Lecture1. Introduction to Virtual Reality - KUCG :::: Korea University ...

yardbellAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Graphics


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Lecture1. Introduction

to Virtual Reality


CSE 425 Spring 2002















Department of Computer Science


Korea University


http://cgvr.korea.ac.kr/courses/cse425/


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Contents



What is VR?


Conceptual Model of VR


VR Related Areas


History


State of the Art and R&D Issues


Some Application Examples

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Computational Reality



Glove


CG Machine


HMD

:
This is not VR!


Studies on reality

-

computational reality


VR = computational reality

1) Seek for the computational model of reality

2) Apply the model to the VR system


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr



Analogous to AI


lots of hypes


AI as a science / engineering

science

-

computational model for intelligence

engineering

-

making “intelligent
-
looking” machines



The essence of science is the search for models.


Greek scholars


stars, sky (heavenly bodies)



astrology


nature (earthly bodies)




physics


human mind





philosophy

Science vs. Engineering

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VR Concept

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

What is VR? Definition
-
1



Def 1
-

Computer generated environment that is ...



Immersive, (like IMAX, dome projection)


Interactive, (like computer game)


Multi
-
sensory,


Viewer
-
centered,


3D,


and the combination of technologies required to build such
environments.

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

What is VR? Definition
-
2



Def 2
-

Physical participation in the interactive
simulation.



Virtual environment


A computational model or realization of it by VR techniques.


Cyberspace


A computer environment spanning
-

multiple computers,








-

multiple users,







-

multiple sets of data.

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VR as a computer
Technology




Ultimate computer interface : human body and its sensor





To turn the whole body into an input device


Technological trends


Powerful



Supercomputing, parallel computing


Smart



AI


Physical



VR


Primary concern


-

S/W

Other important issues

-

H/W, human factors,






social issues, infrastructure


VR computer


-

interactive, multimodal, immersive

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Interacting with computers

Computer

World

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

New Paradigm for HCI

Conventional Computer

VR
-
based Computer

Computer

World

Computer

World

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Education/

Training

Design

Engineering

Medicine

Scientific

Visualization

Entertainment

Communication

Products

Engineering

Museum

Arts

VR application

VR Application

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VR technologies

Character CRT

Graphic CRT

Virtual console

Virtual Reality


Tele
-
conference

TV phone

Telephone

Keyboard

Mouse tablet

3D mouse

Computer

simulation/

visualization

Tele
-
Existence

Tele
-
Operation

Computer

graphics

Real time

CG

Video arts

3D CAD

Computer

Aided Design

Virtual

products

design

All technologies meet together at VR !!

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VR Terminologies

Virtual Reality

Tele
-
Existence in

Real World

Tele
-
Existence in

Virtual World



Physical World




Quasi Physical World




Non Physical World



Standard


Tele
-
Existence




Augmented


Tele
-
Existence



Size



Sensation



Time


VR in Real World vs. Virtual World

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Contents


What is VR?


Conceptual Model of VR


VR Related Areas


History


State of the Art and R&D Issues


Some Application Examples


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Conceptual Model of VR



3D image


Large
-
scale display, Head Mounted Display



Sound field by DSP



Force beedback mechanism



Tactile display


Simulation

System



Computer

Display system

Sensing system



Non
-
contact type


magnetic field


supersonic wave


infrared light



Contact type


optical fiber


strain gauge


potentio
-
meter

Human

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Contents


What is VR?


Conceptual Model of VR


VR Related Areas


History


State of the Art and R&D Issues


Some Application Examples


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VR Related areas


1. Training simulation


2. Tele
-
operation


3. Computer graphics


4. Artificial intelligence

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

1. Training simulation


Example


Flight Simulation

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Training simulation


Differences



Reconfigurable by changing software


May include highly unnatural environment


Highly interactive and adaptive


Use of a wide variety of human sensing modalities
and sensori
-
motor systems


Highly immersive


Near
-
field is synthetic

Far
-
field is synthetic

1. Training simulation (cont)

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VR Related areas


1. Training simulation


2. Tele
-
operation


3. Computer graphics


4. Artificial intelligence

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

2. Tele
-
operation

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

2. Tele
-
operation (con’t)



for at least 30 years.



