Knowledge Management - FVP PMP Luncheons

yawnknotManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 2 days ago)

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DB&A, 2002
-
2012



DB&A, 2002
-
2012

Knowledge Management
Within and

Across Projects

June 15, 2012

INNOVATION
for a better world



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Today’s Discussion Map

2

UNDERSTANDING KNOWLEDGE

What are classes and
types of knowledge
matter to projects?

What can you do
to help knowledge
flow to those who
need it?

PLANNING A STRATEGY

How do you make
sure that your team
has the knowledge
it needs?

How can a

Project Manager

Manage Knowledge ?

MANAGING KNOWLEDGE



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Sharing Experiences and Challenges

3

What knowledge do you need?

What knowledge

management

challenges have you faced

as a PM?

What types of knowledge

does

a project manager need?

What types of knowledge does

your

project team need?

Understanding
Knowledge



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Classes and Types of Knowledge

Three Classes of Knowledge

1.
Foundational


Includes knowledge fundamental to all Project
Management

2.
Organizational


Includes corporate databases, processes, capabilities,
and cultural norms

3.
Project Specific


Includes Knowledge that applies only to a specific
project

Two Types of knowledge

1.
Explicit



Information that is unambiguous and has been clearly
expressed or recorded

2.
Tacit


Things that are known without being openly spoken, expressed,

or recorded

4

Project knowledge falls into three classes, two types

Understanding
Knowledge



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Classes and Types of Knowledge


Different types and classes of knowledge pose different challenges and
require different management strategies


PMs are most concerned with Project
-
Specific knowledge

5

Understanding
Knowledge



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Knowledge Mgt Tools and Approaches

What tools have you used to manage
knowledge on your projects? What
approaches have you seen others use?

6

KM Toolsets



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Knowledge Management “Tools”

Many organizations have adopted products or developed
proprietary tools to help manage project knowledge

These often reside in SharePoint or portal applications and include


Content Management solutions for
storing, retrieving and/or
managing the production of documentation


Templates and processes (some automated) to support
reporting and performing standard PM
tasks


Databases of Best Practices and Guidelines


Some metadata or pointers to “who knows what”

But most of these toolsets only support half of the knowledge that a
project needs




7

Automated KM toolsets can only manage

explicit knowledge



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Tacit Knowledge is Harder to Manage

Much of the most valuable project knowledge is
tacit




It resides only in the minds of your project team


It can only be managed if it is captured and made explicit

At best, IT tools can provide metadata or pointers to
the location of that knowledge

An effective KM strategy requires understanding
the flow of knowledge across your team to ensure
that it is available when needed


8

To understanding knowledge flow among your project
you must think of your project team as a system



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

What is a System?

System Attributes


A set of components


That are organized


To interact with each other


And work together


To achieve a defined purpose





May be open or closed, and simple or complex


Have boundaries

Think of your project team as a system


What are the boundaries?


What are the components?


How do they interact?





A set of organized, interacting components

that work together to achieve a defined purpose



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Knowledge Sharing within the Project System

Your project team is a system with several components that each need
knowledge to do their job; knowledge sharing is one of the way that the
components interact

What do the components, and the system as a whole, need to know to
succeed?

Despite your best efforts, you cannot know everything


As a PM, you know things that your team does not know, such as:


“Big picture” perspectives


Client and Management plans and priorities


But your team knows things that you do not know, such as:


Tacit knowledge (skills and abilities)


Personal experiences, perspectives, and plans


10

What does your team need to know?



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Use the Known
-
Unknown Matrix

Provides
a framework for understanding
knowledge among the members of your
team

11

Do you know what you know?

Do you know what your team knows?

What don’t you or your team know?



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Conduct a Project Knowledge Audit

Define the boundaries of the relevant system

Review project tasks to identify needed knowledge

Apply the Known
-
Unknown Matrix to yourself and to all members of the
system to assess


What knowledge do YOU need as PM?


What knowledge does each team member need?


What critical knowledge is vulnerable to loss?


What unknowns may pose threats?

Consult with team members


What are their unmet knowledge needs?

Based on that audit, identify your real

and potential knowledge gaps


What knowledge do you need to develop?


What knowledge do you need to protect?


12

Define Your
Knowledge Needs



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Conduct a knowledge risk assessment

Evaluate each of the real or potential knowledge gaps

For knowledge the project needs and does not have


When and where is the knowledge needed?


Is that need on the critical path?


How can the knowledge be obtained?


How severe is the risk to the project if the knowledge is not obtained before it is
needed?

For knowledge the project has and needs to protect


When and where is the knowledge needed?


Is that need on the critical path?


How likely is the project to lose the knowledge (e.g., is it held by a single individual
and how likely is that individual to be lost to the project?)


Are there other sources to obtain the knowledge if the current source is lost?


How severe is the risk to the project if the knowledge is not available when needed?




13

Prioritize the risks based on potential impact and likelihood



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Develop a knowledge management strategy

Fully leverage any available
toolsets for managing explicit knowledge

Document
everything
practical
-

Make what you can explicit

Remain
consistent with

organizational
KM strategies and standards

Add additional strategies to develop, retain, and leverage tacit knowledge


Make the tacit explicit by documenting lessons learned and capturing processes in a
medium that encourages future retrieval and use


Encourage team members to learn from each other through increased networking and/or
“brown
-
bag lunch presentations to share knowledge


Establish task
-
sharing to encourage flow of knowledge across staff


Take steps to retain critical staff and keep them engaged


Take steps to proactively ensure that knowledge is provided where and when needed


Develop, or encourage participation in, communities of practice

Proven KM Principles include:


People learn from each other when they work socialize and work together


Redundancy and unstructured time can encourage knowledge flow and reduce
associated risks



14

What other knowledge sharing strategies

have you seen used within projects?



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Sharing knowledge across projects

Establish, or encourage participation in,
communities of practice (internal and external)

Conduct and document post
-
mortems to identify
best practices and capture lessons learned

Develop and maintain directories of who knows
what and pointers to knowledge repositories

Establish databases of good ideas and encourage
people to add to, and mine these databases

Encourage social networking strategies that
facilitate sharing, cross
-
fertilizing, and developing
ideas


15

Manage

knowledge flow



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Key Take
-
Aways

IT tools can manage explicit knowledge, but tacit knowledge
operates within an organizational system

Conduct a knowledge audit based on an objective
assessment of what is needed and what is known and
unknown

Prioritize needs and develop strategies to meet those needs

Implement initiatives to address both global and specific
project needs

Encourage social networking strategies to facilitate sharing,
cross
-
fertilizing, and developing ideas

Leverage IT to support and facilitate KM initiatives where
possible

16



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Additional Information

Knowledge Management

by Carl Frappaolo



Mastering Organizational

Knowledge Flow


How to

Make Knowledge Sharing Work

by Frank Leistner

17



DB&A
, 2002
-
2012

Contact Information

Internet


www.dbainnovation.com

Address



4000 Legato Road

Suite 1100

Fairfax, Virginia 22033

Bill Yoder, Principal


eMail: bill.yoder@dbainnovation.com


Tel: (703) 599
-
7850

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