Genetic Engineering

yelpdossierBiotechnology

Dec 16, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

195 views

Genetic Engineering

Key Terms


Genetic Engineering
: Human manipulation of
an organism’s genome/genetic structure.


Genome
: The overall genetic structure of an
organism


Genetically modified organism
: Living thing
which has been created using the introduction
of recombinant DNA.


Recombinant DNA
: Molecules that result from
the use of laboratory methods to synthesize
multiple genetic sources and create new DNA
sequences.


DNA, RNA, Proteins
: Building blocks of life


History of Genetic Engineering


Artificial selection: Humans have been doing this for
centuries, breeding certain plants and animals for their
desirable traits. Horse breeding is evidenced as far
back at 2500 BC.


1972


First bacteria is genetically engineered
combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the
lambda virus.


1973
-

First transgenic organism created by adding
antibiotic resistant genes to E. coli bacterium.


1974


First transgenic animal created by introducing
foreign DNA into a mouse.


1976


First company created:
Genetech


1980


Supreme Court ruled that created life can be
patented.


Uses of Genetic Engineering


Medicine


Synthetic insulin, growth hormone,
antibodies, vaccines, and other drugs


Animal models of human disease


Animal to human transplantation


Gene therapy


Research


Loss of function experiments
(“knockouts”)


Gain of function experiments


Tracking experiments


Expression experiments



Industrial


Bacteria and yeast help mass produced
insulin, HGH, vaccines, supplements, and
bio
-
fuels.


Toxic waste, carbon, and other clean
-
up



Agriculture


Genetically modified food


Herbicides, pesticides, viral and fungal
protection


Climate protection and resistance


Nutritional enhancement


Drug and vaccine additions


Growth hormones for size

The Human Genome Project


Project to identify and map the 20,000


25,000 genes of the human genome.


Began in 1990


Goal is to gain understanding of our
genetic foundations and then apply this
to improve the quality of life for
humanity.