Pemetaan Rumpun Kajian Manajerial

yawnknotManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Pemetaan

Rumpun

Kajian

Manajerial

Togar

M.
Simatupang

Sekolah

Bisnis

dan

Manajemen

Institut

Teknologi

Bandung

Dipresentasikan

pada

Seminar
Nasional


Implementasi

Triple Helix
bagi

Peningkatan

Daya

Saing

Indonesia
dalam

Perspektif

Ilmu

Administrasi
”,
Asosiasi

Ilmu

Administrasi

Bisnis

Indonesia (AIABI)

Kampus

Institut

Manajemen

Telkom

29 November 2012

Overview


Managerial Education in Indonesia


Managerial Discipline


Clustering Managerial Study


Conclusion

2

Managerial Education in Indonesia

3

Distorted Face of Management
Education in Indonesia

Faculty of Economics

Faculty of Social and
Political Science

Faculty of Psychology

Faculty of Engineering

“Management becomes
Management Economics and
Economics reduces to
Development Economics”

“Management becomes Business
Administration”

“Management becomes Human
Resources Management”

“Management becomes
Engineering Management (EM)
and Information Systems
Management (ISM)”

4

A new face of management

An independent academic discipline!

Source: http://www.cbe.wwu.edu/ceme/description.asp

5

Management

6

What is management?


Management is the act of coordinating
decision making and technical processes in a
social system including human and
institutional behavior and its relations to
external parties to accomplish desired goals
and objectives of an organization in the most
efficient and effective manner
.

7

What is Managerial Discipline?


Managerial discipline is a set of theories, models, practices, the
body and knowledge, and the social practice (experience) of
management
.


Managerial discipline is both art and science:


Managers need knowledge of managerial principles and skills to apply
managerial knowledge


Managerial knowledge must be applied in order to solve problems or
realize prospects


Managerial art is the experience and history of management in real
life situations.


Managerial science is part of social science and concerned with
development, design, improvement, evaluation, and estimation of
managerial paradigm, theory, system, and model of an organization
based on scientific approach
.

8

Managerial Discipline

Managerial
Discipline

Managerial
ART

Managerial
SCIENCE

RIGORS

RESULTS

Managers:
getting things
done

Scholars:
developing and
testing ideas

Methods

Theories

imitation,
experimentation,
and innovation

testing,
experimentation,
and invention

experience and
consulting practice

search for better
explanations

search for better
performance

Education and
research practice

9

Dewey Classification:

Class 600s (Technology)


610 Medicine

620 Engineering

630 Agriculture

640 Home Economics

650 Management

660 Chemical Engineering

670 Manufacturing

680 Manufacturing for Specific Uses

690 Buildings

10

Kajian

Manajerial


Kajian manajerial berkaitan dengan
perancangan, koordinasi, dan perbaikan
sistem organisasi dengan memanfaatkan
metode analisis dan fungsi
-
fungsi manajerial,
pengetahuan sosial, dan matematika untuk
memperkirakan dan menilai hasil
-
hasil dari
sistem organisasi tersebut.

11

Four Types of Managerial Studies

12

Duality of Managerial Responsibility (1)

Lifecycle Enterprise
System

Management
System

Management in an
organization

Value Added (better
profit) to the economy

New venture (new
enterprise) to the economy

Enterprise
Performance
Responsibility

Lifecycle
Performance
Responsibility

13

Duality of Managerial Responsibility (2)

14

TIME

PERFORMANCE

Rejuvenate?

Responsibility for
Current Performance

Responsibility for
Lifecycle Performance

You are
here!

Ideas

Start
-
up

Growth

Maturity

Decline

Divest?

Clustering Managerial Discipline


Offering a framework for generating scientific
research and its application in the area of
managerial discipline, not only to optimize the
performance of the enterprise at a given time but
also at every stage of its life cycle activities.


Identifying the types of Managerial Studies


Two underlying dimensions of Managerial Discipline


Interpreting Types of Managerial Studies

15

Two Underlying Dimensions of
Managerial Discipline


Mission orientation determines duality of mission
achievement of an enterprise either to attain
enterprise performance or lifecycle performance


Enterprise Performance


Lifecycle Performance


Managerial focus determines the degree to which
an enterprise formulating and structuring the
tasks and goals.


Externally Deliberate


Internally Regulate

16

Four Types of Managerial Studies

(
Simatupang
, 2011)


Management


Entrepreneurship


Administration


Stewardship

Regulate

Deliberate

Enterprise
Performance

Lifecycle
Performance

Mission Orientation

Managerial Focus

17

Definition


Manajemen adalah proses analitik yang melibatkan analisis lingkungan di
mana organisasi beroperasi, dinamika daya saing, penyediaan produk dan
jasa, dan perbaikan kinerja.


Administrasi adalah proses formal berisikan kegiatan membuat kebijakan
yang terukur dan efektif, pedoman dan prosedur operasi, tanggung
-
jawab
dan tindakan, mekanisme pengendalian dan evaluasi, dan governansi
dalam memenuhi tujuan atau tugas yang telah ditentukan.


Kewirausahaan adalah proses konseptual berkaitan dengan kreativitas dan
inovasi dalam merancang model bisnis untuk menciptakan nilai melalui
pengenalan peluang bisnis, penanganan risiko yang tepat, dan
keterampilan komunikasi dan mobilikasi sumber daya yang diperlukan
sehingga peluang itu terwujud menjadi suatu usaha yang mampu
menghasilkan nilai yang berjangka waktu panjang.


penatalayanan adalah proses ideologis dalam merancang berbagi nilai
-
nilai untuk menjaga keadilan sosial dan pelestarian lingkungan.

