Yi_Hong_talk_2011-03-31x - Tracing Networks

wrendeceitInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (4 years and 17 days ago)

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Tracing Networks

Yi Hong

Department of Computer Science

University of Leicester

Semantic Tagging, Search and Visualisation

Semantic Web

2

“Semantic web is an evolution to the current web and
provide new information representation feature.”



Current web


Document
-
centric


Human readers


Syntax (Schema)


HTML, XML etc.



Semantic web


Knowledge representation


Machine readable


Semantics (Ontology)


RDF, OWL etc


Tracing Networks programme

Ontology

3


What is an ontology?

“An ontology is a formal specification of a
conceptualization”


-
Thomas Gruber

Domain ontology

e.g. (CIDOC
-
CRM for archaeology, Gene, GXO for Genetics)

Ontology

Concepts

Specified by

Describes

Modelled by

Domain

Relational database
vs

Ontology
-
based database


Image on a ceramic vessel found at Sopron
-
Várhely

4

(provided by Katharina)

Example :


Image tagging and search for human representation database

5


Object ID:
15


Inventory number:
443


Excavation site: Sopron
-
Várhely

(N47.66519, E16.518044 Hungary)


Human figure (individuals)


rider


wagon guide


wagon rider


Animal


2 horses


1 horse


Material:


ceramic


Technology:


Incised

`

etc.

……….

(60+ attributes)




Data

Relational database
vs

Ontology
-
based database

6

Database schema


Entity
-
relationship diagram

Relational database (MS Access 2007)

Relational database
vs

Ontology
-
based database

tables, fields
(columns)

Data

Data

primary
-
foreign

key pairs


Relational
vs

Ontology
-
based database

7

Relational Database

Ontology
-
based
Database (Triple store)

MySQL
, Oracle, SQL Server,

MS Access etc

Jena SDB, virtuoso universal
server, RDF/OWL document


Database Schema

(table, field, key)

Ontology

(class, property, individual)

records

triples

(RDF graph)

Data

Structure

Basic

elements

Database

products

Data storage

Ontology


Semantics


Class


Property


Individual






8

individual

class

property

has value for

restrict

is instance of

Ontology



Subject

Predicate

Object

A Triple is:


Basic element in the ontology world.

contains three parts:
subject, predicate

and
object
.


Ontology

RDF Graph


A set of triples become a graph


An ontology
-
based database is a graph





Ceramic pot

was found in

Leicester

A Triple is:


Basic element in the ontology world.

contains three parts:
subject, predicate

and
object
.


11



Object

wasFoundAt

Site

IndividualFigure

Animal

Scene

Material

wasMadeFrom

hasScene

Appears On

…….

Country

isLocatedIn

Horse

subClassOf

contains

Appears On

Ontology

…….

……s.

(Protégé Ontology Editor)

Relational database
vs

Ontology
-
based database

Appears On

…….

http://protege.stanford.edu/

Relational
vs

Ontology
-
based database

12

SQL

generate

Relational Database

query

Database

Query

language

SPARQL

generate

query

Ontology
-
based
Database (Triple store)

Query

Interface

Text
-
based keywords+ options


Graph pattern

Search

Why use ontology?

13

Tags:
cat , mouse,


Problem with traditional keyword search


Ambiguous semantics


Labelling objects rather than relationship



chase?

Why use ontology?

14


Problem with traditional keyword search


Difficult to describe complex and arbitrary query


Unable to perform automatic reasoning



Query:


“Display images with an
animal

and
a
person

on them, along with what
is happening between them"


rider

horse

Why use ontology?

15


Single user Mode
vs

Collaborative Mode


Degree of uncertainty


User credibility and expertise


definitely
a horse!

probably
a fox ?

Domain
-
specific expertise index = E(d)

Degree of uncertainty = CF

horse

Tagged area

95%

Is a

16

open in new

window

17

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window

Query results
visualisation


-
Geo
-
mapping


Keyhole
Markup

Language (KML/KMZ)


http://code.google.co m/
apis
/
kml
/documentation/


XML
-
based language
.


Supports place marks, images, polygons, 3D models,
textual descriptions


Compatibility


Google Map


Google Maps for Mobile


Google Earth


ESRI
ArcGIS

Explorer,


18

Query results
visualisation

Geo
-
mapping

19

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window

Query results
visualisation


-

Statistical charts


Google Chart API


http://code.google.com/apis/chart/


Interactive Flash


Javascript

arrays or XML files


Compatibility


Most mainstream browsers


Internet Explorer


Firefox


Safari


Chrome


20

Query results
visualisation


-

Statistical charts

21

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window

System Architecture

22

Links


A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology


By Stanford University


http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology
-
tutorial
-
noy
-
mcguinness
-
abstract.html


Protégé Ontology editor


http://protege.stanford.edu/

(Version 3.4.* )


Protégé tutorial
http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/


CIDOC
-
CRM ontology


An ontology for culture and heritage domain


http://www.cidoc
-
crm.org/


KML guide and tutorial


http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kml_tut.html





23

Q & A

24

Thank you!



Subject

Predicate

Object