The Management systems
Lux, Gerhard Werner
Environmental protection requires ecological knowledge, e.g. about the substantial effects in ecosy
tems. This knowledge, however, can only become relevant to
application if it has an influence on a
tions within society. For this purpose it is necessary that the knowledge contributes to decisions esp
cially within the judicial, the economic and the political system. Environmental planning aids in the
s of such decisions.
Environmental planning in this sense, as today the word is used as a job
title and name
wide can be divided into two major fields or approaches: the field which is more co
cerned with p
lanning of technical pr
ocesses or technical economic management in industry
field dealing with the spatial aspects of environment (spatial environmental planning). With respect to
, the main issues are the allocation of different forms of land utilization
traffic, recreation, biological conservation) in space and the solution of conflicts which occur between
them. A special emphasis here is on
land use, protection of soil resources, genetic diversity (biodive
and water resource management
The tasks of environmental planning exceed the meaning of the term ”environment”, as it is defined in
ecology. This is not only a matter of enhancing living conditions (e.g. the quality of water, soil, and
or of protecting certain species of animals and plants as resources for human life. It is concerned with
landscape planning as well
The relation of those two fields can be best characterised as two approaches (views) to deal with our
e possible (and widely used) way of integration these two approaches in environme
tal management is the instrument of the “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)”.
Approaches of Environmental Planning
Spatial environmental planning
Spatial planning with the aim of environmental protection takes place at the federal, Länder (Federal
States) and municipal planning levels and serves to prepare political res
olutions and to implement
Medial plans, Stan
ards, rules and regul
tions, clearances, CP,
of the pote
tial & fun
tion of nat
Assure the d
velopment of the
potential of na
Offer sites, preferential
areas, harmonise di
ferent uses ....
EIA can connect pollution control and spatial e
parliamentary decisions. The parties involved are, among others, citizens, property owners, investors,
planners in administration, affected public institutions and the political decision
Regional plans and local developm
ent plans form an important foundation based on federal law for
making regarding sites for emission
causing plants, recreational facilities, landfills and tho
oughfares, to name but a few examples.
Spatial planning comprises instruments of coord
ination and information. The most important task is the
arrangement competing demands for use of an area, weighing out the public and private concerns.
Environmental planning aims to incorporate fully environmental concerns into planning, to weigh them
h respect to their importance and to include methodological considerations concerning existing and
new instruments and procedures.
All natural resources and environmental media are defined by their location. Their protection and
management is thus always a site specific task.
demand for land exceeds the available amount of land. A rational management i
Need for protection:
Effective protection of natural resources and sustainable use needs a proper management.
Demands are often conflicting. A planned a
pproach is needed to allocate
land uses that manage
conflicts in a fair manner.
Economic and social objectives have to be achieved in ways
that safeguard and enhance the
is a matter of making collective choices
about the states
of the env
Building and Housing
Responsibility: Framework Legislation and Planning
represented at the
level of Municipalities and
Cities. They have planning
Administration of Cities
Responsibilities: Spatial Planning,
Siting of Industries
Responsibility: Specification of the
tion, Control and Clearance
ronment we want and ensuring that unacceptable damage does not occur. It may also
involve adapting to the unfortunate consequences if environmental constraints have
Environmental planning must be informe
d by the natural sciences an
d the social sciences, but must
also be grounded in values and judgements. That means engaging the public in the choices that
to be made.
Ecological compatible Land Use Planning and Management
sites of important and sensitive natural resources and environmental
media by allowing only a type of land utilisation, which will not adversely affect the natural
Plan and manage the
of degraded sites in order to imp
rove environmental qual
land use to sites in accordance with their natural capabilities.
Developmental activities such as industry, transportation, housing, mining, tourism, agriculture, waste
treatment and disposal installations etc. must be
sited in accordance with the environmental sensitivity
of the sites. Environmental considerations are to be incorporated into all developmental activities or
sectors that are likely to pose impacts on the environment.
Strategic approach of
patible Land Use Planning and Management
prior to any project or investment
spatial objectives in terms of protection and conserv
tion, rehabilitation and development in form of a spatial development concept or plan.
pile and assess for the total area of a given planning region (Municipality, Region, State etc.)
information on all types, qualities and sensitivities of the natural resources.
This plan should provide sufficient land selected on ecological consi
derations for all kinds of future
land uses from all sectors of the society such as:
development of the infrastructure
resource extraction etc.
Basic principles of Planning
Planning is not done by
standards, but by planning procedures.
Therefore coordination and cooper
tion is a prominent feature of the planning processes.
Principles of plan co
Vertical and horizontal Co
All new plans are developed in direct collaboration
interaction with all concerned authorities
Plan contents of relevance for other plans is incorporated into
Vertical and horizontal Co
Overall plan co
ordination is executed at local, r
gional and state
spatial planning levels
Town and country
planning has been a major force
protecting the environment. Increasingly effective
protection has been provided for the most valued
features of the environment. The more obvious
forms of pollution have been greatly
Tools for plan co
and required degree of
plan contents of relevance for other plans are incorporated into them
ecent assessments have shown the quality of the environment deteriorating in many respects.
pressures on the environment are severe. We must find sustainable ways of managing
the trends are new. There is a danger they may be overl
ooked or underestimated because
es and effects are widely scattered and not readily apparent.
Many of the issues are long
term and far
in land use now in
prospect in the countryside
extensive dereliction and decay in urban areas
the volumes of waste pr
the need to find more efficient ways of using natural resources such as water
the amounts of
greenhouse gases being emitted into the
the changes in weather patterns and rises in
sea level which now appear inevitable consequences
of the higher concentration of greenhouse gases
already present in the atmosphere.
A new approach is needed. The solutions to these problems wi
equire new policies in many
They certainly pose major challenges for the planning and regulation of land use.
The regulation and
planning of land use is not something that can be considered in isolation.
The ways in which land is
used are linked to
environmental change on many different scales.
Air quality, the water cycle, biological diversity, transport, and ene
rgy production and use are all
tially related. To significant extents policies in those fields depend for their success on decisions
land use. Equally, the management and condition of land are much influenced by other
by other statutory and non
statutory regimes, as well as by town and country
planning. In fact, the
largest uses of land, agriculture and forestry, have
remained almost totally
outside the town and cou
try planning system.
Services in Environmental Planning
Environmental Impact Investigations
Integrated Environmental Protection
Environmental Law Licensing Procedures
A basic weakness in present procedures is the lack of strong conne
ctions between town and country
planning and the work of the specialist agencies dealing with pollutio
n and conservation.
about complex environmental processes is scattere
d between numbers
ment plans may express admirable sentiments about issues such as energy
conservation, but not in a
form and context that are like
ly to change anything in the real world.
On the contrary,
and fatigue engendered by such a large number of plans produced by different bodies
times may make the environmental planning syst
em less effective than it could