Higher National Unit Specification General information for centres Unit title:

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Higher National Unit Specification

General information for centres

Unit title: Routing Technology

Unit code: DF9Y 35

Unit purpose:
This Unit is designed to enable candidates to work effectively in a
network installation or support role for Small Office, Home Office, small business or
organisations using networks that have fewer than 100 nodes, requiring complex LAN
implementation or interconnectivity via WAN links. It is intended for candidates
undertaking an HNC or HND in Computing, Computer Networking or a related area who
require a broad understanding of routing technology.

On completion of the Unit candidates should be able to:

1. Describe router basics.
2. Implement a basic router configuration.
3. Manage a router.
4. Describe the operation of common routing protocols.
5. Implement routing protocols.
6. Test and troubleshoot a routed LAN.
7. Define the principles of a TCP/IP based firewall.
8. Configure a firewall.

Credit value:
2 HN credits at SCQF level 8: (16 SCQF credit points at SCQF level 8*)


*SCQF credit points are used to allocate credit to qualifications in the Scottish Credit and Qualifications
Framework (SCQF). Each qualification in the Framework is allocated a number of SCQF credit points at
an SCQF level. There are 12 SCQF levels, ranging from Access 1 to Doctorates.

Recommended prior knowledge and skills:
Access to this Unit will be at the
discretion of the Centre. There are no specific requirements but candidates would benefit
from knowledge of computer networks. This may be demonstrated by the possession of
HN Units such as DF9P 34 Network Concepts, DF9T 34 Internetworking Concepts 1,
DF9V 34 Internetworking Concepts 2 and DF9X 35 Networking Technology.


Core skills:
There may be opportunities to gather evidence towards core skills in this
Unit, although there is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components.

Context for delivery:
This Unit is included in the framework of a number of HNC
and HND group awards. It is recommended that it should be taught and assessed within
the context of the particular group award to which it contributes.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 1
General information for centres (cont)

Assessment:
Evidence for the knowledge and/or skills for the entire Unit must be
produced using a set of 50 restricted-response questions to assess candidates’ knowledge
and understanding. This may be administered as a single end-of unit test, or as several
subtests, each covering one or more outcomes.

Candidates must answer at least 70% of the questions correctly in order to obtain a pass.
If subtests are used, they must also score at least 70% in each subtest.

Testing must take place in a closed-book environment where candidates have no access
to books, handouts, notes, or other learning material. Testing can be done in either a
machine-based or paper-based format and must be invigilated by a tutor or mentor. There
must be no communication between candidates and communication with the
administrator must be restricted to matters relating to the administration of the test.

If a candidate requires to be reassessed, a different selection of questions must be used.
At least half the questions in the reassessment must be different from those used in the
original test.

If an outcome has a practical component, this must be assessed by having the candidate
use a logbook to record the practical tasks successfully completed. The logbook can be in
paper or electronic form and must be authenticated by the tutor or mentor.

For some outcomes only a sample of the practical tasks needs to be completed and
recorded for assessment purposes, e.g. three out of five. This is clearly indicated in the
logbook instructions for the outcomes involved. Where this occurs, tutors must inform
candidates of the tasks to be completed.

An Assessment Exemplar and Guidelines on the Delivery of the Unit have been produced
to indicate the national standard of achievement required at SCQF level 8.















HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 2
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards

Unit title: Routing Technology

Unit code: DF9Y 35

The sections of the Unit stating the Outcomes, knowledge and/or skills, and evidence
requirements are mandatory.

Where evidence for Outcomes is assessed on a sample basis, the whole of the content
listed in the knowledge and/or skills section must be taught and available for assessment.
Candidates should not know in advance the items on which they will be assessed and
different items should be sampled on each assessment occasion.

Outcome 1

Describe router basics.

Knowledge and skills

Describe the role of a router in a network.


Describe router components.

Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 1 must be examined by six questions,
three being derived from each of the two items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

1. Describe the role of a router in a network

Path selection, gateway, LAN routers, WAN routers

2. Describe router components

Physical components of a router, management connections, LAN/WAN interfaces

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the 6 questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

There are no practical tasks relating to Outcome 1.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 3
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.

Outcome 2

Implement a basic router configuration.

Knowledge and/or skills

Start a router.



Configure a router.
Discover and connect to neighbouring internetworking devices.

Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 2 must be examined by six questions,
two being derived from each of the three items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

1. Start a router

Configure and cable a host for console access to a router.

2. Configure a router

Perform a basic configuration of a router for a simple routed LAN.