Tele
-
operator

-

directly (manually) controlled tele
-
operator

-

tele
-
robot



Tele
-
operation vs. Virtual reality



Tele
-
presence vs. Virtual presence

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

3. Computer graphics



Modeling



Motion control (animation)



Rendering



User interface

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

4. Artificial intelligence



Studies on perception and cognition



Tested for AI research

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Contents


What is VR?


Conceptual Model of VR


VR Related Areas


History


State of the Art and R&D Issues


Some Application Examples


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

History


1’st stage: some visionaries

-

Morton Heilig

: ExperienceTheatre(1962)

-

Ivan Surtherland

: Sketchpad(1963), HMD(1966)

-

Myron Krueger

: Artificial Reality(1972)

-

William Gibson

: “Cyberspace” in Neuromancer(1984)



2’nd stage: technology development for specific
purposes

-

training simulator

: Earlier works

-

space exploration

: NASA for astronaut simulation

-

tele
-
operation

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

History (cont)


3’rd stage: VR as the general
-
purpose technology

-

Jaron Lanier

: VPL(1987)


Dataglove, EyePhone,VR system

-

VR industry

: Division Ltd. Sense8, WorldDesign (production





house, W
-
Industry (game)

-

VR academia

: MIT, UNC, UW,Tokyo U.



Next stage: Toward a scientific discipline

-

computational reality

-

a new computing paradigm

-

a new media

-

a new art form

-

representation, creation and operation of virtual worlds

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Contents


What is VR?


Conceptual Model of VR


VR Related Areas


History


State of the Art and R&D Issues


Some Application Examples


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

State of the Art & Issues


Reference

-
Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35
-
66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995.




Areas of the study

1. application domains

2. psychological issues

3. VR technologies

4. evaluation of VR systems

State of the Art and R&D Issues

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

1. Application domains



design, manufacturing &
marketing


medicine, health care


hazardous operations


training


entertainment, military


experimental psychology


education


information visualization


Tele
-
communication, Tele
-
travel

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

2. P
sychological issues



human performance
characteristics


alteration of sensori
-
motor loops


developing the cognitive model


cognitive side
-
effect

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr



Gap between the current technology & the required technology



(exception
-

entertainment, tele
-
operation)


(1) Human
-
Computer Interface

(2) Computer Generation of VE

(3) Tele
-
robotics

(4) Network

3.
VR technologies

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

State of the Art and R&D
Issues (con’t)


1. Application Domains

2. Psycological issues

3. VR technologies


(1) HCI (Human
-
Computer Interface)


(2) Computer Generation of VE


(3) Tele
-
robotics


(4) Network

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1) Human
-
Computer Interface
(con’t)


visual channel


auditory channel


haptic channel


motion interface


position tracking


video camera


microphone


others

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Visual Channel


visual display


-
HMD (Head
-
Mounted Display)


-
OHD (Off
-
Head Display)





CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Visual Channel
(con’t)


research issues


-

ergonomics

-

improvement of resolution and
FOV (field of view)

-

wireless

-

integration of visual, auditory,
position tracking

-

sun glass
-
like

-

see
-
through option

-
exploiting FOV and peripheral
vision

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Auditory channel



Current hardware is adequate.



Research issues


perceptual issues


similar to the visual channel


use for sensory substitution (for visual, haptic)


auditory scene analysis


hear
-
through display

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Auditory channel
(con’t)


Traditional Stereo Sound

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Auditory channel
(con’t)


3D virtual Sound

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Haptic channel



Force, Pressure, Tactile
Feedback



Unique characteristics


Haptic interface requires
manipulation and sensing



Mechanism


body
-
based



glove,
exoskeleton


ground
-
based



joystick

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Haptic channel
(con’t)



Research issues

-
haptic science = study on the human
haptics (bio
-
mechanical,
psychophysical, cognitive)


