroo
.
net
/
tools
/
ipv
4
/
index
.
html
© JANET(UK) 2011

IPv4 Address Exhaustion


What about JANET IPv4
address space?


Just started allocating out of 81.87.0.0/16


Could be the last allocation we get


If there is a land
-
grab in the community, it may not last
long

6

© JANET(UK) 2011

Where are all the users coming from?

7

© JANET(UK) 2011

But compare to penetration rates

8

© JANET(UK) 2011

Internet Growth


Population


Not enough IPv4 to feed the expansion of the Internet


From here on, IPv6 deployment elsewhere in the world
will grow


Or everybody moves to massive NATs, which brings in
other problems


Problems for sites with no IPv6 deployment!


If your external services only support IPv4, then the only
devices that can communicate with you will be those with
IPv4 addresses. To a growing
proportion of the world using
pure
IPv6
devices,
you
will be
invisible
.


9

© JANET(UK) 2011

Anticipated Growth


IPv4 vs. IPv6

10

IPv
4
IPv
6
Internet
Growth
2012
© JANET(UK) 2011

Is NAT the Answer?


Carrier Grade NAT (CGN), RFC 6264


AKA Large
-
scale NAT (LSN)


NAT444


Customer private


carrier private


public Internet


Designed to aid v4
-
v6 transition, NOT to avoid v6
deployment


Lots of drawbacks


Double transition costs, not scalable, law enforcement


So…no, IPv6 is the answer


RFC 4864 may help convince
NATers


11

© JANET(UK) 2011

What is IPv6?


The new version of the Internet Protocol, Internet
Protocol version 6


The ‘legacy’ version is IPv4


IPv4 addressing contains 32 bits


4.3 billion endpoints


IPv6 addressing contains 128 bits


3.4 x 10
38

endpoints, that’s 340 ‘undecillion’


IPv4 and IPv6 are not compatible ‘on the wire’


IPv6 does not substitute IPv4

12

© JANET(UK) 2011

IPv6 Timeline

1991:ROAD

First Studies

1994: SIPP is
chosen

1995: 1st IPv6
RFC1883

1998: IPv6
RFC2460

1996:

6Bone

2003:
DHCPv6
RFC3315

2004: 1
st

MIPv6
RFC3775

2006: 6Bone
ends

1991

2012

2011: IANA
exhausts /8s

Janet IPv6
Experimental Service

IPv6 in
Janet SLA

© JANET(UK) 2011

Header Format

IPv4 Header

Fields in
red

are removed for IPv6

IPv6 Header

© JANET(UK) 2011

IPv6 Differences

15

IPv4

IPv6

Address length

32 bits

128 bits

Default prefix length

Varies,

typically /24

/64

Address configuration

DHCPv4

Stateless
Autoconfiguration

DHCPv6

Default

addresses used

Private or Global

Link
-
local

and Global

Address resolution

ARP

Neighbour

Discovery (ND)

Minimum MTU

576

1280

Fragmentation

By hosts or

routers

Only

by

hosts

Host Path MTU Discovery

Optional

Required

IPsec


Optional

‘SHOULD’

(
摲aft
-
ietf
-
㙭慮
-
湯摥
-
r敱
-
扩b
-
ㄱ )

偲楶ate

慤摲敳獩湧

剆䌠1918

啮U煵e

䱯cal⁁ 摲敳獥e (
啌䅳
)

⡮潴 f潲o畳攠睩t栠UAT)

© JANET(UK) 2011

Some Useful Things to Know


IPv6 addresses are represented by hexadecimal numbers.


Example: 2001:DB8:12FF:1231:FFB5::F9DA/64.


There is no Network Mask, only a Prefix Length.


The IPv6 the header is
always

40 bytes, any extensions are
listed as a “next header”.


In IPv6 there is no Broadcast, only Multicast.


In IPv6 there is no ARP or IGMP, ICMPv6 replaces these.


In IPv6 routers never fragment packets, only hosts do.


Path MTU Discovery is mandatory.


© JANET(UK) 2011

Transition Tools and Techniques


Dual Stack


Routers, servers, clients run both protocol versions


Tunnelling (connecting IPv6 islands)


Manual


Broker


6to4


Teredo


6rd


Translation (IPv4
-
only to IPv6
-
only)


NAT64, DNS64


TRT


Application Layer Gateway

© JANET(UK) 2011

Why Deploy IPv6?


Often quoted: There
is no ‘killer app
’ for IPv6


But how about…


Open
,
free,
sharing and learning via any
-
to
-
any
connectivity, thus encouraging
research and education
?


And…


“Internet of
things”


consumer devices, IP in everything, any
-
to
-
any connections


Vehicle based
networks


Vehicle
-
to
-
vehicle, Vehicle
-
to
-
road, Vehicle
-
to
-
Internet


Telematics



18

© JANET(UK) 2011

Why Deploy IPv6?


Business Case?


Not for revenue/income increase


Not targeted for CAPEX/OPEX reduction


But, for strategic benefits:


Continuation of service and interoperability


Support for new applications/services, future growth


Better OPEX environment once IPv6 is in place


e.g. reduced network admin costs


IPv6 is being pushed by the UK Government and
European Commission



19

© JANET(UK) 2011

Why Deploy IPv6?


