Semiconductor Revolution in the 20th Century

woundcallousSemiconductor

Nov 1, 2013 (4 years and 12 days ago)

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Semiconductor Revolution

in the 20th Century

Zhores Alferov

St Petersburg Academic University



Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre RAS


2


Introduction


Semiconductor research in 1930th


Transistor discovery


Discovery of laser

maser principle and
birth of quantum optoelectronics


Invention and development

of the silicon chips


Heterostructure research

“God
-
made” and “Man
-
made” crystals


Problems and future trends

3

Polytechnical Institute

Ioffe seminar

at

the Polytechnical Institute
. 1916

4

Yakov Frenkel

5

One of the last

Ioffe photo
.

September

1960

6

Schematic plot of the first
point
-
contact transistor

Laboratory demo model

of the first bipolar transistor


7

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

"for their researches on semiconductors

and their discovery of the transistor effect"

William Bradford

Shockley

1910

1989

John

Bardeen

1908

1991

Walter Houser
Brattain

1902

1987

8

9

10

11

12

W
.
Shockley

and A.

Ioffe
.
Prague
. 1960.

13

13

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

"
for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics,

which has led to the construction of oscillators

and amplifiers based on the maser
-
laser principle"

Charles Hard
Townes


b.
19
15

Nicolay


Basov


19
22

2001

Aleksandr
Prokhorov


19
16

2002

14

14

15

15

16

16


January

1962:

observations

of superlumenscences

in

GaAs

p
-
n junctions


(
Ioffe Institute
,
USSR
).


Sept
.
-
Dec
. 1962:

laser action in

GaAs

and GaAsP p
-
n junctions


(
General Electric , IBM (USA);
Lebedev Institute

(
USSR
).

Condition of optical gain:

E
n
F



E
p
F

>
E
g

Lasers and

LEDs

on

p

n junctions

17

17

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

"for basic work on information and communication

technology"


Zhores I.

Alferov


b.
19
30

Herbert
Kroemer


b. 1928

Jack S.


Kilby


19
23

2005

“for his part in the
invention of the
integrated circuit”

“for developing semiconductor
heterostructures used in high
-
speed
-

and
opto
-
electronics”


18

19

20

First integrated circuit/notebook

21

Patent of the first
integrated circuit
by R. Noyce

22

(a) Factory sales of Electronics in the United States over the past 50 years
and projected to 1990.

(b) Integrated circuit Market in the United States.


22

Factory sales of Electronics and IC

S.M. Sze,

J. Appl. Phys.

Vol. 22 (1983)

23

23

Changing composition of work force

in the United States

S.M. Sze,

J. Appl. Phys.

Vol. 22 (1983)

24

24

Penetration of technology into

the industrial output

Penetration of technology into the industrial output versus year for four
periods of change in the United States electronics industry.

S.M. Sze,

J. Appl. Phys.

Vol. 22 (1983)

25

25

Moore's law I: device downsizing

H. Iwai, H. Wang,
Phys. World

Vol. 18, 09 2005

26

26

Moore's law II: chip density

H. Iwai, H. Wang,
Phys. World

Vol. 18, 09 2005

27

27

Increase in the power density of VLSI chips

B. Jalali
et. all.,

OPN,

June 2009

28

Fundamental physical phenomena

in

classical heterostructures

(a)

(b)

(c)

One
-
side Injection

Propozal



1948
(W. Shokley)

Experiment



1965
(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)

Superinjection

Theory



1966
(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)

Experiment



1968
(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)


Diffusion in

built
-
in

quasielectric field

Theory



1956
(H. Kroemer)

Experiment



196
7

(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)


29

(d)

(e)

E
lectron and optical confinement

Propozal



1963
(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)

Experiment



1968
(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)


Superlattices

and quantum wells

Theory



1962

(L.V
.

Keldysh)

First experiment


1970
(L. Esaki
et al
.)

Resonant

tunnelling



19
63






(L.V. Iogansen)

In Quantum Wells



197
4


(L. Esaki
et al
.)

Fundamental physical phenomena

in

classical heterostructures

30


Lattice matched

heterojunctions


Ge

GaAs

1959


(R. L. Anderson)


AlGaAs

1967


(Zh. Alferov
et al
.,

J. M. Woodall &

H. S. Rupprecht)


Quaternary HS

(InGaAsP & AlGaAsSb)


Proposal

1970

(Zh. Alferov
et al
.)


