o we need GMO's?

yalechurlishAI and Robotics

Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Where are we going with
our

genes?


D
o we need GMO's?


Sygen Chair of Genetic Information Systems

http://metz.une.edu.au/~bkinghor/

Siemens Science Experience

January 14
-
16th 2003
.

Brian Kinghorn

New Genetic Technologies …


Give us knowledge on structure and function of
genetic material and its downstream products.


Let us manipulate that material
directly or
indirectly

to target improved and novel function:


Agriculture


Health (especially diagnostics)


Forensics (who done it?)


Manufacturing (including
Farm
aceuticals)

http://www.expasy.ch/cgi
-
bin/show_thumbnails.pl

“DNA Chips”

Affymetrix
GeneChip
®

“DNA chips” to “Lab
-
on
-
a
-
chip”


Nanoinstrumentation ...

Fluid channels


Pumps


Electrophoresis


Lasers


Polymerase Chain Reaction


Mixing things


power supplies


Heating


and lots of other exciting

things on a somewhat small scale …

“DNA Chips”

Masks of oligonucleoides etc. on silicon.

www.affymetrix.com

Microarrays for detecting gene and protein expression

[www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/microArray.html]

Microarrays for detecting gene and
protein expression

+

/

*

a

e

d

b

-

c

Q

+/Q*c
-
abde

Gene expression programming

Candida Ferreira http://www.gene
-
expression
-
programming.com

“DNA”

“Organism”

e
d
c
b
a


*
???????????

Gene expression programming ?


“DNA”

“Organism”

Toolbox

Sources of information for inferring biological activity

Agriculture: why seek genetic change?


Animals and plants convert inputs to outputs.



Better animals and plants do the job more efficiently.


We can improve animals and plants by changing them
genetically
.

IN
Grass
Fences
Labour
Climate
OUT
Meat
Milk
Fibre
Bread
Active and passive approaches to
bringing about genetic change.

Passive


Gene detection


Gene location


Indirect marker


Direct marker


Marker
-
assisted
breeding

Active


Gene detection


Gene location


Gene cloning


Gene construct


Gene transfer

Gene Transfer

http://www.criver.com/techdocs/transgen.html

Genetically Modified Organisms

Prospects


Increased production efficiency


Disease resistance


Herbicide resistance


Labour savings


Increased production function


Daffodil beta
-
carotene into rice


Fat profiles in milk and meat


Control of ripening


Production in more marginal environments


Caffeine
-
free coffee


Allergen
-
free peanuts

Genetically Modified Organisms

Prospects


Increased safety in agriculture


Reduced application of pesticides and herbicides


Eg. secretion of chitinase from sweat glands in sheep.

(Immunological or structural change is better)


Production of pharmaceuticals & neutraceuticals


Human proteins etc. in milk from transgenic sheep

Genetically Modified Organisms

Prospects


Artificially generated DNA sequences


In
-
vitro

optimisation of isozyme sequences


Designer fibres


Novel pharmaceuticals & neutraceuticals


Gene therapy


Somatic modifications


Screening of gametes

(non
-
GMO)



IVF


Gene therapy of gametes (GMO)



IVF


Genetically Modified Organisms

Prospects



Pure research



Leading to understanding of life processes.



Eg. Use of ‘knockout’ mice.


Genetically Modified Organisms

Pitfalls

Possible
cause(s)


Possible
outcome(s)

Risk
minimization

Multiple transgene copies.

Loss of proper feedback
control.

Bad expression:

Level, tissue, time.

Organism ‘out of harmony’

Low viability or death.

Should be detectable during
development.


Use progressive methods


Disturbance at insertion site

Danger is with occasional
need for normal function,
such as resistance to a rare
pathogen.


Insertion in appropriately
“benign” region.


Genetically Modified Organisms

Pitfalls

Possible
cause(s)


Possible
outcome(s)

Risk
minimization

Changes in immunological
profile.

GMO susceptible to other
pathogens, possibly rare and
previously harmless.

Understand the biology of
changes generated.

Resulting organism competes
inappropriately with normal
individuals.


Physically dominant but
reproductively deficient
GMOs can threaten the
normal population.

Test GMO in competition
studies.


Genetically Modified Organisms

Pitfalls

Possible
cause(s)


Possible
outcome(s)

Risk
minimization

Resulting organism conflicts
with environment and/or
interacting organisms.

Threatened insect
populations. Resistant pests.
GMOs could spread out of
control, either directly or via
their gametes.

Understand the species, its
modes of propagation, and its
interactions with other
species and the environment.

Resulting organism generates
inappropriate food product.

Hormones, pesticides,
residues, allergens etc. in
product.

Understand risks and test
widely for safety.


Genetically Modified Organisms

Pitfalls

Possible
cause(s)


Possible
outcome(s)

Risk
minimization

Public perception on safety,
ethics, welfare.

Market failure

Generate arguably safe
GMOs and educate public

maybe difficult.

Other unknown causes

Other unknown outcomes

Keep an open and critical
mind.

That was the
active

approach to genetic change.


Now the
passive

approach …

Genetic markers and a major gene.

Chromosomes from Dad

Chromosomes from Mum



Major gene

Genetic markers

Q

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

Q

q

q

q

q

q

Q

q

q

q

q

q

Q

q

Q

q



×

×

×

×

×

×

×









A

B

Indirect genetic markers

A Ram:

His semen:

A

B

A

A

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

A

A

Indirect genetic markers

‘recombinants’

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

A

A

A

A

A

A

B

B

A

A

A

B

A

B

B

Indirect genetic markers

‘recombinants’

B

B

B

B

B

A

A

B

A

B

A

A

A

A

A

B

A

B

A

B

B

A

A

A

A

B

A

Indirect genetic markers

‘recombinants’

B

B

B

B

B

A

A

B

A

B

Indirect genetic markers

B

A

B

A

B

B

B

A

A

A

A

B

B

A

B

A

B

‘recombinants’

In reality,

we are colorblind ...

Simple QTL detection with markers

G
M
g
m
m
g
m
g
m
m
m
m
X
M
m
m
M
Parents:
Progeny:
Probabilities: 90% 10%
Bull
Cows
G
G
g
g
g
g
g
g
Gene location
Marker location
QTL detection with markers

Likely location
of major gene
Location of
markers
Lod score
Position on chromosome
Logarithm of the ODds


Log(prob result with QTL)

Log(prob result without QTL)




Direct genetic markers

A
-

always circle, always good

B
-

always triangle, always bad

“Marker Assisted Selection”

(The Passive approach)


Gather information about the genes carried by each individual


Use this information to help select parents and allocate mates


Just do what could have happened ‘naturally’ anyway.





No recombinant DNA




No funny test
-
tube business


Conclusions


New genetic technologies are causing a revolution


GMOs give:


Biggest prospects, biggest pitfalls


Philosophy on evaluating GMOs:


Actively seek potential problems


Scientists must not adopt a defensive attitude


Using just
information

from DNA work provides a
slower but safe route


GMOs will ultimately be used widely, and for
more innovative purposes.

http://metz.une.edu.au/~bkinghor/