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An alternate OS

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Wu, Landrigan, Sohi

P
ROLIFIC
R
ESISTANCE

I
NTRODUCTION TO
L
INUX


Introduction to Linux by Wu, Landrigan, Sohi

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Table of Contents

Attribution

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Our Contribution

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Wikipedia

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Creative Commons

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Linux Background

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History

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Unix

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GNU

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MINIX

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Commerical and popular uptake

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Current Development

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Design

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User Interface

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Development

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Community

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Programming on L
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Uses

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Desktop

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Servers and supercomputers
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Embedded devices
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Market share and uptake

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Copyright and naming

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GNU/Linux

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Resources

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Index

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References

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Attribution

All the content in this report, except for the Top Web Links section is from
Wikipedia
, licensed under
the Creative Commons Share
-
Al
ike 3.0 Unported License (see below for an overview of both
Wikipedia and the Creative Commons). The following picture shows the full license below (it is also
set up as a hyperlink to the original web source for this license).

(Wikipedia,
2009)

Figure 1


Wikipedia Creative Commons License

Our Contribution

We have attempted to add extra value to the content by structuring it in an ea
sy to read, business
report format and to add an informative “Top Web Links” section. We have also added an index to
help you find what you are looking for. We hope you find it useful and worth the $1 purchase price.
We have prepared this report as part of

a
MS Word 2007 assignment

for
BSYS 1000


Computer
Applications I

that we are taking at the
British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT)
. All proceeds
will go to student clubs w
ithin the
School of Business at BCIT
.

Wikiped
i
a

Wikipedia is a multilingual, Web
-
based, free
-
content encyclopedia project based mostly on
anonymous contributions. The name “Wiki
pedia” is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a type of
collaborative Web site) and encyclopedia. Wikipedia’s articles provide links to guide the user to
related pages with additional information.

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Wikipedia is written collaboratively by an international (and
mostly anonymous) group of
volunteers. Anyone with internet access can write and make changes to Wikipedia articles.
There are no requirements to provide one’s real name when contributing; rather, each
writer’s privacy is protected unless they choose to re
veal their identity themselves. Since its
creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference web sites,
attracting around 65 million visitors monthly as of 2009. There are more than 75,000 active
contributors working on more th
an 14,000,000 articles in more than 260 languages. As of
today, there are 3,062,069 articles in English. Every day, hundreds of thousands of visitors
from around the world collectively make tens of thousands of edits and create thousands of
new articles to

augment the knowledge held by the Wikipedia encyclopedia. (See also:
Wikipedia:Statistics.)

Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is a non
-
profit organization devoted to expanding the range of
creative works available for others to build upon legally and

to share. The organization has
released several copyright
-
licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. These licenses
allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the
benefit of recipients or other creators.

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Linux Background

Linux (commonly pronounced /
ˈ
l
ɪ
n
ʌ
ks/, LI
-
nuks in English[4][5], also pronounced /
ˈ
l
ɪ
n
ʊ
ks/[6]) is a
generic term referring to Unix
-
like computer operating systems

based on the Linux kernel. Their
development is one of the most prominent exa
mples of free and open source software
collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and
redistributed, both commercially and non
-
commercially, by anyone under the terms of the GNU GPL
and other free software licence
s[citation needed].


Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers, although can be installed on a wide variety of
computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices , mobile phones and even some watches[7] to
supercomputers.[8] Linux distributions, in
stalled on both desktop and laptop computers, have
become increasingly commonplace in recent years, partly owing to the popular Ubuntu
distribution[9] and the emergence of netbooks.[10]


The name "Linux"

comes from the Linux kernel, origi
nally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The rest
of the system usually comprises components such as the Apache HTTP Server, the X Window
System, the GNOME and KDE desktop environments, and utilities and libraries from the GNU Project
(announced in 1983 by

Richard Stallman). Commonly
-
used applications with desktop Linux systems
include the Mozilla Firefox web
-
browser and the OpenOffice.org office application suite. The GNU
contribution is the basis for the Free Software Foundation's preferred name GNU/Linux
.[11][12]

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History

Unix

The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in
America by Ken Thomson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna, and first released in
1971, it was written in assembly languag
e and later re
-
written in C in 1973 by Dennis Ritchie
. Its
wide availability and portability due to being written in C meant that it was widely adopted, copied
and modified by academic institutions and businesses, with its design bei
ng influential on authors of
other systems.[citation needed]

GNU

The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman
, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix
-
compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Work b
egan in 1984.[13] Later, in
1985, Stallman created the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License
(GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such
as libraries, compilers, text editors
, a Unix shell, and a windowing system) were completed, although
low
-
level elements such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel were stalled and
incomplete.[14] Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991),
he wo
uld not have decided to write his own.[15]

MINIX

MINIX was a cheap minimal Unix
-
like operating system, designed for education in computer science,
written by Andrew S. Tanenbaum (now Minix is free and redesigned also for “serious” use).

