Digital Libraries of the Future

woodruffpassionateInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

98 views



Copyright 2006 Digital Enterprise Research
Institute. All rights reserved.

www.deri.ie

Digital Libraries of the Future

Use of Semantic Web and Social Bookmarking to

support E
-
learning in Digital Libraries

Sebastian Ryszard Kruk

Digital Enterprise Research Institute

National University of Ireland, Galway

sebastian.kruk
@deri.org

http://
corrib.deri.ie
/

2

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


3

Motivations


John teaches biology, over the Internet, using digital
libraries and modern technologies (wikis, blogs)










How to deliver the material just
-
in
-
time?


How to pre
-
asses students?


How to automate most of the process?

4

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


The Semantic Web


Applications


Semantic Web cannot be and is not only a set of
recommendations


Semantic Web is
becoming reality by applications

that
support it and are based on it


Enabling technologies:


RDF Storages: Sesame, Jena, YARS


Reasoners: KAON, Racer


Editors: Protege, SWOOP, MarcOnt Portal


End
-
User applications:


Semantic wikis: Makna, SemperWiki


Semantic blogs


Semantic digital libraries


What is a Semantic Digital Library?

Semantic digital libraries


integrate

information based on different
metadata, e.g.: resources, user profiles,
bookmarks, taxonomies



high quality
semantics = highly and meaningfully
connected information


provide
interoperability

with other systems
(not only digital libraries) on either
metadata or communication level or both


RDF as common denominator between
digital libraries and other services


delivering more robust,
user friendly and
adaptable search and browsing

interfaces
empowered by semantics

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries?

Metadata is the key concept


the Web
does not have

metadata


the idea of a Semantic Web is nice but difficult to implement


many digital libraries
do have

metadata in place


we simply must make them available in a machine
understandable format


the Semantic Web provides the format: RDF

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries?

Knowledge in bibliographic records


Digital Libraries
already have

controlled vocabularies,
taxonomies or even ontologies in place


the challenge is to model this knowledge in a machine
understandable way


the Semantic Web provides ontology languages:


RDF Schema


OWL


SKOS

9

Taxonomy of Knowledge Organization Systems


Term Lists


Authority files (
FOAF
)


Glossaries


Dictionaries


Gazetteers


Classifications and Categories (
DMoz
)


Subject headings


Classification schemes


Taxonomies


Categorization Schemes.


Relationship Lists


Thesauri (
WordNet, MeSH
)


Semantic networks


Ontologies


(Hodge, 2000)

Benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries

The two main benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries


new search paradigms for the information space


Ontology
-
based search / facet search


Community
-
enabled browsing


providing interoperability on the data level


integrating metadata from various heterogeneous sources


Interconnecting different digital library systems

11

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


Semantic DL as Evolving Knowledge Space


In state
-
of
-
the
-
art digital libraries users are
consumers


Retrieve contents based on available bibliographic records


Recent trends: user communities


Connetea


Flickr


In Semantic digital libraries users are
contributers

as well


Tagging (Web 2.0)


Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering


Annotations


Semantic Digital libraries enforce the transition from a
static information to a
dynamic (collaborative) knowledge
space




Why current (semantic) digital libraries are not
enough?


digital libraries
should not be for librarians

only

but for average
people


they concentrate on delivering content/information, not on
knowledge sharing

within a community of users


digital libraries have
lost human
-
part

of their predecessors


What could be the solution?


make
users/readers involved

in the content annotation process


allow users/readers to
share their knowledge

within a community


provide
better communication between users

in and across
communities



The future
-

Social Semantic Digital Libraries

Social Semantic Information Spaces

Semantic Social Networks

Online Social Networks

Buddy Lists, Address
Books

Semantic Social Information
Spaces

-

-

Social Semantic Digital
Libraries

Google Scholar, Book
Search

CiteSeer, Project
Gutenberg

Semantic Forums and
Community Portals

Community Portals

Message Boards

Semantic Blogs

Blogs

Personal Websites

Semantic Search

Google Personalised,
DumbFind

Altavista, Google

Semantic Wikis

Wikis

Content Management
Systems

Semantic Web 2.0

Web 2.0

Web 1.0

Comparing Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 / Semantic Web 2.0

Evolution of Libraries

Social Semantic Digital Library

Involves the community into sharing knowledge

Semantic Digital Library

Accessible
by

machines, not only
with

machines

Digital Library

Online, easy searching with a full
-
text index

Library

Organized collection

Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems


SIMILE


extends and laverages DSpace, seeking to enhance
interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata,
and services


JeromeDL


a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web
and Social Networking technologies to enhance both
interoperability and usability


BRICKS


aims at establishing the organizational and technological
foundations for a digital library network in order to share
knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain.


