Virtual Reality History

yardbellAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Virtual Reality History

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

First, some class stuff


Paper critique on Friday


Look on web page

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Today’s Goals


Provide some historical context.


Where did VR technology come from?


What applications drove its development?


Who are some luminaries in the field?

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History


Remarkably, VR concepts predate
computer graphics and modern VR (HMD,
tracking, etc.) arose simultaneously with
computer imagery.

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


Prehistory


Cave paintings


Some researchers believe that the
images animate when shown with
flickering torch light!


3000BC
-

Egyptians


First lenses


3000BC


Asian shadow play


~450BC


Mo Tzu


Pinhole projection onto screen


~300BC


Euclid


Writes
The Optics


200AD in China or


1515


Da Vinci


Magic lantern projector?

From http://www.precinemahistory.net

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


1671


Kircher


Magic lantern


A later
example





1674


de Chales


Successive glass slides



1830s
-
Stroboscope



1838


Wheatstone


Stereo viewer

From http://www.precinemahistory.net

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


1860s


zoetrope


1879



Zoopraxiscope


Painted images on disc


Movies


1888


first movie


1895: Skladanowsky


Bioscop


1895: Lumiere

Cinematographe


1896: Edison


Vitascope


1902


special effects



A Trip to the Moon



start 8:38

From http://www.precinemahistory.net

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


1916


Pratt


Head
-
mounted
periscope display and
gun


Augmented reality
precursor


CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


1929


Link


Mechanical flight
simulator


CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


1956


Heilig


Sensorama


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSINEBZNCks


Multimodal display of a
motorcycle ride through
Brooklyn


Sight


Sound


Smell


Vibration


1957 HMD patent


CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Early History Cont’d…


1961


Philco


Telepresence with a
HMD


Remote camera


Magnetic head tracker


Single CRT

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Birth of Modern VR


1963


Sutherland


Interactive graphics


Sketchpad


1965



Ultimate display paper


1968


A Head
-
mounted Three
-
Dimensional Display


1970


Krueger


Videoplace
-

movie


1974


Jim Clark


Ph.D. on HMD’s

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

The Next Wave


1980’s


Scott
Fisher (NASA
-
Ames)


VIEW project



movies



start 2:05



1980’s


Jaron
Lanier


“Virtual Reality”


Tom Furness


Super cockpit

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Virtual Reality

David Johnson

More displays


90s
-

Fakespace
boom


High resolution


ergonomic

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Force
-
feedback Interfaces

Haptic Display
Grope III

© Fred Brooks, University of North Carolina

The Force
-
Feedback Project, which began in 1967, first
focused on the development of a system to support
scientific visualization in the area of molecular docking,
the Docker application. This application provides graphic
(wire
-
frame) representations of molecules and their inter
-
atomic forces to allow a user to adjust the relative position
and orientation of molecules while searching for minimum
energy binding sites.

A series of systems have been developed, evolving from a
2
-
D system, through a 3
-
D system and a 6
-
D system for a
simple docking task, to a full 6
-
D molecular docking
system called GROPE
-
III. These later systems have
employed a modified Model E
-
3 Argonne Remote
Manipulator (ARM).

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Gloves


1977


Sayre


Light tube attenuation
to measure bend


1981


Grimes (Bell)


Bend, tactile sensors


1984


VPL


VPL DataGlove


1993 Utah/MIT


Dextrous Hand Master
(Hollerbach)


Dextrous Hand Master, Exos

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

CAVE displays


1992


EVL


Users in a projected
room


CAVE movie


CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

CAVE displays

CyberSphere (1998)

The scientists Eyre and Eureka in VR
-
Systems UK
have been researching a CyberSphere, a device,
which consists of a large, translucent sphere
containing the user.

The images are distortion
-
corrected and then
projected on the surface of the sphere, allowing the
user a full 360 degree field of view.

It also allows the user to move around in the world,
by walking inside the ball, which will move in
response to the users movements.


Movie

© VR
-
Systems, United Kingdom

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Companies


1984


VPL


1987


Polhemus


1989


Division


Bought tech from UNC
-
CH


1989


Mattel


Nintendo powerglove


1990


W


VR arcade

CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Current Companies


Sensics


Intersense


Raytheon


Nintendo


Track
-
IR



CS6360


Virtual Reality

David Johnson

Summary


Entertainment has often driven
“immersive” advances


The dream of a VR space has a long
history


High
-
quality elements of VR are now
consumer products