3. Discover and connect to neighbouring internetworking devices

Implement, monitor and maintain discovery protocols to identify and connect to
neighbouring devices.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 4
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the six questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

The logbook for Outcome 2 must record successful completion by the candidate of each
of the three tasks listed below.

1.
2.
3.
Start a router

Documentary evidence that the candidate can configure and cable a host for console
access to a router.

Configure a router

Documentary evidence that the candidate can perform a basic configuration of a
router for a simple routed LAN.

Discover and connect to neighbouring internetworking devices

Documentary evidence that the candidate can implement, monitor and maintain
discovery protocols to identify and connect to neighbouring devices.

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.

Outcome 3

Manage a router.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 5
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Knowledge and/or skills

Describe router boot sequence and verification.



Describe the management of the file system.
Manage a simple routed LAN.

Evidence Requirement

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 1 must be examined by six questions,
two being derived from each of the three items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

1. Describe router boot sequence and verification

Power on self test, locating and loading OS, boot configuration parameters

2. Describe the management of a router file system

Copying OS and configuration files to a TFTP server, file system verification

3. Manage a simple routed LAN

Efficiently and safely manage a simple routed LAN comprising of at least two hosts

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the 6 questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

The Logbook for Outcome 3 must record successful completion by the candidate of the
task listed below.

• Manage a simple routed LAN

Documentary evidence that the candidate can efficiently and safely manage a simple
routed LAN comprising of at least two hosts

HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 6
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.

Outcome 4

Describe the operation of common routing protocols.

Knowledge and/or skills

Describe static routing.




Describe dynamic routing.
Describe routing protocols.
Describe distance vector routing.

Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 4 must be examined by eight questions,
two being derived from each of the four items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

1. Describe static routing

Static routes, default routes, stub networks

2. Describe dynamic routing

Autonomous Systems, purpose of routing protocols, classes of routing protocol

3. Describe routing protocols

Route determination, distance vector, link state, hybrid routing protocols
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 7
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

4. Describe distance vector routing

Count to infinity, routing loops, split horizon, route poisoning, timers

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the 8 questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

There are no practical tasks relating to Outcome 4.

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.

Outcome 5

Implement Routing Protocols.

Knowledge and/or skills

Configure static routes.



Configure Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP).
Implement routing.


Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 5 must be examined by six questions,
two being derived from each of the three items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 8
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

1. Configure static routes.

Configuring, verifying, and troubleshooting static routes.

2. Configure Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP).

Configuring, verifying and troubleshooting IGRP.

3. Implement routing

Efficiently and safely implement a simple routed LAN comprising of at least two
hosts

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the six questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

The Logbook for Outcome 5 must record successful completion by the candidate of each
of the three tasks listed below.

1. Configure RIP

Documentary evidence that the candidate can configure, verify and troubleshoot
RIP, including static routes.

2. Configure IGRP

Documentary evidence that the candidate can configure, verify and troubleshoot
IGRP and migrate RIP to IGRP

3. Implement Routing

Documentary evidence that the candidate can efficiently and safely implement a
simple routed LAN comprising of at least two hosts

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 9
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.

Outcome 6

Testing and troubleshooting a routed LAN.

Knowledge and/or skills

TCP/IP error and control messages.




1.
2.
3.
IP Routes and network testing.
Troubleshoot router issues.
Troubleshoot a simple routed LAN.

Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 6 must be examined by eight questions,
two being derived from each of the four items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

TCP/IP error and control messages

ICMP message delivery, echo messages, destination unreachable, ICMP
redirect/change requests, reply message formats

IP Routes and network testing

Determining gateway, source and destination, L2/L3 addresses, metric, next hop
Troubleshoot a simple network for cable errors use ping and telnet to ensure upper
layer connectivity.

Troubleshoot router issues

Identify common interface and connectivity problems using discovery protocols,
traceroute, debugging information and routing table information.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 10
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

4.
Troubleshoot a simple routed LAN

Troubleshoot a simple LAN comprising of at least two hosts connected via a hub or
switch to a router

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the 8 questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

The Logbook for Outcome 6 must record successful completion by the candidate of each
of the three tasks listed below.

• IP Routes and network testing

Documentary evidence that the candidate can troubleshoot a simple network for cable
errors, using ping and telnet to ensure upper layer connectivity.

• Troubleshoot router issues

Documentary evidence that the candidate can identify common interface and
connectivity problems using discovery protocols, traceroute, debugging information
and routing table information.