In 1991 while atten
ding the University of Helsinki
, Torvalds began to work on a non
-
commercial
replacement for MINIX,[16] which would eventually become the Linux kernel.

Torvalds began the development of Linux on Minix and applications written
for Minix were also used
under Linux. Later Linux matured and it became possible for Linux to be developed under itself.[17]
Also GNU applications replaced all Minix ones because, with code from the GNU system freely
available, it was advantageous if this
could be used with the fledgling OS. Code licensed under the
GNU GPL can be used in other projects, so long as they also are released under the same or a
compatible license. In order to make the Linux kernel compatible with the components from the
GNU Proj
ect, Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license (which prohibited commercial
redistribution) to the GNU GPL.[18] Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to
make a fully functional and free operating system.[14]

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Commerical and
popular uptake

Today Linux distributions are used in numerous domains, from embedded systems to
supercomputers,[19][20] and have secured a place in server installations with the popular LAMP
application stack.[21] Use of Linux distributions in home and ent
erprise desktops has been
expanding.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] They have also gained popularity with various local and
national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for
Linux.[29][30] News of the Russian military cr
eating their own Linux distribution has also
surfaced.[31] Indian state of Kerala has gone so far as to make it mandatory for all state high schools
to run Linux on their computers.[32][33] China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its
Loong
son processor family to achieve technology independence.[34] In Spain some regions have
developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions,
like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. France
and Germany have also taken
steps towards the adoption of Linux.[35]

Current Development

Linux distributions have also become popular with the newly founded netbook market, with many
devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customi
zed Linux distributions
pre
-
installed.

Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software
Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations
develop third
-
party non
-
GNU com
ponents. These third
-
party components comprise a vast body of
work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and
communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non
-
GNU components, with
additi
onal package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

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Design

A Linux
-
based system is a modular Unix
-
like operating system. It derives much of its basic design
from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Such a system u
ses a monolithic
kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system
access. Device drivers are integrated directly with the kernel.

Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system
's higher
-
level
functionality. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux
-
based systems, providing the
most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many of the common Unix tools
which carry out many basic operating system task
s. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by
most Linux systems is based on the X Window System.

User Interface

Users can control a Linux
-
based system through a command line interface (or CLI), a graphical user
interface (or GUI), or through controls a
ttached to the associated hardware (this is common for
embedded systems). For desktop systems, the default mode is usually graphical user interface,
where the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console.

On desktop m
achines, KDE, GNOME and Xfce are the most popular user interfaces,[36] though a
variety of additional user interfaces exist. Most popular user interfaces run on top of the X Window
System (often simply called "X"), which provides network transparency, enab
ling a graphical
application running on one machine to be displayed and controlled from another.

Other GUIs include X window managers such as FVWM, Enlightenment and Window Maker. The
window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance
of individual
application windows, and interacts with the X Window System. This is a more minimalist goal than
KDE, GNOME et al., which are termed desktop environments.

A Linux system typically provides a CLI through a shell, which is the traditional way o
f interacting
with a Unix system. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface.
A headless system that runs without even a monitor can be controlled by the command line via a
remote
-
control protocol such as SSH or teln
et.

Most low
-
level Linux components, including the GNU userland, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is
particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter
-
process communication. A graphical terminal emulator prog
ram is often used to access the CLI from
a Linux desktop.

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Development

The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is
that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Linux is no
t the only
such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used. Some free and open source
software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft, a kind of reciprocity: any work derived from
a copyleft piece of software must also be copylef
t itself. The most common free software license,
the GNU GPL
, is a form of copyleft, and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components
from the GNU project.

Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability

with other operating
systems and established computing standards. Linux systems adhere to POSIX,[37] SUS,[38] ISO and
ANSI standards where possible, although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX.1
certified, Linux
-
FT.[39]

Free software proje
cts, although developed in a collaborative fashion, are often produced
independently of each other. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution,
however, provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced

by stand
-
alone
projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.

