Focusing Agricultural Research Around Four Major Areas ...

workkinkajouBiotechnology

Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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1

Improving Our Quality of Life
Through Advancements in Science


World Food Prize International Symposium

13 October 2005


Robb Fraley

Executive Vice President

and Chief Technology Officer

Monsanto Company

2

Solving Human Challenges Through Science

Protecting Biodiversity

Lack of reliable food source, malnutrition

Limited arable land

Insufficient fresh water

Soil degradation

“To feed the eight billion people expected by 2025, the world
will have to double food production…”


CSIS
-

Seven Revolutions

3

* Photo credit: AAAS, ARS, Nature

1980


2000

Gene
Sequencing,
Biotech Crops,

Human Insulin

2001

Human Genome,

Plant Genome,

Animal Genome

10000 BC

Fermentation &
Leavening


1800’s

Mendel’s Pea,

Darwin’s Species,
Pasteur’s
Microbes

1950
-
1980

DNA,

Human Nutrition,
Fortification,

Green Revolution

1900
-
1950

Antibiotics,

Pasteurization,
Preservation,
Crop Breeding

Building on centuries of science,
biotechnology is a collection of tools used to
improve and enhance plants, animals, and
microorganisms for the benefit of society.

Continuously Improving the Quantity and Quality of
Food Production Through Science

4

Creating Positive Economic Impact with
Increasing Speed

Source: J. Bradford De Long, Estimating World GDP, One Million B.C.
-
Present

Information Age

50 years

Estimated world per capita GDP in constant 1990 dollars

6000 BC

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000


2025

5000

10000

15000

20000

GDP

Steam

Electricity

Microprocessor

Genome

Industrial Age

350 years

Biotech Age

25 years

Agrarian Age

7000 years

5


Ag Productivity


Food and Nutrition


Pharmaceuticals


Industrial
Processes


Bioremediation


Bio
-
Fuels


Personal Care

Advancements are Important in Both Developing

Countries and Developed Countries Around the World

Biotechnology Continues To Advance
With Applications In…

*: Courtesy of DOE Human Genome Project

6

10 Years of Plant Biotechnology


10 years of commercial
experience on over 1
billion acres:


Proven economic and
environmental benefits


Solid record of safety


Promising future
benefits from new
products


30 years of R&D efforts

M. Ac.

Source: ISAAA (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri
-
Biotech
Applications) & Monsanto estimates

canola

cotton

corn

soy

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005F

2010F

7

17 Countries Planted Biotech Crops in 2004


Benefits Drive Adoption

USA

118M A (1)

Soybean, Corn,

Cotton, Canola

Canada

13M A (3)

Canola,

Corn, Soybean

Uruguay

740k A (9)

Soybean,

Corn

Paraguay

3M A (6)


Soybean

South Africa

1.25M A (8)


Cotton, Soy

Mexico

250k A (12)

Cotton,

Soybean

Honduras

<125k A (16)


Corn

Argentina

40M A (2)

Soybean,

Corn, Cotton

Spain

250k A (13)


Corn

Colombia

<125k A (15)


Cotton

Brazil

12.3M A (4)


Soybean

Australia

500k A (10)


Cotton

China

9.1M A (5)


Cotton

Philippines

250k A (14)


Corn

Germany

<125k A (17)


Corn

Romania

250k A (11)


Soybean

India

1.3k A (7)


Cotton

Source: James, C. ISAAA, 2004; Brookes, G. 2005
www.agbioforum.org

The Global Economic and Environmental Impact

The first Nine Years 1996
-
2004


Pesticide Reduction


172M Kg (379M lbs) less pesticide use, 6% reduction


Overall Environmental Footprint reduced by 14%

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction


Reduced >10B Kg Carbon Dioxide Emission


Equivalent to removing 5 M cars from the road for a year

Economic Return


$6.5B increase in farm income in 2004


$27B cumulative net economic benefits at the farm level

8

Biotech Crops Bring Benefits to

Agriculture, Growers and the Environment

Control Crop Biotech Crop

Insect resistant crops:


Reduces insecticide use


Protects farmer health


Benefits environment

Herbicide resistant crops:



Reduces herbicide use


Protects farmer health


Benefits environment

Control Crop Biotech Crop

9

Most Farmers Growing Biotech Crops

are in in Developing Countries

8.25M farmers in 17

countries grew biotech crops


More than 3/4 of them

are resource
-
poor farmers

in developing countries


10

Bt Cotton: Delivering Economic and

Health Benefits to Indian Farmers

India: Cotton = 30% Agriculture GDP


-
50%(
-
$22.3/Ac)
pesticide reduction

+58% (+294kg/Ac)
yield increase

+163% (+ $132/Ac)
net return

Bt

Cotton

Conventional
Cotton

2004 Season

Results of 2004 season

Source: IMRB International, 2005
AC Nielsen
-

ORG Center for Social Research, 2004


Bt cotton in 2004 helped
farmers in India to earn
US $172M additional
income


Additional $1.33B in
economic impact
through cotton industry


Overall cotton
production is up by 384M
Kg of seed cotton or
134M Kg of lint


Bt cotton reduced
pesticide loading worth
US$29 million




(1quintal = 100kg; 1 bale = 170kg)

11

Bt Maize: Delivering Yield Advantage and
Economic Return to Philippine Farmers


>15,000 farmers growing Bt
maize in the Philippines


Yield advantage: ~30%


Production cost reduction
~20%


Income increased by 20% for
farmers planting Bt maize

Conventional Corn

Bt Corn

Conventional

Bt Corn

Conventional

Bt Corn

6.3 T/Ha

8.0 T/Ha

5.7 T/Ha

7.7 T/Ha

27%

35%

Hybrid 1

Hybrid 2

Yield Comparison

12


Enabling Technologies

(Global)


Virus resistant Cassava
(Africa)


Bt Cowpea
(Africa)


“Golden Rice”

(Global)


Rice genome

sequence data (
Global)


Delayed ripening papaya

(SE Asia)


Virus resistant papaya
(SE Asia)


Virus resistant potato

(Mexico)


Insect resistant potato
(Russia)


Virus resistant sweet potato

(Kenya)


Public
-
Private Partnerships for

Developing Countries

Potato

Transgenic

Control

Transgenic

Control

Papaya

Cassava

Cowpea

13

Monsanto: Focusing Agricultural Research

Around Four Major Areas


Agronomic Traits


Insect, Weed and Disease Control



Feed & Processing

Animal productivity (e.g. amino acids)



Food

Human nutrition (e.g healthier oils)



Yield & Stress



14


Reduce/eliminate trans fats with
increased oil stability, requiring
less hydrogenation


Achieve yield parity and stack
with standard soybean


Reduce linolenic acid to <3%


Future developments will
increase oleic and reduce
saturates

Molecular

Markers

Crop
Genome

Food Quality

Traits

Yield

Drought

Flavour

Nutrients

Disease

Oil

Protein

Carbohydrate

Metabolism

Improved

Foods

Improved

Foods

Crop
Breeding

Low Linolenic Soy

: Reducing

Trans Fats for Human Health

Standard
Soybean

Low Lin

Mid Oleic +
Low Lin

Zero Sat +
MO + LL

Linoleic

18:2

Oleic

18:1

Sats

18:0 / 16:0

Linolenic

18:3



15

Omega
-
3 Oilseed: Increasing Omega 3

for Heart Health


Build on demand:

AHA, USDA/DHHS and
FDA all have recognized the importance of
omega
-
3s for heart health


Enrich vegetable oils with bio
-
available
Omega
-
3


Promote heart health with Omega
-
3


Enhance stability
of SDA as an Omega
-
3

*AHA: American Heart Association; DHHS: Dept. Health and Human Services

Population Coronary Heart Disease Mortality
and Tissue Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content
USA
Quebec
Quebec Cree
Quebec Inuit
Spain
Japan
Greenland
0
50
100
150
200
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
Omega-3 (% of all long-chain PUFA)
CHD Mortality

Source: W Lands, Lipids 2003: 38:317

Dietary Omega
-
3

in Biotech Oil seed

0

20

40

60

80

100

Fatty Acid (wt%)

Control

Oilseed

Biotech

Oilseed

New Bio available
Omega
-
3


Mono
-
unsaturates


Saturates


Other Poly
-
unsaturates

0
10
20
30
Event 1
Event 2
Event 3
Event 4
Event 5
Event 6
Event 7
Biotech Plants in Development Meet or Exceed 20% Target

Omega levels in U.S. Field Trials

target

Fatty Acid Wt (%)

