View into Problems Tasks Instruments

workmarathonManagement

Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

54 views

The Management systems


Environmental planning

F. Bemmerlein
-
Lux, Gerhard Werner

2005


Environmental protection requires ecological knowledge, e.g. about the substantial effects in ecosy
s-
tems. This knowledge, however, can only become relevant to
application if it has an influence on a
c-
tions within society. For this purpose it is necessary that the knowledge contributes to decisions esp
e-
cially within the judicial, the economic and the political system. Environmental planning aids in the
preparation
s of such decisions.


Environmental planning in this sense, as today the word is used as a job
-
title and name

of graduate
courses world
-
wide can be divided into two major fields or approaches: the field which is more co
n-
cerned with p
lanning of technical pr
ocesses or technical economic management in industry

and the
field dealing with the spatial aspects of environment (spatial environmental planning). With respect to
spatial pl
a
nning
, the main issues are the allocation of different forms of land utilization

(e.g. agriculture,
traffic, recreation, biological conservation) in space and the solution of conflicts which occur between
them. A special emphasis here is on
land use, protection of soil resources, genetic diversity (biodive
r-
sity and
biological conserva
tion
),

recreation

and water resource management
.


The tasks of environmental planning exceed the meaning of the term ”environment”, as it is defined in
ecology. This is not only a matter of enhancing living conditions (e.g. the quality of water, soil, and
air)
or of protecting certain species of animals and plants as resources for human life. It is concerned with
landscape planning as well
.


The relation of those two fields can be best characterised as two approaches (views) to deal with our
environment.
On
e possible (and widely used) way of integration these two approaches in environme
n-
tal management is the instrument of the “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)”.


Two
Approaches of Environmental Planning






Spatial environmental planning

in Germany


Spatial planning with the aim of environmental protection takes place at the federal, Länder (Federal
States) and municipal planning levels and serves to prepare political res
olutions and to implement
Pollution

control

Spatial enviro
n-
mental
planning

View

into

Problems

Tasks

Instruments

the produ
c-
tion process

Emissions

reduce, avoid
Emissions

Medial plans, Stan
d-
ards, rules and regul
a-
tions, clearances, CP,
EMS

the enviro
n-
ment

Disturbance
of the pote
n-
tial & fun
c-
tion of nat
u-
ral systems

Assure the d
e-
velopment of the
potential of na
t-
ural Systems:

protect, rehabil
i-
tate, recuperate

Offer sites, preferential
areas, harmonise di
f-
ferent uses ....

EIA can connect pollution control and spatial e
n-
vironmental plann
ing

parliamentary decisions. The parties involved are, among others, citizens, property owners, investors,
planners in administration, affected public institutions and the political decision
-
makers.


Regional plans and local developm
ent plans form an important foundation based on federal law for
decision
-
making regarding sites for emission
-
causing plants, recreational facilities, landfills and tho
r-
oughfares, to name but a few examples.


Spatial planning comprises instruments of coord
ination and information. The most important task is the
arrangement competing demands for use of an area, weighing out the public and private concerns.
Environmental planning aims to incorporate fully environmental concerns into planning, to weigh them
wit
h respect to their importance and to include methodological considerations concerning existing and
new instruments and procedures.






Why Spatial
Planning?


Spatial component:


All natural resources and environmental media are defined by their location. Their protection and
management is thus always a site specific task.


Limited resource:


The
demand for land exceeds the available amount of land. A rational management i
s

necessary.


Need for protection:

Effective protection of natural resources and sustainable use needs a proper management.


Conflicts:

Demands are often conflicting. A planned a
pproach is needed to allocate
land uses that manage

tho
se
conflicts in a fair manner.


Economic and social objectives have to be achieved in ways

that safeguard and enhance the
env
i-
ronment.
Environmental planning

is a matter of making collective choices
about the states

of the env
i-
National Level

State

Level

Municipal Level

Federa
l

Ministry of

Environment

Federal Ministry

for Trans
port,

Building and Housing

Technical

Boards

Advisory

Bodies.

Responsibility: Framework Legislation and Planning

The
Stat
e
s

(Länder)
are

not

represented at the
level of Municipalities and
Cities. They have planning
autonomy

under Federal
Law
!

Municipalities

and Cities

Environmental

Administration of Cities

Responsibilities: Spatial Planning,
Siting of Industries

Ministries of

Environment and

Regional Planning

Technical

Boards

Regional

Env. Authorities

Locale (District)

Env. Authorities

Responsibility: Specification of the
Framework
Legisl
a-
tion, Control and Clearance

ronment we want and ensuring that unacceptable damage does not occur. It may also

sometimes
involve adapting to the unfortunate consequences if environmental constraints have

been breached.