18

Types of Managerial Studies


Management:


A focus on enterprise performance
and external deliberation


Starts from an existing concept and
strategic planning


Ensures performance achievement


Provides answers and solutions to
managerial problems


Administration:


A focus on enterprise performance
and internal regulation


Dedication to apply good corporate
governance and accountability


Ensures consistency


Provides answers and solutions to
administrative problems


Entrepreneurship:


A focus on lifecycle performance
and external deliberation


Starts from a unique idea and
orientation for the future


Ensures performance adaptability


Provides answers and solutions to
developmental problems


Stewardship:


A focus on lifecycle performance
and internal regulation


Willingness and dedication to help
people and the community


Ensures sustainability


Provides answers and solutions to
sustainable problems

19

Competencies of Managerial Studies


Management


Strategic planning and optimization


Strong commitment to improve enterprise performance


Enterprise system innovation


Administration


Sense of good governance and accountability


Lives revolve around procedures and process


Procedure and knowledge innovation


Entrepreneurship


Sense and response to opportunity


Autonomy, flexibility, and creativity


Business model innovation


Stewardship


Friendship, commitment, focus on performance, high energy


Intense and determined to achieve equality and sustainability


Eco
-

and social innovation

20

Similarities and Differences

21

Similarities


Basic knowledge: math and social science (law,
ethics, economics, and sociology)


Managerial functions: POAC


Functional management: marketing,
operations, human capital, and finance

22

Management versus Administration

Management


“Management” is widely used in
Britain, Europe, and Africa, for
example, while


Managing is maintaining
efficiently and effectively current
organizational arrangements and
present operations.




Core competencies: analysis,
design, and improvement

Administration


“Administration” is preferred in
the United States, Canada, and
Australia.


Administration is the primary
function of ensuring good
governance and accountability
based on a formal framework of
authority that is carefully outlined
and precisely followed.


Core competencies: good
governance, procedures, and
knowledge management

23

Management versus Administration

Attributes

Administration

Management

Nature of work

It is concerned about the determination of objectives
and major policies of an organization

It puts into action the policies and plans laid down by
the administration

Type of function

It is a determinative function

It is an executive function

Scope

It takes major decisions of an enterprise as a whole

It takes decisions within the framework set by the
administration

Level of authority

It is a top
-
level activity

It is a middle level activity

Nature of status

It consists of owners who invest capital in and receive
profits from an enterprise

It is a group of managerial personnel who use their
specialized knowledge to fulfill the objectives of an
enterprise

Nature of usage

It is popular with government, military, educational,
and religious organizations

It is used in business enterprises

Decision making

Its decisions are influenced by public opinion,
government policies, social, and religious factors.

Its decisions are influenced by the value, opinions, and
beliefs of the managers

Main functions

Planning and organizing functions are involved in it.

Motivating and controlling functions are involved in it

Abilities

It needs administrative rather than technical abilities

It requires technical

abilities

Handles

Administration handles the business aspects such as
finance.

Management handles the employers.

Mengidentifikasi
Peluang Usaha dan
Merancang Sistem
Bisnis

Melakukan
Penelitian,
Prioritas, dan
Kelayakan Usaha

Usaha Baru

Mengembangkan
produk dan usaha
(merger, akuisisi,
dan lain
-
lain

Teori Negosiasi

Teori
Perencanaan

Perancangan
Sistem Bisnis

Mempersiapkan pasar dan
meluncurkan produk disertai
strategi bernegosiasi untuk
mendukung kelancaran usaha

Pemasaran dan
Penjualan

Analisis
R
i
siko

Pengembangan
Usaha

Teori Inovasi

Model Bisnis

Produksi dan
Distribusi

Pengembangan
Produk dan Jasa

Ilmu Pendukung (Manajemen) dan Ilmu Dasar (Sosial dan Matematika)

Menganalis
is seluruh
r
i
siko
yang
mungkin
ketika
usaha
dikembang
kan

Sumber dana dan
keuangan

Body of Knowledge Program
Studi

Kewirausahaan

Semangat
entrepreneurial

ITB:

berpikir analitis, kritis dan futuristik, berani menghadapi tantangan, berani mengambil risiko

25

Further Research

26

A Proposal of Managerial Education in
Indonesia

High School

VOCATIONAL

ACADEMIC

PROFESSIONAL

Diploma

IV

Doctor

Advanced
Certification

Master

Bachelor

Doctorate Degree

Masterate

Degree

Undergraduate
Degree

Diploma

I
-
III

27

Basic
Certification

Certification

PARAMETER
DESKRIPSI

KEMAMPUAN

DI
BIDANG KERJA

PENGETAHUAN

YANG DIKUASAI

KEMAMPUAN

MANAJERIAL

CAPAIAN PEMBELAJARAN

(learning outcomes)

D3
(level 5)

S1
(level 6)

Pro

(level 7)

S2
(level 8)

S3
(level 9)

28

Nomenclature of Academic Degree in
Managerial Education

Bachelor of Business
Administration (BBA)

Bachelor of
Management (BM)

Bachelor of
Entrepreneurship
(
B.Ent
.)

Master of
Entrepreneurship
(
M.Ent
.)

Master of
Management (MM)

Master of Science in
Management (MSM)

Master of Business
Administration
(MBA)

Doctor of
Management (Dr.)

29

Applied Master Degree

Conclusions


This presentation aims to contribute to a better understanding of
managerial discipline.


The analysis conducted reveals the underlying factors accounting
for the different classes of managerial studies: management,
administration, entrepreneurship, and stewardship.


It is suggested that management becomes an academic discipline
built around several well
-
articulated theories, all designed to
address a single set of highly related scientific questions and
managerial problems.


There similarities and differences between managerial
calasses

and
have implications to educational curriculum.


There is a need for further study to specify qualification of
managerial education to provide expected competencies.

30

Thank You

31