Semiconductor Physics Institute Goštauto 11, LT-2600 Vilnius ...

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Nov 1, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Romuald Brazis



Semiconductor Physics Institute, Vilnius, Lithuania



Metamaterials for
microwave photonics


Picture: Simonas Noreikis

* Eli Yablonovitch and yablonovites; Sajeev John: “stop light”!

* Victor Veselago: “plane plate can focus light”! John Pendry: “yes, just
construct a photonic crystal plate from double split metal rings; you will
have magnetism without magnetics and electrons as heavy as nitrogen
atoms”

*Valanju et al.:“this is a false idea!” Why?

*Brazis and co
-
workes:


semicoductor plasma/dielectric periodic structures: are they PCs?


DMS: are they promising for tunable PCs?


PCs comprising of metal split rings: what are promises from

adding DMS or other magnetic dots?


1987 SajeevJohn @ Eli Yablonovich

“cheese model:
-
)”

An array of 1mm holes milled into a slab of material of refractive index
3.6, latter to be known as Yablonovite, was found to prevent
microwaves from propagating in any direction

He stopped light

This photonic waveguide formed from
a thin silicon
-
nitride membrane
contains a triangular lattice of air holes
separated by 300 nm

AIR HOLES ETCHED INTO A SILICON BLOCK


”Quasiperiodic" lattice arrangements. Although the pattern of
holes appears almost random in such a structure, it is periodic
over a large scale and is constructed in a methodical way .






These quasiperiodic structures have a photonic band gap
whatever angle the light travels. Moreover, they allow a
photonic band gap to form in materials with a low refractive
index, such as conventional silica glass

1994 Ekmel Özbay,
Ames Lab., US

:

“woodpile :
-
)”

"In the past, scientists
tried to mimic the
diamond structure with
something called the
'woodpile' structure
-

looking something like
a stack of Lincoln logs
-

but they are extremely
arduous to make. The
structure must be
grown one layer at a
time, and after several
years of work, they've
only managed to grow
about eight layers."

2004 Ovidiu Toader,

graduate
student by professor Sajeev John

The photonic bandgap crystal
is a tetragonal lattice,

a cubic lattice with spiraling
posts that are stretched in one
direction.

They say it can be done by a
glancing angle deposition
(GLAD):

growing the spiraling posts in
a one step process.

2001
John and Toader
,
Univ.Toronto

“bed’s springs :
-
)”

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B:
Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures

May
1998
--

Volume 16, Issue 3, pp. 1115
-
1122





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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition

K. Robbie
, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7, Canada


(Received 19 December 1997; accepted 27 February 1998)


When a thin film is deposited by physical vapor deposition, with the vapor flux arriving at an oblique angle from the substra
te
normal, and
under conditions of sufficiently limited adatom mobility to create a columnar microstructure, the resulting structure is some
wha
t porous
and grows at an angle inclined toward the vapor source. For a given material and set of deposition conditions, there is a fix
ed
relationship
between the angle of vapor flux incident on the substrate and the inclination angle at which the columnar thin film grows. As

th
e porosity
of the film is also dependent on the incident flux angle, column growth angle and porosity cannot be chosen independently. If

a
large
columnar angle (more parallel to the substrate) is desired, the flux must be deposited at a large oblique angle resulting in
a v
ery porous
film. Conversely, if a near vertical columnar film is desired, the flux must arrive more perpendicular to the substrate and t
he
resulting film
has a tightly packed, dense microstructure. We present a technique, based on glancing angle deposition, employing substrate m
oti
on
during deposition, which allows the columnar growth inclination angle and film density to be controlled independently. With t
his

method,
microstructurally controlled materials can be fabricated with three dimensional control on a 10 nm scale for use in optical,
che
mical,
biological, mechanical, magnetic, and electrical applications

Sajeev John:

“Stop light
!”

Phys. Rev. 109, 1492

1505 (1958) [Issue 5


1 March 1958 ]


Absence of Diffusion

in Certain

Random Lattices

P. W. Anderson


Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey

Received 10 October
1957

This paper presents a simple model for such processes as spin diffusion
or conduction in the "impurity band." These processes involve transport
in a lattice which is in some sense random, and in them diffusion is
expected to take place via quantum jumps between localized sites. In
this simple model the essential randomness is introduced by requiring
the energy to vary randomly from site to site. It is shown that at low
enough densities no diffusion at all can take place, and the criteria for
transport to occur are given.