First experiment

1972

(Antipas
et al
.)


Heterojunctions


a new kind

of semiconductor materials:

Long journey from infinite interface recombination

to ideal heterojunction

31


Energy gaps vs lattice constants for semiconductors IV elements,

III

V and II(IV)

VI compounds and magnetic materials in parentheses.

Lines connecting the semiconductors, red for III

V, and blue for others,

indicate quantum heterostructures, that have been investigated.

Nitrides have not been yet included.

32

Schematic representation of the DHS
injection laser in the first CW
-
operation
at room temperature

33

Space station “Mir” equipped with heterostructure solar cells

Heterostructure solar cells

34

Heterostructure microelectronics

Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

N
AlGaAs
-
n

GaAs Heterojunction


Suggestion

1948 (W.Shockley)

Theory

1957 (H.Kroemer)

Experiment

1972 (Zh.Alferov
et al
.)

AlGaAs HBT

HEMT

1980 (T.Mimura et al.)

Speed
-
power performances

35

(by I. Hayashi, 1985)

Heterostructure Tree

36

Liquid Phase Epitaxy of

III

V compounds

InAsGaP

thin layer in

InGaP/InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs
(111 A) structure with
quantum well grown by LPE.

TEM image of the structure.

37

Schematic view of

MBE

machine

Riber 32P

MESFET, HEMT


QCL, RTD, Esaki
-
Tsu SL


PD, LED, LD

....

MBE



high purity of materials
,
in situ

control
,
precision of
structure growth in layer
thickness and composition

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

(MBE)

III

V compounds

38

Schematic view of MOCVD

chamber

Unique method of wafer rotation
leads to high uniformity of structure
in wafer and high reproducibility
from wafer to wafer

MOCVD


high

purity of materials
,
large
-
scale device
-
oriented technology

Aixtron AIX2000 HT

(up to 6 x 2” wafers)

Production oriented growth
machine for the fabrication
of device structures

Epiquip VP50
-
RP

(up to 1 x 2” wafer)

Flexible growth machine
for

laboratory studies

MOCVD growth of

III

V compounds

39

Impact of dimensionality on

density of states

40

Band

diagram

Layer sequence

Emission spectrum

at room
temperature

Light
-

and

Volt
-
current


characteristics

Quantum cascade lasers

41

Quantum dot as superatom

Atom

Semiconductor

Quantum dot

42




Evolution and revolutionary changes



Reduction of dimensionality results in improvements

Milestones of semiconductor lasers

43

43

“Magic leather”

energy consumption

44

44

Multijunction solar cells provide conversion

of the solar spectrum with higher efficiency.

Achievable efficiency of multijunction cells is > 50%

45

45

The experimental PV installation with output power of 1

kW based on
concentrator III
-
V solar cells and Fresnel lens panels arranged on the sun
-
tracker

(
development of the Ioffe Institute). The efficiency >30% can be
ensured by such a type of installations if they are equipped by tandem solar
cells with efficiency >35%.

46

46

White light
-
emitting diodes:

efficiency, controllability, reliability, life time

Today:

InGaN
-
QW/
GaN
/sapphire

light
-
emitting chip + YAG
Ce

phosphor

Outlook:

Monolithic
microcavity

LED with

InGN
/GN MQW active region

+

simple design



phosphor loss

+

monolithic nature

+

absence of additional loss

47

47

Nanostructures for high power
semiconductor lasers

Laser array

output power > 100 W

Matrix output power > 5 kW

Laser efficiency > 75%

Laser power > 10 W

48

48

Global nanotechnology market forecast:


More than 1 trillion USD annually in the nearest 8

10 years

49

49

1.

Heterostructures


a new kind of semiconductor materials:


expensive, complicated chemically & technologically but most efficient

2.

Modern optoelectronics is based on heterostructure applications


DHS laser


key device of the modern optoelectronics


HS PD


the most efficient & high speed photo diode


OEIC


only solve problem of high information density of optical
communication system

3.

Future high speed microelectronics will mostly use
heterostructures

4.

High temperature, high speed power electronics



a new broad field of heterostructure applications

5.

Heterostructures in solar energy conversion:


the most expensive photocells and the cheapest solar electricity producer

6.

In the 21st century heterostructures in electronics will reserve
only 1% for homojunctions


Summary