The ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP)

wizzstuffingUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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The
ElectroMagnetic

Pulse (EMP)

Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to EMP sources

Prof. Melvin Lewis, MSEE

Fairleigh Dickinson University

Member,
AOC
,
InfraGard
, NMIA, IACSP, IEEE


April 2012

1

Vulnerabilities


A natural (or man
-
made) EMP could cause widespread disruption
or disabling of the electronic control systems or distribution
networks of
power plants


Fast EM pulses
could also affect the high
-
tech control systems
for
dams, water and waste treatment facilities, refineries,
natural gas distribution plants, and port facilities


Many military systems and facilities are hardened, but not all


F
ew industrial systems are hardened against a fast EMP


Slower
Geomagnetic

induced current surges, produced by solar
storms, could damage hundreds of high voltage distribution
transformers simultaneously

2

The Threats


Man
-
made events of interest to the energy industry could
include attacks on the
SCADA

(Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition) systems


deliberate
coordinated ground based
pulsed EM radiation


or high altitude
nuclear

detonation EMP


Other threat modalities include
cyber
-

and
frontal assault

(using military weapons)


These last two concerns are
not

addressed in this presentation

3

IMAGE FROM THE CRITIICAL NATIONAL

INFRASTRUCTURES REPORT


4

www.ucos.com

5

Images from
the

Critical National

Infrastructures

Report

RTU = REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT

MTU = MASTER TERMINAL UNIT

PROGRAMMABLE

LOGIC

CONTROLLER

The
ElectroMagnetic

Pulse


A pulse of electromagnetic radiation will result from certain
types of high energy events


a nuclear explosion


a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field


The resulting rapidly changing electric and magnetic fields
could couple with electrical and electronic systems to produce
damaging current and voltage surges resulting in blackouts

6

HIGH ALTITUDE EXPLOSION

CITY WITHOUT ELECTRICAL POWER

Two Vulnerabilities


To Solar Storms:


“At risk are the more than 200,000 miles of high
-
voltage*
transmission lines
that cross North America, supplying
1,800 utilities the power for TVs, lights, refrigerators and
air conditioners in homes, and for the businesses, hospitals
and police stations”


(USA Today article)



To intentional attack:


"The electric grid's vulnerability to cyber and to other
attacks is one of the single greatest threats to our national
security" [the vulnerability is with the control systems]


Quote attributed to Rep. Ed Markey, D
-
Mass

7

* Up to 750KV

Risk Assessment


High Impact, Low Frequency


Solar flares, coronal mass ejections


Insulator flashover
and degradation or failure


Transformers:

internal arcing, core saturation, winding “wire”
fusing causing failure (long time to replace, few spares on hand)


Intentional
ElectroMagnetic

Interference, IEMI


High Energy RF (HERF) Weapons


Deployed via cruise missile or truck or hand
-
held


Above the atmosphere
nuclear

detonation (via ballistic missile)


8

The Sources,

what’s out there:


Coronal Mass Ejections (solar flares)


Directed energy weapons


Explosive
-
Driven
M
agnetic
F
lux
C
ompression (MFC)
Generators


High Energy Radio Frequency (HERF) generators


A microwave “gun”


Disrupts digital control and protective

c
ircuits resulting in damage to

hardware (think
Stuxnet
)


9

Directed Energy Weapons


Explosive Driven Magnetic Flux Compression
(MFC)
EMP Generators


Under development by the US (and other) military
for decades


Most are “single shot”


they must be repaired or replaced after use


Not a major issue for a terrorist


Portable, single person carry


10

EMP

MFC Generators


(Magnetic Flux Compression)


How they work

1.
Battery current charges a capacitor

2.
Capacitor energy is transferred into a helical
inductor

3.
Coils of inductor are then progressively shorted
out via an explosion
-
driven copper conductor

4.
Inductor current increases to mega
-
ampere
levels (producing a very short pulse)

5.
Tens of
tera
-
watts and tens of mega
-
Gauss
developed during the short pulse duration

11

One Gauss = 1E
-
4
Teslas

One implementation
: A longitudinal magnetic field is produced
inside a hollow metallic conductor, by discharging a bank of
capacitors into the solenoid that surrounds the cylinder

Detail
: To ensure a rapid penetration of the field in the cylinder,
there is a slit in the cylinder, which closes rapidly as the
cylinder deforms

12

Description, cont’d



The explosive charge surrounding the tube is detonated in a
manner that ensures that the
compression of the cylinder
commences when the current through the solenoid is at its
maximum


The convergent cylindrical shock wave unleashed by the
explosion produces a
rapid contraction
(greater than 1 km/s)
of the central cylinder, compressing the magnetic field, and
briefly creating a very high current in the inductor


The first experiments were able to attain magnetic fields of
millions of
G
auss


A strong refrigerator magnet produces 100 Gauss


T
he earth’s magnetic field is 0.5 Gauss.


The Gauss is the
cgs

unit of the magnetic flux density, B.

13


14

ANOTHER IMPLEMENTATION

What’s Out There?


Instructions for making EMP generators are on
the internet


You
Tube

demonstrations


Step by step printed guidelines with diagrams


Older military documents (now declassified)


e
tc.


Purchasable EMP generators


This is not an explosive driven

d
evice

15

Catalog Items


16

Plans for Sale on the Internet


17

ONE WEBSITE EXPLAINS HOW TO MAKE A

HIGH ENERGY RF WEAPON USING THE MAGNETRON

SALVAGED FROM A
MICROWAVE OVEN

Countermeasures ?


Shielding

of sensitive electronics


Via metal enclosures with conducting gaskets


Shielding of control cables and harnesses


Filter
-
pin connectors


Expanding the
defense perimeter


The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research
Laboratories (CERL) has been experimenting with low
-
cost
electromagnetic
shielding

designs (see next slide)

18

CERL Initiatives:

New Materials and Techniques


Conductive polymers
and advanced coatings for use on shield
components




such as amorphous metals and
graphites



Consideration is also being given to making
concrete

electrically conductive


Use of Inherent
Shielding

of Standard Construction Materials:


Examples include
aluminum
-
foil
-
backed gypsum board, aluminum
-
foil
-
backed insulating sheathing, metallic
-
clad siding, copper foils
(normally used for vapor barriers), wire meshes, and sheet metal
roofing


See their website for other initiatives


19

Relevance To the AOC Community


What can the EW / ECM community do?


Alert authorities regarding availability of dual use
items (as the chemical industry does with bomb pre
-
cursors, etc.)


High performance capacitors, high DC current switches,
highly directional antennas, etc.


Use our familiarity with shielding, pulse detection,
electromagnetics, and hardened semiconductors to


develop fast acting circuit
-
self
-
protection
products

that
could be purchased to protect
DoD

and industry equipment


Develop truck
-
borne and man
-
portable HERF and EMP
weaponry that could defeat the enemy’s defenses






20

To Summarize:

1.
Modern control systems for power generating
stations, water treatment plants, oil refineries,
dams, etc. are vulnerable to attack via EMP

2.
EMP devices and plans are available on the internet

3.
Military engineers have been developing EMP
generators for decades (US and other countries)

4.
Shielding and other measures can reduce the
susceptibility of the control systems to EMP’s

21

Suggestion: Read the
“Critical National Infrastructures Report”,
it’s on the internet