Internet Technology and Cyber Urban Planning in the Information Age

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Internet Technology and Cyber
Urban Planning in the Information
Age


International Symposium on City Planning 1999. Tainan, Taiwan

(09/19 1999)



Kyoungsoo Lim (Prof. of Sungkyul Univ)

kslim@hana.sungkyul.ac.kr


Deokho Cho (Prof. of Taegu University)

chodh@biho.taegu.ac.kr


http://biho.taegu.ac.kr/~chodh

-
The Table of Contents
-

I. Introduction


II
.

Internet

Technology

and

Information

Revolution



III
.

Information

Revolution

and

Paradigm

Shifts

in

Urban

Planning


1
.

A

New

Paradigm

in

Urban

Planning


2
.

Information

Technology

and

Changes

of

Industrial

and

Spatial

Structures




3
.

Virtual

Reality

and

Urban

Planning


IV
.

Internet

Technology

and

Collaborative

Urban

Planning



1
.

The

Application

of

Internet

Technology

in

Urban

Planing


2
.

Internet

Technology

and

the

Simulation

of

Collaborative

Urban

Planning


V
.

The

Limitations

of

New

Planning

Tools

and

Future

Urban

Planning


I. Introduction


In

the

last

two

decades

information

technology

has

been

dramatically

developed,

and

this

trend

will

continue

in

the

next

decade
.

Internet

technology

has

particularly

led

the

emergence

of

the

information

age
.

An

information

revolution

refers

not

only

to

computer

and

telecommunications

technology,

but

to

the

role

of

information

itself,

and

the

accompanying

transformations

in

the

public,

corporate,

and

personal

worlds

that

information

and

the

technology

are

bringing

about
.

The

information

technology

has

far
-
reaching

impacts

that

we

are

only

beginning

to

understand,

affecting

local

and

international

economies,

urban

spatial

structure,

travel

and

work

patterns,

and

floor

space

requirements
.

It

fundamentally

changes

the

concepts

of

time

and

space

in

the

spatial

structure,

which

called

cyberspace
.



Planners

should

understand

these

impacts

for

preparing

future

urban

planning
.

Urban

planners

must

particularly

understand

the

characteristics

of

information

revolution

and

apply

it

to

the

urban

planning
.

This

paper

first

reviews

the

characteristics

of

the

information

age

and

the

paradigm

shift

in

urban

planning
.

It

second

examines

the

relationship

between

the

information

revolution

and

urban

planning
.

Third,

it

develops

an

urban

planning

model

in

the

cyberspace

using

telecommunications

technology
.

Finally,

it

suggests

some

directions

on

urban

planning

in

the

information

age
.


II. Internet Technology and Information Revolution



Telecommuting

and

telecommunications

are

likely

to

internationalize

many

practices

and

institutions
.

These

technologies

allow

that

accessibility

to

workplace

will

be

less

important,

but

a

better

residential

location

will

be

still

important

because

the

employees

can

work

in

their

home

through

telecommunication
.

Particularly,

the

development

of

Internet

Technology

makes

it

possible

to

build

cyberspace

and

video

conferencing

without

having

face
-
to
-
face

meetings
.




The

number

of

personal

computers

connected

to

the

Web

Source

was

82

million

in

1997

and

it

will

be

268

million

in

2001
.

Generally,

the

number

of

Internet

users

is

estimated

to

be

10

times

the

number

of

host

computers
.




In

Korea,

the

number

of

hosts

and

domains

are

also

dramatically

increasing
.

The

number

of

host

was

only

7
,
650

in

1993

but

the

growth

rate

is

more

than

25

times,

which

are

195
,
736

in

March

1999
.

The

number

of

Internet

users

reaches

3
,
681
,
000

in

March

1999
.

More

specifically,

the

change

of

number

of

hosts

is

shown

in

Figure

1
.

Figure 1. The Change of Number of Hosts


Source:
http://www.krnic.net/english/net/2_93_00.html

III. Information Revolution and Paradigm Shifts in
Urban Planning

1
.

A

New

Paradigm

in

Urban

Planning



An

economic

activity

in

the

industrial

age

basically

assumes

mobility

such

as

the

mobility

of

the

products

from

suppliers

to

consumers

or

the

people's

mobility

from

workplace

to

home
.

It

also

requires

the

cost

of

time

and

distance
.