FEDORA


delivers flexible service
-
oriented architecture to managing
and delivering content in the form of digital objects

18

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


JeromeDL
-

Introduction


Joint effort of DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway
and Gdansk University of Technology (GUT)


Distributed under BSD Open Source license


Digital library build on semantic web technologies to
answer requirements from: librarians, scientists and
everyone.

JeromeDL


Motivations Use Cases


Librarians:


support for
rich metadata

(MARC21) in uploading resources,

accessing bibliographic information and searching


persistent identifiers


Scientists:


easy publishing

(designed as a institute/university digital library)


creating
hierarchical networks

of digital libraries


support for
accessing, sharing and searching using bibliography


metadata (BibTeX)


Everyone:


simple search

(incl. natural language queries)


community
-
aware

information sharing and browsing,


support for interationalization

21

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


JeromeDL


Architecture


Resources and
annotations repository


Middleware:


query processing


community space


resources management


User interface agents:


Communication to the
outside world


Administrative interface

23

Structure ontology in JeromeDL

24

Bibliographic (MarcOnt) Ontology in JeromeDL

25

Community
-
aware (FOAFRealm) ontology

Ontologies in JeromeDL

27

Metadata and Services in JeromeDL

28

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


MarcOnt Initiative


Overview

Motivation:


Provide set of tools for


collaborative ontology


development


MarcOnt Initiative goals:


Create a framework for collaborative ontology improvement (E
-
learning)


Provide domain experts with tools to share their knowledge


Offer tools for data mediation between different data formats

MarcOnt Portal and MarcOnt Ontology

MarcOnt Ontology:


Central point of MarcOnt Initiative


Translation and mediation format


Continuos collaborative ontology
improvement


Knowledge from the domain experts

MarcOnt Portal (source of knowledge):


Suggestions


Annotations


Versioning


Ontology editor

31

MarcOnt Mediation Services for Legacy Metadata

Format translation

RDF Translator

Format co
-
operation

MarcOnt Mediation Services

32

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


33

Social Services in JeromeDL


Involve users into sharing knowledge


Blogs


comments and discussions

about documents and
resources


Tagging


collaborative classification


Wikis


collaboratively edited additional descriptions
, such as
summaries and interesting facts


Preserve knowledge for future use


Users can
learn from experience of others

instantly


Recommend

new, interesting resources based on users’ profiles

34

Identity management with FOAFRealm


Identity defined with extended FOAF
metadata


Policies expressed by social networking


Distance between owner and requester


Friendship level between owner and requester,
calculated across digraph of social network


Support for single registration and sign on


Distributed identity management with
HyperCuP (“D
-
FOAF”)


FOAFRealm is currently implemented as a plugin for Tomcat
(Realm/Valve implementation), with PHP and .NET versions
coming soon


35

What is
S
ocial
S
emantic
C
ollaborative
F
iltering?


Goal:

t
o enhance individual bookmarks with shared

knowledge within a community


Users
annotate catalogues

of bookmarks with semantic information
taken from DM
oz

or WordNet vocabularies


Catalogs can include (
transclusion
) friend's catalogues


Access to catalogues can be restricted with social networking
-
based
polices


SSCF delivers:


Community
-
oriented, semantically
-
rich
taxonomies


Information about a
user's interest



Flows of expertise

from the domain expert


Recommendations

based on users previous actions


Support for
SIOC

metadata

36

Example of
S
ocial
S
emantic
C
ollaborative
F
iltering

foaf:knows

xfoaf:include

xfoaf:bookmark

Social Networks in Digital Libraries

Resourc
e

xfoaf:Annotation

user_C

creator_B

foaf:knows

marcont:hasCreator

creator_A

foaf:knows

foaf:knows

xfoaf:Director
y

user_D

xfoaf:owns

xfoaf:linksTo

xfoaf:isIn

38

Support for

online communities

in SSCF

39

Support for

online communities

in SSCF

40

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


JeromeDL


Delivering Semantic Content


Providing semantic annotations during
uploading process
:


open module for handling any taxonomies


keywords based on WordNet and free tagging


defining structure of resources in the JeromeDL ontology


Lifting legacy metadata

to MarcOnt ontology


Community

maintained
annotations


social semantic collaborative filtering


semantic descriptions based on the FOAF metadata

42

Annotating Library Resources

JeromeDL


Semantic Information In Use


Searching:


Keyword
-
based search with semantic query expansion


Semantic search:


Direct RDF quering


Natural language templates


Browsing


Exibit


MultiBeeBrowse


Sharing:


Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering


Semantically Interlinked Online Communities


Heterogeneous communication:


Bibster
,
A9
,
OAI
-
PMH

44

Exposing Semantic Annotations

45

Filtering Resources in JeromeDL

46

Sharing Knowledge with SSCF

Information Retrieval in JeromeDL

Fulltext Index

Structure

Repository

MarcOnt

Repository

Resources’

Content

FOAFRealm

Repository

(typed)

keywords

RDF & NL

Query

OpenSearch

RSS

collaborative

filtering

local

interface

distributed

interface

types translation

semantic query

expansion

RDF Repositories Secure Snapshot

Networks of Digital Libraries


ELP (Extensible Library Protocol) implementation


communication within JeromeDL network


adapters for communication with other networks


D
-
FOAF integration (distributed user profile management)


single sign on and single registration within D
-
FOAF network


HyperCuP integration (scalable P2P network)


Independent ELP network entry point:
http://search.jeromedl.org/

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

2

2

2

2

49

JeromeDL in Action

50

Presentation outline


Motivation


Building Social Semantic Digital Library


Semantic Digital Libraries


Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries


JeromeDL and other Corrib components


Motivation and Overview


Architecture and Ontologies


Semantic Services


Social Services


Semantics in Use


JeromeDL in Action


e
-
Learning 2.0


Conclusions


51

Web 1.0 e
-
Learning

Creation

Consumption

52

Web 2.0 e
-
Learning

Creation

Communities

Consumption

53

Semantic Web e
-
Learning

Semantic sources

Creation

Consumption

54

Semantic Web 2.0 e
-
Learning

Contribution

Creation

Consumption

Communities

Semantic sources

55

Didaskon project


Deliver a framework for
assemblying an on
-
demand
curriculum

from existing Learning Objects (LOs)
provided by e
-
Learning services


Connection between
formal and informal learning
:


Repository of couses prepared by specialists (formal LOs)


Transform data collected from SSIS into LOs (informal
knowledge)


IKHarvester


Used o
ntolog
ies link

user needs

and the

characteristics
of the

learning material

56

Didaskon project


LOs described with LOM ontology,
composed into a learning path
for a specific student


User profile (knowledge level in different domains and
goals/expectations from the course) described with FOAF ontology


preconditions


Didaskon:


returns learning material
customized

for specific user’s needs


allows more
scalable helper features

for students supervision


Produced curriculum:


reflects
user requirements


introduces new interdisciplinary, extensible and robust meaning of e
-
Learning



57


One of potential sources of future e
-
Learning systems


On the verge between formal (libraries) and informal
(communities) learning sources


Semantic interoperability with Learning Management
Systems


Improve knowledge creation, delivery and sharing

E
-
Learning Solution based on Social Sem. DL

58

E
-
Learning Solution based on Social Sem. DL

59


Comparison between process based on

JeromeDL and a set of other services


Some tasks take shorter to execute with JeromeDL


Some tasks are automated within JeromeDL


Roughly twice less time spend with JeromeDL

Evaluation of e
-
Learning Solution based on SSDL

60

E
-
Learning Project at DERI Galway

61

Between e
-
Learning and DL
-

Museum Scenario


Museums have
physical objects


Should
bind

digital
annotations

with physical objects


Real
-
virtual tours


Start with real, guided tour


Ubiquitous browse through context information


Locate other exhibitions in the vicinity


Share your knowledge and experience with others, leave bread
-
crumbs for others


Get the most of the exhibition during your visit

62

Conclusions


New generation of Internet services can bring digital
libraries:


Closer to each other (interoperability)


Closer to the users (online communities)


Social and semantic services delivered in digital libraries
can enhance user experience in:


E
-
Learning


Real world (!) museums


... and other online and real services


JeromeDL is one of the first digital library that aims to
implement these services


Growing number of JeromeDL instances world
-
wide:
http://wiki.jeromedl.org/Instances



63

J
eromeDL answer
s
various expectations





as

the Digital Library on

Social Semantic Information
Spaces


http://www.jeromedl.org/

http://wiki.jeromedl.org/


Sebastian Ryszard Kruk

DERI, NUI Galway, Ireland

sebastian.kruk@deri.org