A Linux distribution
, commonly called a "distro", is a project that manages a remote collection of
system software and application so
ftware packages available for download and installation through
a network connection. This allows the user to adapt the operating system to his/her specific needs.
Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose
-
knit teams, volunteer organizations, and
commercial entities. A distribution can be installed using a CD that contains distribution
-
specific
software for initial system installation and configuration. A package manager such as Synaptic or
YAST allows later package upgrades and installations. A di
stribution is responsible for the default
configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration
of the different software packages into a coherent whole.

Community

A distribution is largely driven by its devel
oper and user communities. Some vendors develop and
fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well
-
known example. Others maintain a
community version of their commercial distributions, as Red Hat does with Fedora.

In many cities and reg
ions, local associations known as Linux Users Groups (LUGs
) seek to promote
their preferred distribution and by extension free software. They hold meetings and provide free
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demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system inst
allation to new users. Many
Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. Most distributions and
free software / open source projects

have IRC chatrooms or newsgroups. Online forums are another
means
for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions.org and the Gentoo forums. Linux
distributions host mailing lists; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or
development for a given list.

There are several technology websites with a L
inux focus. Print magazines on Linux often include
cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions.[40][41]

Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell,
support, and contribute to

the development of the components of the system and of free software.
These include Dell, IBM, HP, Oracle, Sun Microsystems, Novell, Nokia. A number of corporations,
notably Red Hat, have built their entire business around Linux distributions.

The free so
ftware licenses
, on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the
Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship
between a Linux distribution as a whole a
nd individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. One
common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business
users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which
adds prop
rietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to
simplify administrative tasks. Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell
hardware.

Programming on Linux

Most Linux distributions support

dozens of programming languages. The most common collection of
utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU
toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)
and the GNU build system. Amongst
others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. The Linux kernel itself is written to
be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio,
and IBM XL C/C++ Co
mpiler.

Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages.
While not as common, Linux also supports C# via the Mono project, sponsored by Novell, and
Scheme. A number of Java Virtual Machines and development ki
ts run on Linux, including the
original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open
-
source projects
like Kaffe.

The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME

and KDE
.
These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used
independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are a
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number of Integrated development environments available including

Anjuta, Code::Blocks, Eclipse,
KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, and Omnis Studio while the long
-
established editors
Vim and Emacs remain popular.[42]

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Uses

As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions

may be
specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems,
stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups,
support for real
-
time applications, or commitment
to a given desktop environment. Furthermore,
some distributions deliberately include only free software. Currently, over three hundred
distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for
general
-
purpose use.[43]

Li
nux is a widely ported operating system kernel. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of
computer architectures: in the hand
-
held ARM
-
based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, in
devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers.[44] Special
ized distributions exist for less
mainstream architectures. The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16
-
bit
microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management
unit. The kernel also runs on archite
ctures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer
-
created operating system, such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors),
PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones.

There are several industry assoc
iations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and
improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC.

Desktop

The popularity of Linux on standard desktops

(and laptops) has been increasing over t
he years.
Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. The two most popular such
environments, GNOME and KDE, both of which are mature, support a wide variety of languages.

In the past, the performance of Linux on the desktop has been

a controversial topic; for example in
2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. He quit Linux
kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop, and then gave
a "tell all" interview
on the topic.[45] However since then significant effort has been expended
improving the desktop experience. For example, projects such as upstart aim for a faster boot
time.[46] In the field of gaming, the Linux desktop still lags behind Windows,[47] howev
er there are
several companies that do port their own or other companies' games to Linux.

Many types of applications available

for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for
Linux. Commonly, either a free software
application will exist which does the functions of an
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application found on another operating systems, or that application will have a version that works
on Linux (such as Skype). Furthermore, the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to
run u
nmodified Windows applications on Linux. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the
open source Wine

project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office, Intuit
applications such as Quicken and QuickBooks, Adobe Photoshop
versions through CS2, and many
popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. In other cases, although there is no
Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing[48] and professional
audio,[49][50][51] there is equivalent sof
tware available on Linux.

Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. For example Mozilla
Firefox, and OpenOffice.org have downloadable versions for all major operating systems.
Furthermore, some applications were initi
ally developed for Linux (such as Pidgin, and GIMP) and,
due to their popularity, were ported to other operating systems (including Windows and Mac OS X).