A

city

is

created

and

grown

by

scale

and

agglomeration

economies,

comparing

it

with

other

cities
.

In

order

to

provide

the

business

environments

for

maximize

these

economies,

a

local

government

built

a

railroad

or

highway

and

large

industrial

complexes
.

These

planning

activities

created

a

present

city

prototype

with

a

high
-
density

business

district

and

high
-
rise

building
.




However,

Information

Technology

is

changing

these

basic

assumptions

on

the

time

and

space

in

economic

activities

of

the

information

communications
.

It

creates

new

concepts

that

mean

a

timeless

time

and

cyberspace
.

It

is

also

having

a

propound

impacts

on

the

kind

of

economic

activity

and

urban

spatial

structure
.



Due

to

these

changes,

how

a

company

is

organized

in

the

real

world,

where

it

is

located,

and

what

kinds

of

jobs

Information

technology

generates

or

disappears?

As

a

result,

how

urban

spatial

structure

will

be

changed?




Furthermore,

Information

technology

leads

to

the

automation

of

routine

activities

in

both

manufacturing

and

the

service

sectors,

such

as

a

form

process

or

database
.

Moreover,

information

technology

makes

possible

new

organizational

options

by

enhancing

communications

linkages

through

computer

networks,

video

conferencing,

and

electronic

mail
.




A

function

of

an

institute

or

a

company

can

be

geographically

redistributed

over

a

wider

area

regionally,

nationally,

over

even

on

a

global

level
.

This

technology

has

far
-
reaching

impacts

on

the

social

activity

and

gradually

changes

the

industrial

and

spatial

structures
.

It

leads

to

the

globalization

of

economy

and

competition

and

creates

a

concept

of

cyberspace

or

cyber

shopping
.

In

other

words,

telecommunications

have

redefined

the

principles

of

growth

and

decay

for

many

of

large

cities
.


2
.

Information

Technology

and

Changes

of

Industrial

and

Spatial

Structures



Information

technology

is

transforming

the

basic

characteristics

of

economic

activity

and

the

type

of

jobs

available

is

correspondingly

changing
.



It

is

restructuring

industries

and

reorganizing

companies
.

Many

scholars

argued

that

information

technology

is

creating

a

more

polarized

job

structure,

consisting

of

high
-
skill,

well

paying

jobs

at

one

end

and

lower
-
paying,

physical

labor
-
oriented

jobs

at

the

other

one,

and

fewer

jobs

in

between
.


Telecommunications

will

allow

a

space
-
less

job

while

the

traditional

jobs

demand

the

floor

space

and

buildings
.

Information

technology
-
based

business

is

becoming

available

to

employers

to

reduce

cost,

increase

productivity,

and

serve

customers

better
.

In

summary,

the

flow

of

information

will

decide

the

ultimate

fates

of

cities

in

the

information

age

while

the

flow

of

goods

to

the

port

or

train

station

or

highway

terminal

was

main

components

of

urban

competitiveness

in

the

industrial

age
.



Telecommunications,

particularly

computer

conferencing

emerged

as

a

tool

for

building

new

social

relationships

across

barriers

of

space

and

time
.

Remote

Employment,

the

Virtual

Office,

and

Hotelling

are

new

options

in

business

and

urban

planning
.

Barriers

of

time

and

space

that

have

been

two

key

factors

in

urban

planning

will

be

gradually

disappeared

in

near

future
.


3
.

Virtual

Reality

and

Urban

Planning



Virtual

environments

are

digital

simulations

of

situations,

real

or

fictional,

in

which

users

are

able

to

participate
.

Participation

can

be

achieved

as

real
-
time

base
.

The

building

of

virtual

environments

are

composed

of

a

threefold

paradigm

of

representation,

modeling

and

connection
.





Virtual

reality

can

be

categorized

as

two

types,

immersive

and

non
-
immersive

or

remote

VR,

depending

upon

the

degree

of

interface

with

users
.

Immersive

VR

is

an

application

in

terms

of

Qusi
-
Physical

Experience
.

An

aircraft

simulator

is

one

of

the

most

representative

example
.

Users

can

execute

their

tasks

in

a

virtual

reality

as

close

as

possible

to

those

conducted

in

a

real

situation
.

A

recent

emerging

concept

of

virtual

reality

is

the

network

virtual

reality
.

It

is

a

result

of

the

massive

progress

in

the

Internet

and

the

World

Wide

Web

in

particular
.