16

ALA a
-
linolenic acid

18:3 n
-
3

Current Sources of Dietary Omega
-
3

canola, soy & flax

Vegetable Oil

Fish Oil

EPA eicosapentaenoic acid

20:5 n
-
3

DHA docosahexaenoic acid

22:6 n
-
3

Omega
-
3 C
onsumer
Awareness


82% Fish oil


58% Omega
-
3


55% interest in trying
fortified foods

Source: Sloan Trends & Solutions, Inc., 2003

w
6

w
3



18:2

linoleic acid

LA

18:3

g
-
linol敮ic 慣ad

䝌A

㈰23

dihomo
-
g
-
linol敮i挠慣楤

DGLA

20:4

arachidonic acid

ARA

18:3

a
-
linol敮ic 慣ad

ALA

18:4

Stearidonic Acid

SDA

20:5

eicosapentaenoic acid

EPA

20:4

eicosatetraenoic

acid

Pro
-
inflammatory

Anti
-
inflammatory

SDA Benefits


In humans,* SDA is
converted to EPA ~5X
more efficiently than ALA


In foods, SDA has greater
oxidative stability than
EPA or DHA

* Dr. Mick James, Royal Adelaide Hospital

Rate limiting
step

17

High Lysine Corn


Amino acid enhancements add human nutritional
value for developing countries


Enhance level of limiting essential amino acids and
corn oil content


Improve amino acid balance and total energy




Enhancing Essential Amino Acids

to Add Nutritional Value

0

1000

2000


1
st

Generation

South Am.
Result

US Result

Control

Minimum

Target



2
nd

Generation

Event 1

Event 2

Control

Minimum

Target

3000

4000

5000

Free lysine level (ppm)

18

Improving Nitrogen Uptake to Increase
Corn Yield

Product Concept



10% yield increase over
elite varieties at time of
launch


Equivalent yield with 50%
less nitrogen fertilizer

Benefits


Produce greater output
per unit input


Manage yield variability


Potential to reduce
fertilizer


Environmental benefits
from reduced fertilizer
run
-
off

Enhanced
nitrogen uptake
and utilization as
demonstrated by
increased:



Biomass


Greenness


Key metabolites


Yield

Screening Under Limiting and

Sufficient Nitrogen

Limiting N

Sufficient N

Greenhouse

Field

Yield Across All Acres and/or Reduced Inputs

19

Water Consumption
Shares by
Sector(1995)

Water…One of the Most Limiting

Resources in Our World

Developing Countries

Irrigation

Livestock

2%

Household

8%

Industrial

5%

Developed Countries

Industrial

22%

Livestock

3%

62%

13%

Irrigation

Household

By 2025, Developing
Countries will have about
300 Million MT grain deficits
due to water scarcity

Source: International Food Policy Research Institute


-
500


-
400


-
300


-
200


-
100


0

million mt

1995

2025

Base

Case

Water Crisis

Sustainable

Water Use

Loss of Grain Production Due to Water Scarcity in Developing Countries

20

Helping Solve Water Usage Challenges
Through Biotech Solutions




Drought Tolerance Objective


Yield Protection on all acres
to protect against drought
stress


Yield enhancement on all
acres through improved
water use efficiency


Cost savings on irrigated
acres through reduced
water use


Improved economics and
environmental sustainability

Arabidopsis

With Gene

Control

With Gene

Control

Rice

21




Drought Tolerance Corn

New Genes Provide Drought Tolerance

Reduced

Leaf Temperature


Without Gene

With Gene

Without Gene

With Gene

Reduced

Leaf Rolling


40

32
o
C

34

22



Consistent

Drought

Stress

(western US

dryland)

Reduced


Irrigation

Costs



Broad Acre

Water Use
Efficiency

KS, NE, TX, CO, SD

Opportunity to

utilize in

other crops

KS, NE, TX, CO

Water usage
down

and pumping

prices
increasing

Central ,

E and S. corn belt

More

reliable

yields

All corn acres

Most corn

experiences

low water

that

limits yield

Drought

“Insurance”

10
-
13 M corn

+ 5 M non
-
corn


12 M

30
-
50 M


Potential

US Acreage

Market

Segment

70
-

80 M

Drought Tolerant Corn for Every Farmer

10+ % (8+ bu/A) yield benefit stackable with best elite
germplasm and biotech agronomic traits

23

Imagining the Benefits of Drought Tolerance
For the Developing Country Farmer





We are developing a plan to
ensure humanitarian access
to drought tolerance trait



White maize is the single largest
subsistence food crop in Africa
& subject to repeated drought
caused famines


Offer broad humanitarian access
to any drought tolerant maize
that we develop for food security
in Africa


Continue to explore
humanitarian access and
development partnership
concepts for other crops for
Africa



24

Improving Food Quality and Production

for Our World’s Farmers and Consumers


Biotech crops have been planted for a decade with successful,
safe and beneficial use in countries that account for more than
half of the world’s population.


The tools of biotechnology continue to improve the quality of
our food and our lives.

New

Traits

Global

Food

Production

Current

Food

Production

More and Better

Foods

Greater

Benefits