• Troubleshoot a simple routed LAN

Documentary evidence that the candidate can troubleshoot a simple LAN comprising
of at least two hosts connected via a hub or switch to a router

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 11
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Outcome 7

Define the principles of a TCP/IP based firewall.

Knowledge and/or skills

Describe TCP operation.


1.
2.
Describe transport layer ports.

Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 7 must be examined by six questions,
three being derived from each of the two items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

Describe TCP operation

Denial of service, windowing, sequence numbers, positive ACK

Describe of transport layer ports

Multiple conversations, service and client ports, well known ports

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the six questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

There are no practical tasks relating to Outcome 7.

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 12
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.

Outcome 8

Configure a firewall.

Knowledge and or skills

Create Access Control Lists.


1.
2.
Implement practical firewalls.

Evidence Requirements

Restricted Response Test

The knowledge and skills component of Outcome 8 must be examined by four questions,
two being derived from each of the two items listed below. Each question must be
derived from a single item.

Create Access Control Lists

Creating standard, extended; placement of ACL

Implement Practical Firewalls

Implement a firewall in a simple LAN comprising two hosts connected via a hub or
switch to a router using an appropriate IP address scheme

The test may be administered on its own as a subtest or be combined with other outcome
subtests in the unit.

Alternatively, the 4 questions for this outcome may contribute towards one end-of-unit
test of 50 questions.

Logbook

The Logbook for Outcome 8 must record successful completion by the candidate of both
of the tasks listed below.

1. Create Access Control Lists

Documentary evidence that the candidate can create standard and extended Access
Control Lists.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 13
Higher National Unit specification: statement of standards (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

2. Implement Practical Firewalls

Documentary evidence that the candidate can implement a firewall in a simple LAN
comprising two hosts connected via a hub or switch to a router using an appropriate
IP address scheme

Assessment guidelines

It is suggested that all the above concepts be presented and explained within the context
of current real-world practice and applications.

The suggested time allocation for a restricted response test is 2 minutes for each question
plus 5 minutes starting-up time and 5 minutes finishing-off time, thus a total of 110
minutes should be allocated for a 50-question end-of-unit test.

Although individual outcome tests are permissible, it is suggested that if subtests are to
be used, outcomes should be combined to produce tests of no fewer than 10 questions. A
10-question test would therefore have a time allocation of 30 minutes.



HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 14
Administrative Information

Unit code: DF9Y 35

Unit title: Routing Technology

Superclass category: CB

Date of publication: May 2004

Version 01

Source: SQA

© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2004

This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided
that no profit is derived from reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is
acknowledged.

Additional copies of this Unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish
Qualifications Authority. The cost for each Unit specification is £2.50. (A handling
charge of £1.95 will apply to all orders for priced items.)

HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 15
Higher National Unit specification: support notes

Unit title: Routing Technology

This part of the Unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not
mandatory.

While the exact time allocated to this Unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional
design length is 80 hours.

The suggested time allocation for each outcome (including assessment) is as follows:

Outcome 1: 10 hours
Outcome 2: 10 hours
Outcome 3: 10 hours
Outcome 4: 10 hours
Outcome 5: 10 hours
Outcome 6: 10 hours
Outcome 7: 10 hours
Outcome 8: 10 hours

Guidance on the content and context for this Unit

As it is likely that the bulk of the material in this Unit will be delivered through lecturer
exposition, it is important that every opportunity is taken to introduce real-world
examples, opportunities for whole-class and group discussion and practical
demonstrations wherever possible. Concepts and terminology should be presented in
context throughout the Unit. Video presentations should be used where appropriate for
providing an alternative explanation of a difficult topic, or as a focus for class discussion
or groupwork.

Given the theoretical elements in this Unit, it is intended that a significant amount of time
will be made available as a central part of the course for revision, tutorials and formative
assessment exercises. Candidates should be strongly encouraged to undertake further
reading, and opportunities for individual or group research should be provided. The most
important overall emphasis should be on the relevance and currency of content in such a
rapidly-evolving field.

This Unit (in conjunction with the related units: DF9X 35 Networking Technology,
DG09 35 Switching Technology and DG09A 35 Internetworking Technology) may assist
candidates in preparing for Cisco examination 640-801: Cisco Certified Network
Associate. In addition candidates may find this unit helpful in preparation for Cisco
examination 640-811: Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices and Cisco examination
640-821 Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies. Candidates should be
encouraged to check the latest information at
www.cisco.com
to ensure that all
objectives have been covered.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 16
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

This unit builds on the theoretical and practical knowledge provided in Networking
Technology to enable candidates to successfully build a simple routed LAN. The unit
comprises eight outcomes; these are split equally between theoretical and practical
elements.