S. John

3D Silicon Photonic Crystal with a
complete bandgap at 1.5 µm

Photonics and Nanostructures
-

Fundamentals and Applications


Volume 1, Issue 1

, December
2003, pp. 69
-
77

Tunable narrow
-
band
infrared emitters from
hexagonal lattices


I. El
-
Kady
, ,
a
,
b
, R. Biswas
a
, Y.
Ye
a
, M. F. Su
a
, I. Puscasu
c
,
Martin Pralle
c
, E. A. Johnson
c
, J.
Daly
c

and A. Greenwald
c



a

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory and Microelectronics
Research Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA

By the time every home is connected to an optical
-
fibre
network, "set
-
top boxes" that sort and decode the signals will
contain photonic
-
crystal circuits and devices rather than
cumbersome optical fibres and silicon circuits.

And on a five
-

to ten
-
year timescale we should have
demonstrated the first photonic
-

crystal "diodes" and
"transistors".

A demonstration of the first photonic
-

crystal logic circuit
could even take place in the next 10 to 15 years, while a
prototype optical computer driven by photonic crystals could
be available within the next 25 years. Surprisingly, synthetic
opals could even find a niche in the valuable jewellery and
artwork markets, while thin photonic
-
crystal films could also
be used as anti
-
counterfeit devices on credit cards.


Greg Parker G and Charlton M

are in the Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17
1BJ, UK

Victor Veselago, Moscow (more that 30 years ago):


There exist left
-
hand materials:

magnetic permeability is negative,
m
<0,

and

dielectric constant is negative,
e
<0,

but

the product is positive,
em>0,

allowing for light propagation,

but

the light refraction is negative, i.e., a plane
plate focuses light(!?)

John Brian Pendry

http://www.imperial.ac.uk/physics

Imperial College today announces the appointments of its first ever Principals of
Faculties, who will take up their appointments on 1 August 2001.

Double split ring:

pure magnetic dipole (!?)

W. J. Padilla/UCSD
Superstar material?

Left
-
handed materials
--
such as this "metamaterial" for microwaves
--
are reported to bend
light in the opposite direction from normal materials, a property that
might lead to a "perfect" lens. But the materials and their proposed
applications are controversial.

Superstar material?

Veselago's paper

in Sov. Phys. Usp. V. 10, No. 4 Jan
-
Feb 1968 (p. 509) started it all
with an
error in fig.2

which depicts ray focusing by flat NIM slabs. This is the first such
figure that has the arrows in wrong direction inside the LHM. It has been
copied so far
by everyone

in the negative refraction literature

http://www.utexas.edu/research/cemd/nim/NIM4.html

http://www.utexas.edu/research/cemd/nim/Agif/ModWave.html

Comment on

Pendry's "Perfect Lens"

(PRL V.85,
No.18, p. 3966 30 Oct 2000)

paper.


Now we have shown that the perfect lens
is is very imperfect in almost every sense.
It does not focus wave energy. Even for
phase ray focusing, it has severe spherical
and chromatic abberations.

http://www.utexas.edu/research/cemd/nim/Refs.html

http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/wonews/jul03/lhan
d.html





Thu 26 Feb 04 12:46 100 GMT

Left
-
Handed Materials Go from Fact to Fiction and
Back Again


By Alexander Hellemans

Lenses that bend light the wrong way exist after all,
according to the latest experiments

"We have no problem with the carrier waves refracting.
Our argument is that the information cannot negatively
refract," says Walser. If he’s right, the story of left
-
handed materials could end the same way cold fusion
did, even if essentially different. While the materials and
the phenomena do exist, whereas cold fusion does not,
they may still have no practical use.

1984
-
> Brazis, Safonova et al.

Magnetic field, T


T

d

2

d

1

x

y

z,

B

s

60 GHz


GaAs

Magnetic field, T

Magnetically tuned PCs model:
semiconductor/dielectric periodic structure

Mn

e

Can we ensure tunability
in visible light range?


Insert a probe with
magnetic ions!

Diluted
magnetic
semiconductors

Magnetic

moments

of

Mn

ions

act

so

as

to

enhance

the

Zeeman

splitting

of

electron

and

hole

energy

levels

(J
.

Gaj

et

al
.
)
.


This

results,

e
.
g
.
,

in

a

giant

Faraday

rotation

of

the

transmitted

light

polarization

plane

in

bulk

crystals

(Bartholomew

&

Furdyna)
.

One

can

think

about

PC

arranged

from

Cd
1
-
x
Mn
x
Te

dots

but

the

material

refraction

and

extinction

coefficient

dispersion

is

not

known

Diluted magnetic semiconductors

Cd
1
-
x
Mn
x
Te

Photoluminescence:

CdMnTe characterization

Complicated line:

dots, polarons,
bound excitons?