Users

can

access

the

virtual

reality

across

computer

network

at

the

remote

locations
.

These

kinds

of

networked

virtual

worlds

are

growing

very

rapidly

at

present,

providing

environments

which

many

new

kinds

of

representation

and

remote

networking

are

able

to

take

place

(See

Figure

2
)
.


VRML

shows

how

the

urban

environment

can

be

modeled

and

the

models

distributed

on

the

WWW
.

Figure

3

is

a

typical

example

of

VRML

models

with

visualization

on

the

WWW
.

This

basic

model

can

be

used

effectively

to

visualize

the

urban

environments
.



Figure 2. Types of Virtual Reality

Source:
http://www.casu.ac.uk/planning/articles4/vrsim.htm

Figure 3. Virtual Reality Modeling Example

Source:
http://www.casu.ac.uk/urbanplan.pdf

IV. Internet Technology and Collaborative Urban
Planning

1.
The Application of Internet Technology in Urban Planing



Urban

planning

must

deal

with

the

explosive

spatial,

economic,

and

social

problems

emerging

in

cities

and

regions

under

the

shock

waves

of

the

information

age
.

The

development

of

Internet

technology

opens

the

way

to

overcome

the

limitations

of

time

and

space

in

urban

planning
.

The

utilization

of

Internet

technology

in

planning

can

generate

several

benefits

as

follows
.




1
)

A

planning

agency

can

significantly

improve

their

ability

to

release

timely,



accurate,

and

robust

information,

to

get

public

input,

and

considerably

to



increase

public

satisfaction

with

planning

function

through

this

technology
.




2
)

Internet

technology

can

provide

the

public

with

a

visionary

information

as



well

as

a

text

and

sound

one
.

Moreover,

this

information

can

easily

be

updated
.




3
)

It

also

makes

innovations

in

publications
.




4
)

It

also

improves

significantly

the

public

participation

in

urban

planning
.

Finally

a

web

page

can

improve

planning

practices
.

They

can

easily

understand

their

responsibilities

and

rights

on

urban

planning

and

suggest

their

opinions

to

the

planning

agency
.

2
.
Internet

Technology

and

the

Simulation

of

Collaborative

Urban

Planning




Due

to

the

above

characteristics

of

Internet

technology,

a

new

paradigm

in

urban

planning

can

occur,

called

collaborative

planning
.

Until

now

the

participation

of

citizens

in

the

planning

process

has

been

extremely

limited

due

to

several

reasons

such

the

lack

of

professional

knowledge,

time

and

space

limits,

or

other

reasons
.

The

citizens

usually

participate

in

the

planning

process

through

public

hearings

or

questionnaires

and

then

their

available

role

is

to

accept

or

reject

the

proposal
.




Internet

technology

is

one

of

the

representative

options

to

change

the

way

of

citizens’

participation

in

the

planning

process
.

In

order

to

build

a

collaborative

planning

process,

information

network

and

databases

on

the

planning

area

should

be

initially

established

like

Figure

4

and

Figure

5
.

A

local

community

at

first

should

build

the

infrastructure

of

an

information

network
.

Based

upon

this

infrastructure,

the

databases

on

the

economic,

social,

and

physical

statistics

of

the

community

can

be

established

in

order

to

get

the

basic

information

for

preparing

a

collaborative

urban

planning
.


Figure 4. Virtual Worlds
-
Client/Sever Model

Source:
http://www.casu.ac.uk/urbanplan.pdf

Figure 5. The Geographical Information System of
MapoGu

Source:
http://www.metro.seoul.kr/kor/tour/tour/sub11.html


This

paper

develops

conceptually

a

virtual

model

on

the

design

of

the

2002

World

Cup

Gymnasium

in

Mapogu
.

It

assumes

that

the

Mapo

local

community,

where

the

2002

World

Cup

Main

Stadium

will

be

located,

already

developed

the

information

infrastructure

and

geographical

information

system

like

Figure

4

and

5
.

Based

upon

the

information

network

and

GIS

databases

of

Mapogu,

this

paper

will

develop

a

model

of

collaborative

urban

planning

for

the

2002

World

Cup

Stadium
.

The

first

is

a

Co
-
Design

process

that

focuses

on

the

public

communicating

with

community

designers

(planning

professionals)

through

the

creation

of

perspective

drawings

of

gymnasium
.