Less expensive and less problematic to achieve IT
staff familiarity with IPv6 in an organic way, via timely
deployment, rather than wait until problems arise


Without IPv6 deployment and training, IPv6 related
security threats can bypass existing IPv4 mechanisms.


IPv6 is already on your network!


Lack of IPv6 deployment may result in stunted ICT
growth



Stifling learning in an environment that uses the Internet
heavily for teaching and research!


20

© JANET(UK) 2011

Janet IPv6 Deployment History


1997 Connection to the 6bone


1999 Received IPv6 prefix from RIPE NCC


2001:630::/32


2002 Participation in 6NET project


Pan
-
European IPv6 network


2003 Experimental IPv6 service enabled


2007 IPv6 introduced into the JANET Service Level
Agreement

21

© JANET(UK) 2011

Where are we now?


All the JANET backbone is dual
-
stack.


Transit


Mandatory part of the procurement


GEANT


Access to other R&E networks worldwide


Commercial
peerings


London Internet Exchange, Private
Peerings


Regional Networks


All connected dual
-
stack


Must provide IPv6 to the campus entry on
request

22

© JANET(UK) 2011

What Janet Provides


IPv6 Prefix Allocations


Default is /48, equivalent to a /8 or ‘Class A’ in IPv4


Native IPv6 national network


IPv6 routing


IPv6
nameservers


Tunnel broker service


IPv6 Training


Help and advice

23

© JANET(UK) 2011

Getting IPv6 Addresses


Same process as IPv4 … contact the JANET Registry


Via the JANET Service Desk


http://www.ja.net/services/connections/ip
-
address
-
application.html


Receive a /48 (65,536 x /64 LANs) by default


If you need more than that, you will have to tell us why!

24

© JANET(UK) 2011

JANET Services


Listed (clumsily)


http://www.ja.net/services/service
-
listing.html


Predominantly DNS, Mail, NTP


Trying to get other services


Videoconferencing would be a big one

25

© JANET(UK) 2011

Typical (pre 8/6/11) IPv6 Usage on Janet


Peak of around 30Mbit/s at a time when our overall
external traffic is about 70Gbit/s,

or 0.04%.


26

© JANET(UK) 2011

World IPv6 Day


June 8
th

2011


Major content providers published IPv6 addresses for
their services


Google, YouTube, Facebook, &c


Measure the amounts of ‘broken’ connectivity

27

© JANET(UK) 2011

Janet and World IPv6 Day


Peak of over 220Mbit/s, 0.3% of total traffic

28

© JANET(UK) 2011

Long
-
term effects?

29

© JANET(UK) 2011

What Now?


Prepare and plan


Engage with all IT
-
related disciplines in your organisation


Encourage technical staff to gain experience


Training, experimentation


Include IPv6 capability in all future ICT procurement


Example procurement text on JANET website


Enable public facing services


E.g. website


Enable internal services


30

© JANET(UK) 2011

Deployment Strategy
-

Managerial

31

© JANET(UK) 2011

Deployment Strategy
-

Technical

© JANET(UK) 2011

Janet IPv6 Training


IPv6 Fundamentals Course:


http://www.ja.net/services/training/courses/

ipv6.html



Janet IPv6 Technical Guide:


http://www.ja.net/documents/publications/

technical
-
guides/ipv6
-
tech
-
guide
-
for
-
web.pdf



Edlab Learning Objects


http://www.ja.net/services/training/edlab.html



33

© JANET(UK) 2011

Community Help and Advice


IPv6 Deployment Workshop


7th December, Loughborough University


http://www.ja.net/services/events/2011/ipv6/index.html



IPv6 users list


https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi
-
bin/webadmin?A0=ipv6
-
users



JANET IPv6 Webpage


http://www.ja.net/ipv6



Community IPv6 Website


http://www.ipv6.ac.uk/



34

© JANET(UK) 2011

Other Useful Sources


6Deploy website


http://www.6deploy.org/



RIPE Act Now website


http://www.ipv6actnow.org/



6UK Website


http://www.6uk.org/



35

© JANET(UK) 2011

World IPv6 Launch


6
th

June 2012


Builds on World IPv6 Day last year


Major ISPs and web companies to permanently enable
IPv6 for their products and services by 6
th

June


Akamai, AT&T, Comcast, Cisco, Facebook, Google,
Microsoft, Yahoo and others


Hopefully Janet connected sites will participate


E.g. enable web servers and other public facing services


See
www.worldipv6launch.org

for more info



36

© JANET(UK) 2011

Summary / Key Messages


IPv4 Addresses are running out globally


IPv6 is the future proof answer, NAT isn’t!


There are solid strategic reasons to deploy IPv6


Start deploying it


don’t ignore it!


You probably already have IPv6 on your
Network, e
.g
.
Teredo

tunnels


Useful to develop a deployment strategy


IPv6
is well supported
at
the network and O/S level (mostly)


Often more of a problem at the application
level


Plenty of information and help out there


Maybe use World IPv6 Launch as a target


E.g. enable your webservers for World IPv6 Launch

© JANET(UK) 2011

Questions?

38