Applied Sensor Technology

woundcallousSemiconductor

Nov 1, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Applied Sensor Technology



Outline




Introduction


Examples of Sensors


Basic readout electronics


Semiconductor detectors




Introduction


A sensor measure various physical parameters


Motion


Height, weight and volume


Pressure, Tensile stress


Temperature


Flow


Irradiation


Energy


………


Introduction


Why do we need sensors?

Introduction

Elements of a measurement system

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction


Sensor Characteristics


Accuracy


Calibration


Dead
-
zone


Drift


Error


Hysteresis


Lag


Linearity


Operating life


Precision



Sensor Characteristics


Range


Rating


Reliability


Repeatability


Reproducibility


Response


Resolution


Sensitivity


Stability


Static error


Tolerance



Introduction

Examples of Sensors


Resistance Strain Gauge


Measure change in size of a
solid object, due to the object
being strained.

Examples of Sensors


Measuring volume in a fuel
tank

1

2

Examples of Sensors


Piezoelectric pressure sensor


Mechanical pressure


Gas pressure

Examples of Sensors



Audio

(change in air pressure)


Recording


Mixing (Signal processing)

Examples of Sensors


Temperature measurement,
thermocouple element

Examples of Sensors


Temperature measurement by heat radiation

Basic readout electronics


Purpose


Amplify small signal from the
sensor


Signal processing to
suppress noise

Basic readout electronics


Operational amplifier


Voltage Comparator


Voltage amplifier


Inverting


Non
-
inverting


Basic readout electronics


Operational amplifier


Differential amplifier


Instrumentation amplifier












Basic readout electronics


Operational amplifier


Voltage amplifier


Current amplifier


Charge sensitive amp
.


Semiconductor detectors

Semiconductor detectors

Semiconductor detectors

Semiconductor detectors

Semiconductor detectors

Semiconductor detectors


SiO
2

Al

L

n
-
type Si substrate


P
+

n
+

hv

eh

eh

e h


i
1

i
2

0

X
c


Low non linearity ~0.1%


Independent of light spot focus


Simple calculation of the position

Lateral photoeffect PSD

Applied Sensor Technology


Semiconductor physics


Semiconductor processing


Analog Electronics





http://apachepersonal.miun.se/~gorthu/AST/