A growing number of proprietary desktop applications
are also supported on Linux.[52]

In the field
of

animation and visual effects, most high end software, such as AutoDesk Maya, Softimage XSI and
Apple Shake, is available for Linux, Windows and/or Mac OS X.

The collaborative nature

of free software development allows distribu
ted teams to localize Linux
distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost
-
effective. For
example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly
before Microsoft Windows XP wa
s translated to Sinhalese.[citation needed] In this case the Lanka
Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the
knowledge of university professors, linguists, and local developers.

To install new software in Wind
ows, users either download a digital distribution or use a traditional
installation medium (such as CD
-
ROM). Both of these methods usually provide a "Software
Installation Wizard" to guide the user through the setup. On most Linux distributions, there are
utilities for browsing a list of thousands of applications installed with a single click. Some of these
programs are the Synaptic Package Manager, PackageKit, and Yum Extender. However, installing
software not in the official repositories is not always eas
y, and sometimes the only option is to
compile from source.

Servers and supercomputers

Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems
, and have risen to prominence
in that area; Netcraft reported in Sep
tember 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet
hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers.[53] (As of June 2008, Linux
distributions represented five of ten, FreeBSD three of ten, and Microsoft two of ten.[54])

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Linux distribut
ions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server
-
software combination (Linux, Apache,
MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers, and which is one of the
more common platforms for website hosting.

Linux distributions are also commonl
y used as operating systems for supercomputers
: as of June
2009, out of the top 500 systems, 443 (88.6%) run a Linux distribution.[55]

Embedded devices

Due to its low cost and ability to be easily modified
, an embedded Linux is often used in embedded
systems. Linux has become a major competitor to the proprietary Symbian OS

found in the majority
of smartphones

16.7% of smartphones sold worldwide during 2006 were using Li
nux[56]

and it is
an alternative to the proprietary Windows CE and Palm OS operating systems on mobile devices.
Cell phones or PDAs running on Linux and built on open source platform became a trend from 2007,
like Nokia N810
, Openmoko's
Neo1973
, Motorola RAZR2 v8
, Motorola ROKR E8
, Motorola MING
series
, Motorola ZINE

and the on
-
going Google Android
. The popular TiVo digital video recorder uses
a customized version of Linux.[57] Several network firewall and router standalone products,
including several from Cisco/Linksys, use Linux internally, using its advanced firewall and routing
capabili
ties. The Korg OASYS and the Yamaha Motif XS music workstations also run Linux.[58]
Furthermore, Linux is used in the leading stage lighting control system, FlyingPig/HighEnd
WholeHogIII Console.[59]

Market share and uptake

Many quantitative studies of fre
e / open source software focus on topics including market share and
reliability, with numerous studies specifically examining Linux.[60] The Linux market is growing
rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software running Linux was expe
cted to
exceed $35.7 billion by 2008.[61]

IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12.7% of the overall server market at that time.[62]
This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies and did not
include server hardwa
re purchased separately and had Linux installed on it later. In September 2008
Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows
Server.[63]

Estimates for the desktop market share of Linux range from less than o
ne percent to 10
-
12 percent.
In comparison, Microsoft operating systems hold more than
85%.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][64][65][66]

The frictional cost of switching operating systems and lack of support for certain hardware and
application programs designe
d for Microsoft Windows have been two factors that have inhibited
adoption. Proponents and analysts attribute the relative success of Linux to its security,
reliability,[67] low cost, and freedom from vendor lock
-
in.[68]

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Also most recently Google

has begun to fund Wine, which acts as a compatibility layer, allowing
users to run some Windows programs under Linux.[69][70]

The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux
community, planned to reac
h millions of schoolchildren and their families and communities in
developing countries.[71] Google, Red Hat, and eBay are major supporters of the project.[72] While
the XO will also have a Windows option, it will be primarily deployed using Sugar, a deskt
op
environment for Fedora Linux.

In the film industry, Linux has been the platform of choice for several years. The first major film
produced on Linux servers was Titanic in 1997. Since then major studios like Dreamworks Animation,
Pixar and Industrial Lig
ht & Magic have moved to Linux.[73][74] Currently more than 95% of the
servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux.[75]

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Copyright and naming

The Linux kernel and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Pub
lic License (GPL).
The GPL requires that anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any
modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. In 1997, Linus Torvalds stated,
“Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best
thing I ever did.”[76] Other key components of a Linux
system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a
more permissive variant of the GPL, and the X Window System uses the MIT License.

