Semantics in E-Government

woodruffpassionateInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

58 views

1

Semantics


in E
-
Government

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

2

Dimensions of Interoperability & Integration

Enterprise

Object

Data

System

Application

Component

0%

100%

3 Kinds of Integration

Interoperability Scale

Our interest lies here

Community

3

The Smart Data Enterprise

Developer's Perspective on Data: To the application developer, the data evolution
timeline is viewed through the correlation of programming paradigms with the
relation of data and code. From: Designing the Smart
-
Data Enterprise, Get
prepared for the 10 ways that semantic computing will impact enterprise IT, by
Michael C. Daconta, Posted November 28, 2003, Enterprise Architect Magazine.

4

The Smart Data Enterprise

This
Figure

show
. The Smart Data Continuum: Data has progressed through four stages of
increasing intelligence. (Reprinted with permission from The Semantic Web: A Guide to the
Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management [John Wiley & Sons, 2003].

From: Designing the Smart
-
Data Enterprise, Get prepared for the 10 ways that semantic computing will impact enterprise IT, by
Michael C. Daconta, Posted November 28, 2003, Enterprise Architect Magazine.

5

Semantic web

“an extension of the current web in which information
is given well
-
defined meaning, better enabling
computers and people to work in cooperation.”

Two features: machine readable; ontology basis

Ontology

In theory
-

specification of a conceptualization

In practical
-

a description of some domain knowledge.

Web service

Reusable computational resources

6

Semantic web services

Semantic web technologies applied to web services.

Combine flexibility, reusability, and universal access
of WSs with the power of semantic markup and
reasoning

A promising infrastructure for next generation e
-
Government services

Addressing integration and interoperability

7


Why Semantic Web Technologies: Making a
Case for the Government
-


Goals

Semantic Interoperability and
Better
Information Sharing


More Effective Information Management


More Intelligent Search


Smarter Decision
-
Making


8

The Current DRM Model


A model for
discovery

of
information:


Context and classification.


To determine available
packages and elements.


A model for
exchange

of
information:


Information packages, built
from common data elements.


Sharing mechanism.


A model for
representation

of information:


Data elements defined in
standard way.

BUSINESS CONTEXT

Subject Area

Super Type

BUSINESS DATA FLOW

Information

Exchange Package

DATA ELEMENT

Data

Object

Data

Property

Data

Representation

ISO

11179

9

Expanding the DRM Model


MetaMatrix vision:


Generic classification to
tag metadata with
context:


vs. 2
-
level context.


Packages built from
complex datatypes and
deployable for exchange
or data access
:


vs. exchange
-
only
packaging of ISO 11179
data elements.


Formal datatype model:


vs. more conceptual
ISO 11179 model.


Formal reference
information to add
semantic value to data
definitions
:


vs. nothing.

BUSINESS CONTEXT

Subject Area

Super Type

BUSINESS DATA FLOW

Info Exch Package

DATA ELEMENT

DRM Model

MetaMatrix Model

ISO

11179

CLASSIFICATION

Context

PACKAGE

Virtual Database

Category

REFERENCE

Glossary

Thesaurus

Bibliography

Exchange Package

TYPE

Complex Datatype

Abstract Datatype

Simple Datatype

Schema/Association

INSTANCE

Transform

Virtual

Physical

Data Property

Data Representation

Data Object

10

eGovernment Drivers



Data Governance

Data Architecture

Data Sharing
Architecture

VOLUME II:

BUSINESS
CONTEXT

Governance
Structure, Policy
& Procedures
Purpose:

Define policy &
procedures for
use of Information
Categories in
reporting and
government
information
indexing.

Information
Categories Data
Groups, and
Security Profile
Purpose:

Catalogue and
Index
Government
Information
consistent with
the E
-
Gov Act.

Information
Categories, Data
Groups, and
Exchange
Security
Requirements
Purpose:

Identify and define
federated data
classifications to
discover
commonalities
and opportunities
for re
-
use.

11

eGovernment Drivers



Data Governance

Data Architecture

Data Sharing
Architecture

VOLUME III:

INFORMATION
FLOW

Governance
Structure, Policy
& Procedures
Purpose:

Define and
enforce policy that
governs the use
and protection of
information
packages
available in the
DRM registry.

