Abbey Reisz, Matt Zapalac, Kymberly

wizzstuffingUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

57 views

Group 01:

Abbey
Reisz
, Matt
Zapalac
,
Kymberly

Juettemeyer
,
Cassy

Diamond, Joshua Aguilar

Primary Article:
Planar Photonics with
Metasurfaces

Secondary Articles
:
History of
Metamaterials
, From
Metamaterials

to
Metadevices
,
Infrared
M
etamaterial

Phase Holograms





Fantasy “Invisibility Cloak “ from
Harry Potter franchise

Real world “Invisibility Cloak” using
metamaterials

Summary of Research


What are
metamaterials
?

Why
are they relevant?


History/Background


Core Concepts/How They Work


Applications


Assessment of
Metamaterials


Conclusions

Negative index
metamaterial

array configuration, which was
constructed of copper split
-
ring resonators and wires mounted
on interlocking sheets of fiberglass circuit board.

Picture:


Metamaterials

Google.com

What are “
metamaterials
”?


Why are they unique?


Material that gains properties from its surroundings
rather than composition of material



Magnetoelastic
” material
-
have a
mechanial

degree
of freedom that allows mutual interaction with its
surroundings
to enable electromagnetic forces to
change the structure and tune its properties; they
respond to light, acoustic waves, and heat flow.


Negative permeability, permittivity, refractive index,
which are usually positive in other materials


Reduced dimensionality and bulk; planar, ultrathin


Controls light waves, acoustic waves, heat waves


Regular material constraints lifted



The 8 V
-
shaped prongs represent one unit cell that repeats through the
structure; these help demonstrate negative refractive index and reflection
angles that give the material its unique physical and optical properties.

Research and Picture:


Planar Photonics with
Metasurfaces

Alexander V.
Kildishev

et al.

Science 339, (2013);

DOI: 10.1126/science.1232009

http://www.sciencemag.org

History/Background of
Metamaterials


What is light?


Magnetic field wave and electric
field wave
propogating

perpendicular to one another;
metamaterials

are affected by
light, which is electric and
magnetic waves.





James Maxwell
-
made the
connection between light,
electricity, and magnetism in the
1800’s;
electromagnetic field





Research:


History of
Metamaterials

Reed Business Information

January 8, 2011

http://www.tmcnet.com



Top Picture


http://www.astronomynotes.com


Research


History of
Metamaterials

Wikipedia.com

A magnetic and
electric wave
propagating
together to
create an
electromagnetic
wave.

Ordinary
electrical
charges
produce field
lines that
spread to
infinity in
empty space.

Bottom Picture


Electromagnetic Field

Google.com

History/Background of
Metamaterials


Victor
Veselago
-
discovered
negative refractive index in 1967


Electric and magnetic fields
aligned in opposite directions; the
reversal of Snell’s Law would “bend
light the wrong way




“Meta” means “beyond”, which was
given as a name to this material
because it is “beyond conventional
materials”




Victor
Veselago’s

proposal of negative refractive index and negative reflection of
light on a
metasurface

A
diagram of
Snell’s
Law showing the
relationship between
angle of incidence and
refraction. Refraction
of light at the interface
between two media of
different refractive
indices, with n2 > n1.
Since the velocity is
lower in the second
medium (v2 < v1), the
angle of refraction θ2
is less than the angle of
incidence θ1; that is,
the ray in the higher
-
index medium is closer
to the normal.

Research:


History of
Metamaterials

Reed Business Information

January 8, 2011

http://www.tmcnet.com



Top Picture


Snell’s Law

Wikipedia.com

Research


History of
Metamaterials

Wikipedia.com

Bottoms Pictures:


Planar Photonics with
Metasurfaces

Alexander V.
Kildishev

et al.

Science 339, (2013);

DOI: 10.1126/science.1232009

http://www.sciencemag.org

History/Background of
Metamaterials


John
Pendry



Discovered that radiation absorption does not come from
the chemical or molecular
structure, but comes from
carbon fiber shape within material.


Discovered negative permittivity and permeability


Created the “split ring structure
” with repeating thin wire
structures sequentially.



David
Smith
-
created the first
metamaterial

in
2000
capable of bending electromagnetic radiation; went
on to create first invisibility cloak.


Today, we have “active

metamaterials

that
control and respond
to surroundings.


Top: Split ring structure before the electromagnetic field is applied

Bottom: Electromagnetic field applied; lattice parameters change.

Research:


History of
Metamaterials

Reed Business Information

January 8, 2011

http://www.tmcnet.com


Research


History of
Metamaterials

Wikipedia.com

Bottom Picture


Planar Photonics with
Metasurfaces

Alexander V.
Kildishev

et al.

Science 339, (2013);

DOI: 10.1126/science.1232009

http://www.sciencemag.org

Core Concepts:

Electromagnetics


Light is a direct result of electric and
magnetic waves propagating
together.