Outcome 1

The unit begins by considering router basics before moving on to look at interfaces.

1. Role of Router

Initially the role of a router should be described as providing WAN connections,
performing a routing (path selection) function, acting as a gateway. This should include
the role of routers in both LANs and WANs.

2. Router Components

The physical components of a router may be based upon the equipment the centre will
use to deliver this unit. Candidates should become familiar with memory locations for the
Operating System, start up files, back up files and routing tables. From an examination of
the equipment all external connections, management connections (such as serial
interfaces), and LAN/WAN interfaces should be identified with their function clearly
described. The type of cable used to connect to the specific interfaces, ports or
connections on the router should be identified. It is recommended candidates use the
vendor web sites and guides to obtain detailed information about the equipment they will
use in Outcome 2.

Outcome 2

The second outcome introduces candidates to programming a router.

1. Start a Router

Starting a router involves configuring and cabling a host for console (management)
access to a router. Normally this will be via a serial connection and HyperTerminal or via
a web page. This may be dependent upon the equipment available in centres.

2. Configure a Router

Candidates should then perform a basic configuration of a router for a simple routed
LAN. The actual steps involved will differ depending upon the equipment but should
involve naming the router, configuring passwords, a login message, interfaces, and a
basic host table.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 17
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

3. Neighbouring Devices

From this configuration candidates should be able to discover and connect to
neighbouring internetworking devices. This may involve viewing the output of interface
interrogation commands (show int e0, show int s0) or configuring a discovery protocol
such as cdp.

Outcome 3

Once candidates are competent with the basic configuration of a router they will need to
understand how to manage the router.

1. Router Boot sequence

This necessitates an understanding of the power on self test, boot configuration
parameters and OS loading procedure in order to be able to manage the startup process.

2. Describe managing a file system

Describe managing a router file system expands this to include the loading of an OS and
configuration files, to and from a TFTP server, or from a manufacturer’s CD Rom. The
verification of file systems should be taught. At this stage, candidates should be familiar
with installing an OS or configuration files onto a blank router.

3. Manage a simple Routed LAN

The culmination of this outcome will be a practical involving efficiently and safely
managing a simple routed LAN comprising of at least two hosts and should cover
multiple configuration problems (no startup file, no OS, wrong boot parameters) which
candidates would encounter in a real life scenario. Where resources permit, centres may
require candidates to upgrade the OS on the router.

Outcome 4

The fourth outcome is theoretical, introducing candidates to the principles behind more
complex routed networks.

1. Static Routing

The use of static and default routes should be described in the context of their application
to small or stub networks.

2. Dynamic Routing

The use of dynamic routing should be explained in the context of purpose of a routing
protocol and autonomous systems.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 18
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

3. Routing Protocols

Classes of routing protocols including distance vector routing and link-state routing
protocol should be described. Examples should be used where possible.

4. Distance Vector Routing

Centres should concentrate upon Distance Vector Routing including updates, and
common problems such as defining a maximum count to prevent count to infinity,
eliminating routing loops through split horizon, route poisoning, avoiding routing loops
with triggered updates and preventing routing loops with hold-down timers.

Outcome 5

Following this outcome five allows candidates to apply their knowledge of routing
protocols in a series of short practical exercises.

1. Configure Static routes

Candidates should be presented with a simple LAN in which they can configure the static
routes.

2. Configure IGRP

Candidates should also be presented with the opportunity of configuring, verifying and
troubleshooting IGRP.

3. Implement Routing

Implementing routing in a simple LAN comprising two hosts connected via a hub or
switch to a router using an appropriate IP address scheme. Various combinations of
routing should be implemented including static routes, dynamic routing, RIP, IGRP, hold
down timers and update times should be changed.

Outcome 6

The sixth outcome moves beyond configuration problems and their resolution to concentrate
upon troubleshooting common network errors in simple routed LANs.

The purpose of the penultimate outcome is to introduce candidates to the TCP/IP protocol
to enable advanced troubleshooting to be undertaken by candidates in order to verify the
operation of access control lists in the final outcome and to understand ICMP message
suite provides responses hackers may utilise to enter the network.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 19
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

1. TCP/IP error and control messages

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error reporting and error correction should be
described. The use of ping to test destination reachability should be delivered in the
context of detecting excessively long routes and receiving destination unreachable
message. The TCP/IP suite control messages should be introduced in the context of
ICMP redirect/change requests, clock synchronization and transit time estimation,
information requests and reply message formats, address mask requirements, router
discovery message, router solicitation message, and flow control messages.