Information
Exchange
Packages,
Security Profile
Purpose:

Define data
groups (tables,
records,
messages, text)
and attributes that
reflect business
process needs
common to a
Community of
Practice.

Information Maps,
Exchange
Security
Requirements
Purpose:

Define data
transformation
patterns and key
attributes that
determine data
exchange
processing
requirements.

12

eGovernment Drivers



Data Governance

Data Architecture

Data Sharing
Architecture

VOLUME IV:

DATA ELEMENT
DESCRIPTION

Governance
Structure, Policy
& Procedures
Purpose:

Define and
enforce
requirements for
Data
Standardization.

Data Element
Descriptions,
Security Profile
Purpose:

Define and
maintain data
structures that
reflect business
data entity
attributes and
relationships.

Object
Descriptions, XML
Schemas,
Exchange
Security
Requirements
Purpose:

Define and
maintain
metadata required
to provide or
support a specific
service pattern.

13

(1) Tree of Knowledge Technologies

AI Knowledge
Representation

Semantic
Technology
Languages

Content
Management
Languages

Process
Knowledge
Languages

Software
Modeling
Languages

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

14

(1) The Semantic Technology “Layer Cake”

Source: Dieter Fensel

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

15

Semantic Technologies and Web Services

Dynamic

Resources

Static

Resources

Interoperable

Syntax

Interoperable

Semantics

Web Services

WWW

Semantic Web

Semantic Web

Services

Semantic Web Services

Enterprise Ontology and

Web Services Registry

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

16

Taxonomy

From Tim Berners
-
Lee,

ISWC 2003

Regardless of end goals, look to a future where
taxonomies interoperate (domains connect)

Expect new
stakeholders to
take an
interest…

… but have their
own viewpoints

Technology
Recommendation:

RDF(S)

Goals for enterprise taxonomies

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

17

What is a Taxonomy?


A taxonomy is a model of knowledge organized as
a hierarchical arrangement (tree structure) of
concepts
:


parent nodes denote more general ideas than their
children.

animal

horse

sheep

mare

stallion

ewe

ram

animal

horse

sheep

dales
pony

arabian
horse

swaledale

cheviot

OR

[A]

[B]

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

18

Types of Taxonomy


A taxonomy can be:


A classification hierarchy, eg: Natural Taxonomy:


Unique Beginner (plant)
-
> Life
-
Form (bush)
-
> Generic (rose)
-
> Specific (hybrid tea)
-
> Varietal (Peace)


A part hierarchy (Meronomy)


A category hierarchy


Taxonomies can intersect


intersection means there
are different relationships at work:

building

cinema

Office
-
block

synagogue

mosque

pub

church

shrine

holy place

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

19


Taxonomy Development Framework:

A five
-
step method for taxonomy development

Focus



What is
the taxonomy
for?



What
business
challenges
will it
overcome?



What
results will it
achieve?



How to
measure
stakeholder
benefit?

Analysis



What is the
context for
the
taxonomy?



What are
the types &
sources of
knowledge?



How does
knowledge
map to
processes?

Design



What types of
taxonomy
concepts are
needed?



What to do
first?



What system
capabilities are
needed?



What will be
the impact?



Is the
taxonomy design
correct,
complete and
consistent?

Construct



Have we
enough content
mapped?



How to
connect
taxonomies to
content?



How to
integrate with
IT systems?

Deploy



How do we
ensure there
will be
feedback for
assessment?



Have we
accomplished
set objectives?



What should
be done next?

1

2

3

4

5

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt

20

RDF and Ontology Components

Key Ontology Components

RDF* Triple Components

Subject*

Object

Literal

Predicate**

Predicate**

=URI

=Literal

=Property or

Association

*The company* **sells
batteries
**.

Person

birthdate: date

Gender: char

Image

Leader

Organization

Resource

leads

is
-
A

works for

published

depiction

knows

Source: The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services,

and Knowledge Management, Wiley Technology Publishing, June 2003.

* Resource Description Framework

Reference:
http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/resource/presentation/Harmonizing_Semantics_in_eGovernment
--
BrandNiemann_20040422.ppt