“Electricity” - WordPress.com

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Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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“Electricity”

Index
:


What is electricity ? ……………………… 1


Electicity ………………………………………. 2


How is electricity measured ………….. 3


How is electricity
generated

………….. 4



Electricity is a form of energy. Electricity is the flow of electrons. All matter is made
up of atoms, and an atom has a center, called a nucleus. The nucleus contains
positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called
neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles
called electrons. The negative charge of an electron is equal to the positive charge
of a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the
number of protons. When the balancing force between protons and electrons is
upset by an outside force, an atom may gain or lose an electron. When electrons
are "lost" from an atom, the free movement of these electrons constitutes an
electric current.


Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of
energy. We get electricity, which is a secondary energy source, from the
conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and
other natural sources, which are called primary sources. Many cities and towns
were built alongside waterfalls (a primary source of mechanical energy) that
turned water wheels to perform work. Before electricity generation began slightly
over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in
iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood
-
burning or coal
-
burning stoves.
Beginning with
Benjamin Franklin's

experiment with a kite one stormy night in
Philadelphia, the principles of electricity gradually became understood. In the mid
-
1800s, everyone's life changed with the
inventionof

the electric
light bulb
. Prior to
1879, electricity had been used in arc lights for outdoor lighting. The
lightbulb's

invention used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes.


1


Electricity

is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of
electric charge
.
Electricity gives a wide variety of well
-
known effects, such as
lightning
,
static electricity
,
electromagnetic
induction

and the flow of
electrical current
. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of
electromagnetic radiation

such as
radio waves
.


In electricity, charges produce
electromagnetic fields

which act on other charges. Electricity occurs due to
several types of physics:


electric charge
: a property of some
subatomic particles
, which determines their
electromagnetic
interactions
. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.


electric current
: a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, typically measured in
amperes
.


electric field

(see
electrostatics
): an especially simple type of electromagnetic field produced by an
electric charge even when it is not moving (i.e., there is no
electric current
). The electric field produces a
force on other charges in its vicinity. Moving charges additionally produce a
magnetic field
.


electric potential
: the capacity of an electric field to do
work

on an
electric charge
, typically measured in
volts
.


electromagnets
: electrical currents generate magnetic fields, and changing magnetic fields generate
electrical currents


In
electrical engineering
, electricity is used for:


electric power

where electric current is used to
energise

equipment


electronics

which deals with
electrical circuits

that involve
active electrical components

such as
vacuum
tubes
,
transistors
,
diodes

and
integrated circuits
, and associated passive interconnection technologies.


Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though advances in the science were not made
until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity however remained
few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that
engineers

were able to put it to industrial
and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and
society. Electricity's extraordinary versatility as a means of providing energy means it can be put to an
almost limitless set of applications which include
transport
,
heating
,
lighting
,
communications
, and
computation
. Electrical power is the backbone of modern industrial society, and is expected to remain so
for the foreseeable future.
[1]


The word
electricity

is from the
New Latin

ēlectricus
, "amber
-
like"
[a]
, coined in the year 1600 from the
Greek
ήλεκτρον

(electron) meaning
amber
, because electrical effects were produced classically by
rubbing amber.



2


Electricity is measured in units of power called watts. It
was named to honor
James Watt
, the inventor of the
steam engine
. One watt is a very small amount of
power. It would require nearly 750 watts to equal one
horsepower. A kilowatt represents 1,000 watts. A
kilowatt
-
hour (kWh) is equal to the energy of 1,000
watts working for one hour. The amount of electricity a
power plant generates or a customer uses over a
period of time is measured in
kilowatthours

(kWh).
Kilowatthours

are determined by multiplying the
number of kW's required by the number of hours of
use. For example, if you use a 40
-
watt light bulb 5
hours a day, you have used 200 watts of power, or .2
kilowatthours

of electrical energy.

3


An electric generator is a device for converting mechanical
energy into electrical energy. The process is based on the
relationship between magnetism and electricity. When a wire
or any other electrically conductive material moves across a
magnetic field, an electric current occurs in the wire. The
large generators used by the electric utility industry have a
stationary conductor. A magnet attached to the end of a
rotating shaft is positioned inside a stationary conducting ring
that is wrapped with a long, continuous piece of wire. When
the magnet rotates, it induces a small electric current in each
section of wire as it passes. Each section of wire constitutes a
small, separate electric conductor. All the small currents of
individual sections add up to one current of considerable size.
This current is what is used for electric power.

4

Reference

sources
:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity


http://www.mcwdn.org/Physics/Electricity.htm
l


http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter0
2.htm


http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl
electric1.htm



Conclusion
:





Electrcity

helps us in lots of ways, It helps us watch television, play
computer games and bathe. Without
electrcity

a lot of things we take for
granted wouldn't be here today. Imagine living inn the dark with no
central heating or television or computer?

How bad would that be? It would be the middle ages all over again.