2. IP Routes and network testing

This should begin with troubleshooting a simple network for cable errors using ping and
telnet to ensure upper layer connectivity. The errors can be physical wiring problems, IP
address errors or wrong protocols being installed.

3. Troubleshoot router issues

Troubleshooting Router issues should present candidates with a network of multiple
problems. Candidates should identify common interface and connectivity problems using
discovery protocols, traceroute, debugging information and routing table information.

4. Troubleshoot a simple routed LAN

Troubleshooting a simple routed LAN should present candidates with a network of
multiple problems such as wiring errors, interface configuration problems and host
configuration problems

Outcome 7

This seventh outcome is used to introduce candidates to the theory underlying firewall
filtering of services.

1. TCP operation

TCP Operation should be included to provide candidates with an understanding of Denial
of service, Windowing, Sequence numbers, and positive ACK so as to permit access lists
to be constructed in the final outcome.

2. Transport layer ports

Similarly to provide proper security to a network an understanding of multiple
conversations, Service and client ports, and well known ports should be provided.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 20
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Outcome 8

The final outcome is by far the most conceptually difficult of this unit. It builds upon the
knowledge gained in outcome seven to produce ACLs to limit access to the router.

1. Create Access Control Lists

This reduced access can be extended to limit the response to echo requests. Initially
candidates are introduced to standard access control lists to limit all services to and from
specified addresses. From this more complex ACL may be constructed to deny ports
within common protocol suites such as TCP, UDP and ICMP. Candidates should place
such extended access control lists in appropriate locations in a simple routed LAN. More
complex Access Control lists can be introduced to candidates, such as named ACLs.

2. Implement Practical Firewalls

Following this, candidates should be presented with a complex network environment
where multiple hosts and services are required to be denied. The firewall should permit
one host or a range of hosts access through the firewall in the network for a specified set
of services. All other hosts should be denied access. Common testing and routing
protocols should be permitted.

Guidance on the delivery and assessment of this Unit

This Unit is likely to form part of a group award which is primarily designed to provide
candidates with technical or professional knowledge and skills related to a specific
occupational area. It is highly technical in content and should not be adopted by group
awards in other areas or delivered as a stand-alone Unit without careful consideration of
its appropriateness.

It is a Unit which candidates are unlikely to find accessible at an introductory level; it is
suggested that it be delivered only as part of a second year HND program in Computing
or a related area. It should be delivered in tandem with other Computing Units and
opportunities for teaching and assessment integration explored.

It is recommended the unit is delivered in the second year of the HND program as
candidates will already be exposed to some of the terminology and concepts. It is
recommended candidates seeking entry to this unit should have completed Networking
Technology.

The unit should be taught in parallel with the HND Internetworking Graded Unit. Where
this occurs centres may deliver underlying theory in this unit and utilize the Integrative
Unit time to apply these concepts to a real life network design problem. This should
enable candidates to progress through both units at a comfortable pace allowing
candidates to be guided to produce a workable design.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 21
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Although the unit is expressed in generic terms, it could be used as a vehicle to include
the Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA Semester 2 syllabus in a classroom
environment. The module is consistent with Version 3 of the CCNA curriculum.
Suggested CCNA modules from the Cisco Networking Academy Program are given in
the table below, indicating possible delivery routes within the framework of this Unit.

It is recommended the Unit should be assessed by two instruments of assessment, a
multiple-choice test covering the knowledge and understanding and a checklist or
logbook detailing the practical work undertaken. This approach to assessment is
reflective of current professional exams in the IT industry and helps prepare candidates
for vendor exams should they choose to do so.

The restricted response questions applicable to each Outcome may be used to form a
single end-of-unit test comprising a total of fifty questions. A break down of the
weighting of questions per Outcome is detailed in the table below. Centres cannot deviate
from this where they choose to devise their own instruments of assessment. All Outcomes
and Items should be examinable in any single delivery of the end-of-unit test.

To minimise assessment overhead, sets of restricted-response questions are used to
provide evidence of candidates’ knowledge for all Outcomes. It is suggested that
multiple-choice questions can be used as the preferred assessment method – as well as
reducing the time required for assessment and marking, these reduce the need for
candidates to memorise details and encourage understanding.

The numbers of questions which must be answered correctly in each assessment
correspond to 70% of those set in each case.