Environmental planning must be informe
d by the natural sciences an
d the social sciences, but must
also be grounded in values and judgements. That means engaging the public in the choices that

have
to be made.


Basic Objectives

of
Ecological compatible Land Use Planning and Management



Preserve
and protect

sites of important and sensitive natural resources and environmental
media by allowing only a type of land utilisation, which will not adversely affect the natural
functions.



Plan and manage the
rehabilitation

of degraded sites in order to imp
rove environmental qual
i-
ty.



Allocate

land use to sites in accordance with their natural capabilities.


Developmental activities such as industry, transportation, housing, mining, tourism, agriculture, waste
treatment and disposal installations etc. must be

sited in accordance with the environmental sensitivity
of the sites. Environmental considerations are to be incorporated into all developmental activities or
sectors that are likely to pose impacts on the environment.


Strategic approach of
Ecological com
patible Land Use Planning and Management


Objectives:

Develop


prior to any project or investment


spatial objectives in terms of protection and conserv
a-
tion, rehabilitation and development in form of a spatial development concept or plan.


Complete:

Com
pile and assess for the total area of a given planning region (Municipality, Region, State etc.)
information on all types, qualities and sensitivities of the natural resources.


Options:

This plan should provide sufficient land selected on ecological consi
derations for all kinds of future
land uses from all sectors of the society such as:



industrial development



residential development



development of the infrastructure



resource extraction etc.



Basic principles of Planning


Planning is not done by
standards, but by planning procedures.

Therefore coordination and cooper
a-
tion is a prominent feature of the planning processes.


Principles of plan co
-
ordination



Vertical and horizontal Co
-
operation:

All new plans are developed in direct collaboration
and

interaction with all concerned authorities



Informational notification:

Plan contents of relevance for other plans is incorporated into
those plans



Vertical and horizontal Co
-
ordination:

Overall plan co
-
ordination is executed at local, r
e-
gional and state
spatial planning levels


Town and country
planning has been a major force
protecting the environment. Increasingly effective
protection has been provided for the most valued

features of the environment. The more obvious
forms of pollution have been greatly

reduced.


Tools for plan co
-
ordination

Prescribed
co
-
ordination procedures

and required degree of
mutual co
-
operation
:



by
exchange

of information



by mutual
collaboration



by mutual
consent




informational
notification
:

plan contents of relevance for other plans are incorporated into them


R
ecent assessments have shown the quality of the environment deteriorating in many respects.

The
pressures on the environment are severe. We must find sustainable ways of managing
them.

Few of
the trends are new. There is a danger they may be overl
ooked or underestimated because
their cau
s-
es and effects are widely scattered and not readily apparent.


Many of the issues are long
-
term and far
-
reaching.
They include:
dramatic changes
in land use now in
prospect in the countryside

extensive dereliction and decay in urban areas

the volumes of waste pr
o-
duced

the need to find more efficient ways of using natural resources such as water

the amounts of
greenhouse gases being emitted into the

atmosphere

the changes in weather patterns and rises in
sea level which now appear inevitable consequences

of the higher concentration of greenhouse gases
already present in the atmosphere.


A new approach is needed. The solutions to these problems wi
ll r
equire new policies in many
fields.
They certainly pose major challenges for the planning and regulation of land use.

The regulation and
planning of land use is not something that can be considered in isolation.

The ways in which land is
used are linked to

environmental change on many different scales.


Air quality, the water cycle, biological diversity, transport, and ene
rgy production and use are all
sp
a-
tially related. To significant extents policies in those fields depend for their success on decisions

a
bout
land use. Equally, the management and condition of land are much influenced by other

policies, and
by other statutory and non
-
statutory regimes, as well as by town and country

planning. In fact, the
largest uses of land, agriculture and forestry, have

remained almost totally

outside the town and cou
n-
try planning system.


Services in Environmental Planning



Environmental Impact Investigations

and Assessment




Waste Management



Energy Management



Environmental Management



Production
-
Integrated Environmental Protection



Environmental Law Licensing Procedures


A basic weakness in present procedures is the lack of strong conne
ctions between town and country
planning and the work of the specialist agencies dealing with pollutio
n and conservation.

Information
about complex environmental processes is scattere
d between numbers

of different
bodies. Develo
p-
ment plans may express admirable sentiments about issues such as energy

conservation, but not in a
form and context that are like
ly to change anything in the real world.

On the contrary,

the confusion
and fatigue engendered by such a large number of plans produced by different bodies

at different
times may make the environmental planning syst
em less effective than it could
otherwise

be.

http://www.rcep.org.uk/epreport/28summry.pdf