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Dr.

Ing. Erwin Sitompul
President University
Lecture
1
Semiconductor Device Physics
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President University
Erwin Sitompul
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Textbook:
“Semiconductor Device Fundamentals”,
Robert F. Pierret, International Edition,
Addison Wesley, 1996.
Textbook and Syllabus
Syllabus:
Chapter 1:
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
Chapter 2:
Carrier Modeling
Chapter 3:
Carrier Action
Chapter 5:
pn
Junction Electrostatics
Chapter 6:
pn
Junction Diode:
I
–
V
Characteristics
Chapter 7:
pn
Junction Diode: Small

Signal Admittance
Chapter 8:
pn
Junction Diode: Transient Response
Chapter 14:
MS Contacts and Schottky Diodes
Chapter 9:
Optoelectronic Diodes
Chapter 10: BJT Fundamentals
Chapter 11: BJT Static Characteristics
Chapter 12: BJT Dynamic Response Modeling
Semiconductor Device Physics
President University
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Grade Policy
Grade Policy:
Final Grade =
10% Homework + 20% Quizzes +
30% Midterm Exam + 40% Final Exam +
Extra Points
Homeworks will be given in fairly regular basis. The average
of homework grades contributes 10% of final grade.
Homeworks are to be written on
A4 papers
, otherwise they
will not be graded.
Homeworks must be submitted
on time
. If you submit late,
< 10 min.
No penalty
10
–
60 min.
–
20 points
> 60 min.
–
40 points
There will be 3 quizzes. Only the best 2 will be counted.
The average of quiz grades contributes 20% of final grade.
Semiconductor Device Physics
President University
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Grade Policy:
Midterm and final exam schedule will be announced in time.
Make up of quizzes and exams will be held one week after
the schedule of the respective quizzes and exams.
The score of a make up quiz or exam can be multiplied by 0.9
(the maximum score for a make up is 90).
Semiconductor Device Physics
Grade Policy
•
Heading of Homework Papers (Required)
President University
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Grade Policy
Grade Policy:
Ex
tra points will be given every time you solve a problem in
front of the class. You will earn 1 or 2 points.
Lecture slides can be copied during class session. It also will
be available on internet around 3 days after class. Please
check the course homepage regularly.
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Semiconductor Device Physics
President University
Erwin Sitompul
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Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
What is a Semiconductor?
Low resistivity
“conductor”
High resistivity
“insulator”
Intermediate resistivity
“semiconductor”
The conductivity (and at the same time the resistivity) of
semiconductors lie between that of conductors and insulators.
President University
Erwin Sitompul
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No recognizable
long

range order
Completely ordered
in segments
Entire solid is made up of
atoms in an orderly
three

dimensional array
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
What is a Semiconductor?
Semiconductors are some of the purest solid materials in
existence, because any trace of impurity atoms called “
dopants
”
can change the electrical properties of semiconductors
drastically.
Unintentional impurity level:
1 impurity atom per 10
9
semiconductor atom.
Intentional impurity ranging from 1 per 10
8
to 1 per 10
3
.
Most devices fabricated today employ crystalline
semiconductors.
polycrystalline
amorphous crystalline
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Semiconductor Materials
Elemental
:
Si, Ge, C
Compound
:
IV

IV
SiC
III

V
GaAs, GaN
II

VI
CdSe
Alloy
:
Si
1

x
Ge
x
Al
x
Ga
1

x
As
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
President University
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From Hydrogen to Silicon
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
President University
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The Silicon Atom
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
14 electrons occupying the first 3 energy levels:
1s, 2s, 2p orbitals are filled by 10 electrons.
3s, 3p orbitals filled by 4 electrons.
To minimize the overall energy, the 3s and
3p orbitals hybridize to form four
tetrahedral 3sp orbital.
Each has one electron and is capable of
forming a bond with a neighboring atom.
President University
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The Si Crystal
“Diamond Lattice”
a
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
•
Each Si atom has 4 nearest
neighbors.
•
Atom
lattice constant
(length of the unit cell side)
a
=
5.431
A, 1A
=
10
–
10
m
°
°
•
Each cell contains:
8 corner atoms
6 face atoms
4 interior atoms
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How Many Silicon Atoms per cm
–
3
?
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
Number of atoms in a unit cell
:
4 atoms completely inside cell
Each of the 8 atoms on corners are shared among 8 cells
count as 1 atom inside cell
Each of the 6 atoms on the faces are shared among 2 cells
count as 3 atoms inside cell
Total number inside the cell = 4 + 1 + 3 =
8
Cell volume
= (.543 nm)
3
= 1.6 x 10
–
22
cm
3
Density of silicon atom
= (8 atoms) / (cell volume)
=
5 x 10
22
atoms/cm
3
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Compound Semiconductors
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
“Zincblende” structure
III

V compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaP, GaN,
etc.
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Crystallographic Notation
Notation
Interpretation
(
h k l
)
crystal plane
{
h k l
}
equivalent planes
[
h k l
]
crystal direction
<
h k l
>
equivalent directions
h
: inverse
x

intercept of plane
k
: inverse
y

intercept of plane
l
: inverse
z

intercept of plane
(
h
,
k
and
l
are reduced to 3
integers having the same ratio.)
Miller Indices
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
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Crystallographic Planes
(632) plane
(001) plane
(221) plane
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
_
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Crystallographic Planes
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
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Crystallographic Planes of Si Wafers
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
Silicon wafers are usually cut along a {100} plane with a flat or
notch to orient the wafer during integrated

circuit fabrication.
The facing surface is polished and etched yielding mirror

like
finish.
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Crystal Growth Until Device Fabrication
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
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Unit cell:
View in <100> direction
Crystallographic Planes of Si
View in <110> direction
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
View in <111> direction
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Erwin Sitompul
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Greek Alphabet
Chapter 1
Semiconductors: A General Introduction
—
pie
—
fie
—
k

eye
—
sigh
—
zz

eye
—
taw
—
new
—
mew
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