Permittivity and Permeability must be
simultaneously negative for a
metamaterial

to exist.


Permittivity:


The measure of how an electric field
interacts with a dielectric medium.


Electromagnetic Permeability:


The measure of the ability of a material to
support its own magnetic field.


Research:


Permittivity

Permeabilitiy

Wikipedia.com

Pictures:


Fundamentals of Materials
Science and Engineering

Ch. 19

An electromagnetic wave showing electric field
Є

and magnetic field H
components and the wavelength
λ
.

The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation;
metamaterials

are not visible to the human eye
and the waves absorbed by
metamaterials

are
typically found in the microwave and infrared
region, although all waves are a form of
electromagnetic radiation.

Energy of particle of
light is proportional
to frequency by
Planck’s Constant.

Core Concepts: Refractive Index


Refractive Index (n)


Describes how light propagates
through a medium.


Less
than 1


Can be positive…(normal materials)



Or
negative (
metamaterials
)


Wave
front can travel towards
direction of
source


A video showing negative
refractive index:
http://upload.wikimedia.o
rg/wikipedia/commons/c/c
7/Negative_refraction.ogg


Refractive index: speed of light over the phase velocity
of a given substance.
Є

is permittivity and
μ

is
permeability; in order for refractive index to be negative,
both of the others must also be negative.

Research


Negative Index
Metamaterials

Wikipedia.com

Research and Picture


Using
Metamaterials

to Defy Our Common Understanding
of Light

http://
www.rikenresearch.riken.jp

Illustration of a negative refractive index

Core Concepts: Acoustic


Inherent
parameters of the medium
are the mass density

ρ, bulk
modulus
β,
and chirality

k.


Chirality determines
the polarity
of

wave
propogation
.


Requires negative bulk modulus and
mass density; these must be altered
to define the refractive index of a
material.


Bulk modulus is the resistance to
uniform compression.


Allows unique effects such as a
inverse Doppler effect

Research


Double
-
negative acoustic
metamaterial

Jensen Li

and

C. T. Chan


Science 339, (2013);

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.055602

http://pre.aps.org

Bulk modulus: A diagram of uniform compression. This is possible
through negative refractive index and chirality of
metamaterials
.
Negative bulk modulus means that the medium expands when
experiencing compression, and accelerates to the left when being
pushed to the right.


The relationship between refractive index (n), mass
density (
ρ
) and bulk modulus (
β
).

Further Research and Pictures:


Acoustic
Metamaterials

Wikipedia.com

Applications of
Metamaterials
: Invisibility


Negative refractive index is crucial


Makes the path of light quicker
around an object rather than
through it


Bend electromagnetic waves
around an object, rendering it
invisible.


“Perfect” invisibility not yet
possible, but partial invisibility
(translucency) is proven.





Research:


How Invisibility Cloaks Work

William Harris and Robert Lamb

Howstuffworks.com

Diagram:


Super
-
Technologies

Theonematrix.com

A diagram of how light (microwave
source) affects normal objects and
metamaterials

differently.

Photo:


“Is the Army Testing an Invisible Tank?”

Alexander
Nemenov
/AFP/
Getty Images

http://www.howstuffworks.com/invisible
-
tank1.htm


Potential to create an armor
for soldiers that would render
them and their shadows
invisible.

Applications of
Metamaterials
: Invisibility


Allows
:


Invisibility cloaks



Stealth paint on
planes



See through gloves for
surgeons



Take away blind spots for
drivers in cars



Virtually anything in the
military ranging from clothes
for soldiers to invisible planes


Pictures:


Google.com

A person wearing a real
“invisibility cloak” made of
metamaterials

The type of plane that would benefit from
metamaterial

cloaking;
stealth attacks and landing would be much easier and safer.

Applications of
Metamaterials
:
Subwavelenth

Imaging and
Superlenses



What is a
superlens
?


Goes beyond diffraction
limit


Most lenses limited by
imperfections


Superresolution


Microwave
frequencies




Research:


From
metamaterials

to
metadevices

Nikolay

I.
Zheludev

and Yuri S.
Kivshar

Nature Materials 11, 917
-
924 (2012)

DOI: 10.1038/nmat3431

23 October 2012

Research:


Superlens

Wikipedia.com


Subwavelength

images via
metamaterials

allow to see
cells in real time in natural environment


Can see patterns which are too small to be seen by
conventional microscopes


Top Picture:


The
Superlens

Nature.com

Bottom Picture:


Google.com

An example of how molecules would look with
subwavelength

imaging.

Applications of
Metamaterials
: Wireless
Power Transmission


Metamaterial

is placed
between the
transmitter and the receiver would
create a
kind
of lens,
directing
the
energy so that most of it gets to the
device being charged
.


This
metamaterial

would use thousands of
individual thin conducting loops that would
be tailored to recipient device.