CdMnTe

x=0.05

Zeeman splitting

PL peak positions

Magnetic field, T

FWHM shrinking :

more magnetisation




less fluctuations

Refraction index

Absorption coefficient

Photon energy, eV

Solid
-

B = 0 T; dash
-

B= 0.5 T, dot
-

B= 2 T; dash
-
dot
-

B= 5 T

Safonova,Brazis and Narkowicz, Acta Physica Polonica, 2005

Cd
0.8
Mn
0.2
Te


Artificial magnetic and electric
dipoles


resonators for
observing small
-
probe
ODMR, EPR, incl.
single spin precession


photonic crystal basic
elements


nonlinear oscillators

are

Liniauskas and Brazis, APL, July 26, 2004

A single split ring is both electric
-

and magnetic dipole
presenting PC atom model

Liniauskas ir Brazis

Magnetic field , T

Frequency, GHz

Kazakevicius and Brazis, 2004

Small ferromagnetic probe in the split ring resonator

Photonic crystal

Electric dipole resonance

“Plasma
resonance
without
plasmas”

Kazakevičius and Brazis

Frequency, GHz

Frequency, GHz

Transmission coefficient

Cut
-
off

Conclusions

Magnetic
-
field
-
induced gyrotropy of free
-
carrier plasmas
allows for designing periodic structures (photonic crystals)
with pass/stop bands tunable from microwaves to the far
infrared range


Diluted magnetic semiconductors allows to design PCs with
optical contrast tunable by external magnetic field


Combining metal strip
-

and ring resonators with inserted
magnetic dots is promising for designing composite tunable
PCs

References


R. S. Brazis and L. S. Safonova. Resonance in a periodic structure with gyrotropic layers, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.


10
, 560 (1984)


R. S. Brazis and L. S. Safonova Resonances in a periodic semiconductor
--
insulator structure subjected to a transverse magnetic
field Sov. Phys. Semicond.
20
, 1270
(1986)


Brazis, R. Safonova, L. Electromagnetic waves in layered semiconductor
-
dielectric periodic structures in dc magnetic fields Pro
c. SPIE Vol. 1029, p. 74


R. S. Brazis and L. S. Safonova Propagation of electromagnetic waves along layers in a periodic semiconductor
--
insulator structu
re exhibiting gyrotropy Sov. Phys.
Semicond.
22
, 196 (1988)


Brazis R., Safonova L. Microvawe power absorption in the magnetoactive semiconductor
-
dielectric periodic structures 1990 Volume
30, No. 1 48


Brazis R., Namajūnas A., Gaidelis V., Mironas A., Safonova L., Bumelienė S., "Backward
-
wave oscillator spectrometry in standards

and material characterization",
Int. J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves, V. 15, No 3 (1994).


Brazis R., Safonova L., Narkowicz R., "Coupled phonon
-
photon excitations in semiconductor superlattices", Infrared Physics and T
echnology, V. 36, No 1, p. 51
-
57,
(1995).


Brazis R., Narkowicz R., Safonova L., "In
-
plane propagating coupled photon
-
phonon
-
magnetoplasmons, their field structure and dis
persion in GaAs/AlAs
superlattices", Acta Physica Polonica A, V. 88, No 4, p. 687
-
690 (1995).


Brazis R., Narkowicz R., Safonova L., "Interface, guided and non
-
localized modes in superlattices", Acta Physica Polonica A, V.
87, No 2, p. 333
-
336 (1995).


B.А. Aronzon, V.V.Rylkov, L. Asadauskas, R. Brazis, D.Yu. Kovalev, J. Leotin. Photovoltaic effect in the impurity absorption
reg
ion of Si
-
structures with blocked
impurity conductivity.
-

Semiconductors, 1999, vol. 33, p. 440.


Brazis R., Narkowicz R., Safonova L., Kossut J.,

Light reflection band between the Zeeman lines in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Mater. Sci. Forum vol. 384, 305
-
308 (2002)


Brazis R., Kossut J.,

Role of magnetic fluctuations in the luminescence line width of small systems

Solid State Commun. vol. 122, 73
-
77 (2002)



L Safonova R Brazis R Narkowicz Non
-
reciprocal reflection band in CdMnTe, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 371 (2004) 177
-
179



A. Liniauskas and R. Brazis Photonic crystal assembled from nonmagnetic wire split rings Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 338 (2004)


An electron micrograph of a broken scale taken
from
mitoura grynea

revealing a periodic array of
holes responsible for the colour

Adonis Blue butterfly
.
Note the blue patches to
the rear of the wing are
not pigments

What is the God’s creation?

http://www.cmth.ph.ic.ac.uk/photonics/intro/manufacture.html

Thank you for attention!