Routing Technology

Outcome
Number of
Items
Number of
Questions

Topic
Suggested
CNAP Module
(Semester 2)
1
2
6
Router Basics
1, 2
2
3
6
Configure Router
3
3
3
6
Manage Router
4, 5
4
4
8
Routing Protocols
6, 7
5
3
6
Implement
Routing
6,7
6
4
8
Testing and
Troubleshooting
8, 9
7
2
6
Firewall Principles
10, 11
8
2
4
Implementing
Firewall
11

HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 22
Higher National Unit specification: support notes (cont)

Unit title: Routing Technology

Total Questions: 50

In order to complete practical elements of the course centres will need access to routers
and switches. It is recommended as a minimum centres provide at least five routers and
two switches per class. Some outcomes are highly practical, requiring centres to allow
students access to a router.

Whilst some manufacturers provide an electronic simulation of a router, for the purposes
of this unit candidates should gain practical experience with a real router. Electronic
simulators may be suitable to reinforce practical sessions with the actual equipment. It is
recommended centres maximise the time available for candidates to spend on the actual
equipment and where possible split practical sessions into small groups to reduce student
to equipment ratios. It is acceptable to permit students to use electronic simulators to
practice tasks. Out of class use of electronic simulators should be encouraged.

Open learning

If this Unit is delivered by open or distance learning methods, additional planning and
resources may be required for candidate support, assessment and quality assurance.

A combination of new and traditional authentication tools may have to be devised for
assessment and re-assessment purposes.

For further information and advice, please see Assessment and Quality Assurance for
Open and Distance Learning (SQA, February 2001 — publication code A1030).

Special needs
This Unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning
or assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when
planning learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering special
alternative Outcomes for Units. For information on these, please refer to the SQA
document Guidance on Special Assessment Arrangements (SQA, 2001).

HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 23
General information for candidates

Unit title: Routing Technology

This is a 2-credit Unit at Level 7 intended for candidates undertaking a Computing or IT-
related qualification who require an understanding of Simple Routed LANs. It is
designed to develop an understanding of the issues involved in installing and configuring
a simple routed LAN. On completion of the Unit you should be able to:

• Describe router basics.
• Implement a basic router configuration.
• Manage a router.
• Test and troubleshoot a routed LAN.
• Describe the operation of common routing protocols.
• Implement routing protocols.
• Configure a firewall.
• Describe the operation of a TCP/IP based firewall.

In the first part of the course, you will study the role of a router in a network and be able
to describe the main components of a modern router.

The second section builds upon the theoretical basis of outcome one to enable candidates
to start a router, configuring a router and connect to other Internetworking devices. This
is a highly practical outcome providing the first hands on experience of programming a
router.

The third section covers basic router management functions including the boot sequence
and verification, managing the file system, examining the routing tables and providing a
managing a simple routed LAN. Again this is a highly practical outcome.

The fourth section covers the principles of common routing protocols.

The fifth section covers testing and troubleshooting a simple routed LAN. Candidates are
introduced to common testing methods, router problems and are presented with a simple
routed LAN with problems they are required to identify and rectify.

The sixth section covers the operation of routing protocols. This includes Static Routing,
Dynamic Routing, Routing Protocols and Distance Vector Routing.

The seventh section enables candidates to implement the theoretical knowledge of the
previous outcome in a practical environment. Candidates are required to implement
routing protocols such as IGRP in a simple routed LAN.

The final section covers the principles of a TCP/IP based firewall. As such a thorough
understanding of TCP/IP error messages, TCP/IP suite control messages, TCP operation
and transport layer ports is required. Candidates will build a secure network by
implementing Access Control Lists and then implementing a firewall in a practical
environment.
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 24
HN Unit (DF9Y 35): Routing Technology 25
General information for candidates (cont)

There will be a closed-book multiple-choice assessment covering all outcomes. You will
be presented with 50 questions and expected to answer 70% of these correctly. You will
also be expected to keep a checklist or logbook recording the practical tasks you have
carried out during the Unit. You must satisfy the requirements for these assessments in
order to achieve the Unit.

This Unit (in conjunction with the related units: DF9X 35 Networking Technology,
DG09 35 Switching Technology and DG0A 35 Internetworking Technology) may assist
you in preparing for Cisco examination 640-801: Cisco Certified Network Associate. In
addition candidates may find this unit helpful in preparation for Cisco examination 640-
811: Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices and Cisco examination 640-821
Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies. You should check the latest information
at
www.cisco.com
to ensure that all objectives have been covered.