In

this

process,

a

perspective

drawing

is

drawn

first

and

the

plan

develops

as

a

secondary

measure
.




The

Mapo

community

planners

provide

the

Mapo

citizens

with

a

perspective

drawing

like

the

Figure

4
,

which

is

called

a

Bangpae

Kite

of

Hope
.

The

citizens

suggest

their

opinions

or

advice

to

this

Bangpae

Kite

of

Hope

through

the

Internet

communications
.


Figure 6. A Perspective Drawing of the Bangpae Kite of Hope of 2002 World Cup

Source:
http://www.metro.seoul.kr/kor/index.html


The next procedure is to engage actual physical model construction
with all of the participants. The community designers provide the
guidelines on the drawings of facilities such as the site, floorspace, or
functions and the public suggests the opinions or directly participates
in drawing the facilities, following the guidelines. The designers of
World Cup Gymnasium at first build a series of 3D models, using the
design software like Computer Aided Design (CAD). The second phase
is an “Open Ended Self Directed Approach.” In the phase the Mapo or
Seoul Citizens are provided with the kits so that they can construct
their vision of the gymnasium. The pre
-
made models are used to
generate design discussion and to prepare the participants to construct
their own models. These models will be revised through the
telecommunications options and integrated into a final vision of
gymnasium design like Figure 5.

Figure 7. Seoul Gymnasium of 2002 World Cup

Source:
http://www.2002worldcupkorea.org/worldcup/kowoc.html

V. The Limitations of New Planning Tools and Future
Urban Planning




Internet

technology,

especially

urban

planning

through

web

page

has

several

advantages

such

as

the

improvement

of

planning

ability

of

planning

staffs

as

well

as

innovations

in

methodology,

publications,

accomplishments,

and

even

practices

in

the

planning

fields
.

And

several

software

such

as

CAD,

GIS,

HTML,

and

Video

Conferencing

can

be

utilized

in

urban

planning

in

order

to

create

better

the

vision

and

communication,

or

to

reduce

the

cost

of

urban

planning
.

However,

this

Internet

planning

might

be

not

a

meta
-
rule
.

In

order

to

applying

it

to

the

actual

planning

fields,

it

contains

several

limitations

that

must

be

solved

as

follows
.


1
)

A

local

community

must

build

an

information

network

for

communicating

with

the

public

and

establish

databases

such

as

the

geographical

information

system
.


2
)

The

community

planners

must

provide

their

citizens

with

pre
-
design

models,

design

or

planning

software

kits

for

the

collaborative

urban

planning
.


3
)

Both

the

community

planners

and

the

public

or

professionals

should

have

design

and

communications

skills

for

creating

their

own

designs

and

communicating

them

with

each

other
.


4
)

The

most

important

thing

is

the

public

concerns

on

the

collaborative

urban

planning

in

the

virtual

space
.



The

success

of

virtual

planning

depends

highly

upon

the

citizen

participation

to

the

planning

process
.

To

develop

a

citizen

involvement

program

that

insures

the

opportunity

for

citizens

to

be

involved

in

all

phases

of

the

planning

process,

the

local

governing

body

charges

with

preparing

and

adopting

a

comprehensive

plan
.




If

the

problems

of

communications

and

citizens

participation

are

resolved,

the

virtual

urban

planning

through

the

Internet

will

generate

several

benefits
.

In

the

information

age,

the

demand

of

actual

mobility

will

be

decreased

because

the

communications

technology

can

take

place

of

the

transportation

demand
.

Moreover,

the

Intelligent

Transportation

System

is

rapidly

developing

in

these

days

and

then

it

can

result

in

a

driver
-
free

car

in

terms

of

the

delivery

of

commodity

goods
.

A

driver
-
free

car

can

create

a

car
-
free

city

in

the

near

future
.

Eventually,

the

city

like

Venice

has

made

an

effort

to

develop

a

car
-
free

city

model
.

Furthermore,

Internet

communication

technology

in

the

information

age

makes

possible

to

build

an

environmentally

sound

and

sustainable

city

because

it

can

reduce

a

mobility

demand

and

as

result

decrease

the

pollution

which

has

been

generated

in

the

industrial

age
.

It

will

improve

the

quality

of

life

and

the

efficiency

of

resource

uses
.

Consequently,

information

technology

might

solve

the

current

serious

urban

problems

even

if

it

also

has

several

negative

impacts

such

as

the

loss

of

jobs

and

unemployment
.