Torvalds states that
the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3. He
specifically dislikes some provisions in the new license which prohibit the use of the software in
digital rights management,[77][78] and it would also be impractical to obtain permi
ssion from all the
copyright holders, who number in the thousands.[79]

A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of
code. Using the Constructive Cost Model, the study estimated that this distribution r
equired about
eight thousand man
-
years of development time. According to the study, if all this software had been
developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about $1.34 billion (2009 US
dollars) to develop in the United States.[80]

Mos
t of the code (71%) was written in the C programming language, but many other languages were
used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages.
Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under t
he GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2.4
million lines of code, or 8% of the total.[80]

In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian GNU/Linux version 4.0.[81] This
distribution contained over 283 million source lines of code, and the study
estimated that it would
have cost $7.37 billion (2009 US dollars) to develop by conventional means.

In the United States, the name Linux is a trademark registered to Linus Torvalds.[82] Initially, nobody
registered it, but on 15 August 1994, William R. Del
la Croce, Jr. filed for the trademark Linux, and
then demanded royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected organizations
sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and in 1997 the case was settled.[83] The
licensing of
the trademark has since been handled by the Linux Mark Institute. Torvalds has stated
that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it, but was bound in 2005
by United States trademark law to take active measures to enforce the trade
mark. As a result, the
LMI sent letters to distribution vendors requesting that a fee be paid for the use of the name, and a
number of companies have complied.[84]

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G
NU/Linux

The Free Software Foundation

views Linux distribu
tions which use GNU software as GNU variants
and they ask that such operating systems be referred to as GNU/Linux or a Linux
-
based GNU
system.[85] The media and common usage, however, refers to this family of operating systems
simply as Linux, as do many l
arge Linux distributions (e.g. Ubuntu[86] and SuSE Linux). Some
distributions use GNU/Linux (particularly notable is Debian GNU/Linux, on which Ubuntu is based),
but the term's use outside of the enthusiast community is limited. The naming issue remains
co
ntroversial. Linus Torvalds does not support the use of the term GNU/Linux.[87]

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Introduction to Linux by Wu, Landrigan, Sohi

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Resources


Figure
1

-

Top Web Sources

Top Web Source

Source

URL

Comparison of Windows and
Linux

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Windows_and_Linux

Wine Development HQ

WineHQ

http://www.winehq.org/about/

Linux Homepage

Linux

h
ttp://www.linux.org/

Ubuntu Homepage

Ubuntu

http://www.ubuntu.com/

Linux For Newbies

Wikibooks

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Linux_For_Newbies

Linux Kernel

Newbies

Kernel Newbies

http://kernelnewbies.org/

Linux For Newbies


A Series
For Beginners

Northern Journey

http://www.northernjourney.com/opensource
/newbies/

Comparison of Linux
Distributions

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Linux_distributions

Linux Vs Windows

Michael Horowitz

http://www.michaelhorowitz.com/Linux.vs.Windows.html

Linux Vs Windows

Computer Hope

http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000575.htm

Index
"

"Linux" ∙ 5

A

applications available ∙ 12

B

British Columbia Institute of
Technology (BCIT) ∙ 3

BSYS 1000


Computer
Applications I ∙ 3

C

collaborative nature ∙ 13

D

Dennis Ritchie ∙ 6

E

easily modified ∙ 14

F

Free Software

Foundation ∙ 17

free software licenses ∙ 10

G

GNOME ∙ 10

GNU GPL ∙ 9

Google ∙ 15

Google Android ∙ 14

K

KDE ∙ 10

L

Linux distribution ∙ 9

LUGs ∙ 9

M

Motorola MING series ∙ 14

Motorola RAZR2 v8 ∙ 14

Motorola ROKR E8 ∙ 14

Motorola ZINE ∙ 14

MS Word 2007 assi
gnment ∙ 3

N

Nokia N810 ∙ 14

O

open source projects ∙ 10

Openmoko's Neo1973 ∙ 14

operating systems for
supercomputers ∙ 14

P

popularity on desktops ∙ 12

programming language support ∙
10

R

Richard Stallman ∙ 6

S

School of Business at BCIT ∙ 3

server operat
ing systems ∙ 13

Symbian OS ∙ 14

U

University of Helsinki ∙ 6

Unix
-
like computer operating
systems ∙ 5

W

Wikipedia ∙ 3

Wine ∙ 13


Introduction to Linux by Wu, Landrigan, Sohi

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