-
tool
-
hand system (which takes its
metaphor from real tools)

-
creating the haptic illusion

-
the interaction effects of haptic and
vision

-
texture, temperature devices

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Haptic channel
(con’t)


Haptic channel in Tele
-
operation

Operator module

Work side module

Haptic devices

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Haptic channel
(con’t)


Interaction of haptic and vision


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Motion interface



motion


whole
-
body motion


passive

-

e.g., motion platform


active

-

e.g., locomotion


part
-
body motion


passive


active

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Motion interface (con’t)



motion cues



vestibular system


-

inertial


motor


visual


auditory


proprioceptive / kinesthetic
-

muscle


tactile

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Motion interface (con’t)



motion interface



inertial system


moves the body (e.g., treadmill,
motion platform)


non
-
inertial system


simulates motion

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Position tracking
and mapping



Tracking

= finding a point


Mapping

= finding a 3D surface





(e.g., environmental





mapping)



Tracking mechanisms


Mechanical linkage


Magnetic


Optical


Acoustic


Inertial

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Position tracking
and mapping (con’t)



eye tracking



research issues


tracking


mapping

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(1)HCI


Other types of
interfaces



olfactory (smell)



gustatory (taste)



heat, wind, humidity



speech



direct physiological sensing and control

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

State of the Art and R&D
Issues


1. Application Domains

2. Psycological issues

3. VR technologies


(1) human
-
machine interface


(2) computer generation of VE


(3) tele
-
robotics


(4) Network


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Conceptual Model of VR



3D image


Large
-
scale display, Head Mounted Display



Sound field by DSP



Force beedback mechanism



Tactile display


Simulation

System



Computer

Display system

Sensing system



Non
-
contact type


magnetic field


supersonic wave


infrared light



Contact type


optical fiber


strain gauge


potentio
-
meter

Human

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Generation of VE(cont’)



The core issue


General
-
purpose VR
system?


Trade
-
off between
realism

and
interactivity


Requirements


frame rate


response time


scene quality

(2) Computer Generation of VE

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Generation of VE(cont’)



hardware


interaction and navigation


VE management

-
simulation

-
rendering


modeling


autonomous agent


hypermedia interaction


OS


(2) Computer Generation of VE

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VE management
-

simulation



Task : simulating everyday world


Traditional simulation methods do not work.




requires pre
-
processing


Need : “meta
-
modeling”

VE management


simulation

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

VE management


Rendering



Issue : load balancing

1. partitioning VE

2. LOD


Much work has been done on static scene.


Research issues

1. dynamic scene

2. parallel rendering

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(2) Computer Generation of
VE



OS


real
-
time, multi
-
modal requirements


very high
-
resolution time slicing


atomic, transparent distribution of tasks


large number of light
-
weighted processors,
communicating by means of shared memory


support for time
-
critical computing:


negotiated, graceful degradation


guaranteed frame rate, lag time

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

State of the Art and R&D Issues


1. Application Domains

2. Psycological issues

3. VR technologies


(1) human
-
machine interface


(2) computer generation of VE


(3) tele
-
robotics


(4) Network


CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(3) Tele
-
robotics



Tele
-
robotics and VR


Hardware


Time
-
delay problem


Distributed Tele
-
robots


Operator


-

stays in a safe environment

-

guides the robot intelligently


Robot

-

works in the hazardous
environment

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

(4) Network



The future is here!



Applications


distance learning


group entertainment


distributed training


distributed design


current


future


What is needed

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr


International Efforts



U.S.A.


defense, space, visualization, medicine


U.K.


education, training, entertainment


Germany



Japan


VR as a logical extension of






robotics, automation, HDTV.

Research Organizations

CGVR


Graphics Lab @ Korea University

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Academia

HIT Lab, University of Washington

University of North Carolina

Media Lab, MIT

Georgia Institute of Technology

Naval Postgraduate School

University of Pennsylvania

University of California at Berkeley

University of Illinois
-

Chicago

Columbia University

University of Toronto