14:332:376 Virtual Reality and

yardbellAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Welcome to

14:332:376 Virtual Reality and

16:332:571 Virtual Reality Technology

Spring 2012


Grigore C. Burdea Ph.D.

Professor

burdea@jove.rutgers.edu

Director, Tele
-
Rehabilitation Institute


http://www.ti.rutgers.edu


Electrical and Computer Engineering Department



Class web site:

https://sakai.rutgers.edu/portal

Textbook site:

www.vrtechnology.org


Grading Criteria (376):

Quizzes 20%,

Midterm 40%

Final 40%

Attendance penalty


one letter grade lost for 4 absences
.
Midterm and Final are mandatory to pass

Cheating is an automatic F. All exams and quizzes are closed
books/notes/etc. Quizzes are announced.

Laboratory assignments graded separately (for 378


co req
)

TA Mr. Timothy Phan tsphan@scarletmail.rutgers.edu

Grading Criteria (571):

Quizzes 10%,

Midterm 25%

Final 25%

Laboratory 40%

Attendance penalty


one letter grade lost for 4 absences.

Midterm, Final and Laboratory Term Project Mandatory to
pass. Quizzes announced, Cheating results in an F.

Textbook: Burdea and Coiffet,
Virtual Reality

Technology
, 2
nd

Edition, Wiley, 2003

Textbook web site: www.vrtechnology.org

Textbook web site: www.vrtechnology.org



Laboratory Hardware



Updated class notes (PowerPoint)
will be posted on the web

https://sakai.rutgers.edu/portal

Quiz and Exam Solution on Sakai

Supplemental materials, surveys, links to companies and
labs on the textbook site.

Virtual Reality
-

Introduction



Topics



Introduction



What is Virtual Reality?

It is not augmented reality….

Introduction

What is Virtual Reality?


“A high
-
end user
-
computer interface that involves
real
-
time simulation and interaction through
multiple sensorial channels.” (vision, sound, touch,
smell, taste)”

Introduction

http://games.yahoo.com/braingames/brain
-
teasers
-
games/phantom
-
square
-
255


Introduction

Sensorama Simulator, US Patent #3,050,870,
1962


Introduction

VR Short History

1963+


Ivan Sutherland's doctoral theses:
SKETCHPAD: stereo HMD, position tracking,
and a graphics engine. 1966+


Tom Furness: display systems for pilots;

1967+


Brooks developed force feedback GROPE
system;

Introduction

Ivan Sutherland’s HMD

(1966+)

Introduction

Brooks’s Grope
Project (1977)

VR Short History

1977


Sandin and Sayre invent a bend
-
sensing
glove


1979


Raab et al: Polhemus tracking system


1989


Jaron Lanier (VPL) coins the term virtual
reality


1994 VR Society formed

The first complete system was
developed by NASA “Virtual
Visual Environmental Display”
(VIVED early 80s; they
prototyped the LCD HMD;

Became “Virtual Interface
Environment Workstation”
(VIEW) 1989

Introduction

NASA … a pioneer in VR

NASA VIEW system (1992)

Introduction

Large simulation and training needs;

Could not send humans to other planets;

Relatively small budgets.

Introduction

Why NASA?

Towards Commercialization…

The first commercial VR systems
appeared in the late 80s produced by
VPL Co. (California):

The VPL “Data Glove” and

The VPL “Eye Phone” HMD

Introduction

The VPL DataGlove (1987) cost $8,500

Introduction

The Matel PowerGlove (1989)

Introduction

The first commercial VR glove for entertainment



Mattel Power Glove $50 (1989)

The Flight Helmet (ca. 1990) weighs
5

lbs


Early HMDs were massive

…and had poor resolution

Virtual Reality in the early 90s….

Emergence of first commercial Toolkits:


WorldToolKit (Sense8 Co.);


VCToolkit (Division Ltd., UK);


Virtual Reality Toolkit VRT3 (Dimension Ltd./Superscape, UK);


Cyberspace Developer Kit (Autodesk)

Introduction

Introduction

Superscape
VRT3
Development
System

Virtual Reality in the early 90s….

Emergence of first non
-
commercial toolkits:


Rend386;


Later Virtual Reality Modeling Language
(VRML 1.0);


Later still Java and Java 3D;

Introduction

Introduction

Scene created with Rend386

Successor is
AVRIL

("A Virtual
Reality Interface Library“)


C library for authoring. Created at
U. Waterloo, Canada

ece.uwaterloo.ca/~broehl/avril.html

Virtual Reality in the early 90s….


PC boards still very slow (7,000


35,000
polygons/sec);


First turnkey VR system


Provision 100
(Division Ltd.)


Emergence of faster graphics rendering
architectures at UNC Chapel Hill:

“Pixel Planes”;

Later “Pixel Flow”;


Introduction

Introduction

Stride PC graphics accelerator

35,000 polygons/sec;

$26,000 (with two co
-
processors)/card

Require up to 6 PC slots for
stereo version

Introduction

Provision 100 VR turnkey system (Division Ltd., UK)

35,000
polygons/sec;

$64,000 (including
texture generator,
tracker, 3
-
D audio,
HMD and
software)

Introduction

Pixel Planes 5 VR system (UNC)

~ 1 Million triangles/sec;

Rendering speed comparison SGI vs. PCs

xBox 360

500 Million poly/sec

2005

Laboratory VR Station prices (2002)

PRODUCT

Price/user


% of Budget



PC 1.7 GHz

FireGL 2 accelerator

2,347

48

Polhemus 3D tracker

4 receivers

1,823

37

5DT sensing glove

five
-
sensor version

482

10

Stereo Glasses wired

179

3

Force feedback Joystick

88

2

Java and Java3D

-

-

VRML

-

-

Total

4,919

100

VR Market growth

The key elements of a conventional VR System

The key elements of a modern VR System