Space between the charger and
chargee

effectively disappears.


Short range mobile devices are an easy
feat, but electric vehicle charging and
more is a new possibility.


Perhaps the device could be created inside
the car to self
-
charge anywhere.


Research


Metamaterials
: Wireless Power

Gizmag.com

Noel
McKeegan

May 25, 2011

Research


Artificially Structured
Metamaterials

May Boost Wireless Power Transfer

Sciencedaily.com

March 12, 2012

How the charging cycle works through the flow of electricity and wireless power.

Current electric automobile charging device; can someday have the
charger at a further distance.

Pictures


Wireless Charging
Metamaterials

Google.com

Applications of
Metamaterials
: Holographic
Images


Artificial structuring is represented by diffractive
optics, which control a wave through multilevel
diffractive devices.


Gerchberg
-
Saxton iterative algorithm


Relationship between complex transmittance and of the
hologram and the far
-
field image generated


Iteratively adjusts the constraints in the hologram and the
image to focus.


Metamaterials

are crucial for holographic images
because of the metal inclusions that are strong
scatterers

of electromagnetic waves and provide a
large electric polarization.


Provides a magnetic response and controlled
anistrophy

(directional dependence of waves)

Process Flow for the
fabrication of the
multilayer
metamaterial

hologram

Research and Photo:


Infrared
metamaterial

phase holograms

Stephane

Larouche
, Yu
-
Ju

Tsai, et al.

Nature Materials 11, 450
-
454 (2012)

DOI: 10.1038/nmat3278

18 March 2012

Artistic rendering of a
section of
metamaterial

hologram demonstrating
the various
metamaterial

elements used. The
hologram consists of
three layers of gold
elements in a SiO2 matrix
over a
Ge

substrate.


Photo: Rendering


“Infrared
metamaterial

phase holograms”

http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/03/infrared
-
metamaterial
-
phase
-
holograms.html#more

Applications of
Metamaterials
: Holographic
Images


Could render perfect holograms on
a 2D display.


So accurate that you can
look into it
with binoculars and still not be able
to tell it’s a
holographic image.


Infrared region (10.6 micrometers)


Can be applied to
videogames,
television, military, graphics in
general


Research:


Infrared
metamaterial

phase holograms

Stephane

Larouche
, Yu
-
Ju

Tsai, et al.

Nature Materials 11, 450
-
454 (2012)

DOI: 10.1038/nmat3278

18 March 2012

A fantasy hologram from the
Star Wars franchise
; an idea of
how holograms could eventually look.

Duke University’s
metametarials

hologram; the E was not formed due to grazing incidence.

Bottom Picture:


Nature.com

Top Picture:


Google.com

Holograms

Applications of
Metamaterials
: Terahertz
Biosensors


Can identify a chemical or
biochemical molecular
composition even very minute
amounts


Increased sensitivity and
facilitated readout


Sense the dielectric properties of a
sample in the terahertz frequency
range



Research and Picture:


Metamaterials

Application in Sensing

Tao Chen,
Suyan

Li,
Hui

Sun

www.mdpi.com

DOI: 10.3390/s120302742

29 February 2012


(
a
) Schematic
of the micrometer
-
sized
metamaterial

resonators sprayed on
paper substrates with a
predefined
microstencil
; (
b
) Photograph of a paper
-
based terahertz
metamaterial

sample; (
c
) Optical microscopy image of one
portion of
a paper
metamaterial

sample.

Applications of Metamaterials: Biosensors


Biosensors : disease diagnostics,
environmental monitoring, food
safety, and investigation of
biological phenomena


Used to improve the sensor
selectivity of detecting nonlinear
substances


Can improve the mechanical,
optical and electromagnetic
properties of sensors

Research


Metamaterials Application in Sensing

Tao Chen,
Suyan

Li,
Hui

Sun

www.mdpi.com

DOI: 10.3390/s120302742

29 February 2012




Need for
bioanalytical

sensing techniques that can
directly detect the target molecules without labeling



Technologies based on
metamaterials

provide cost
-
efficient and label
-
free
biomolecule

detection



Image:



"
Biosensing

Using Gold
Nanorod

Metamaterials."

All About Biosensors
.
N.p
.,
n.d
. Web. 06 Apr. 2013.




Allows to detect
analytes

(biomolecules) in volumes
down to
attoliters
; single particle measurements
probe the local environment around one specific
particle.

TEM micrographs of gold
nanorods

with mean
aspect ratio 2.8.

Applications of Metamaterials:
Communication


Need to keep the antenna size
within specific size or foot print


Metamaterials used to minimize
surface waves arising from micro
strip patch antennas


Goal: Increase the gain of the
micro strip antenna while
maintaining its low attractive, low
profile features

Research


Metamaterials Application in Sensing

Tao Chen,
Suyan

Li,
Hui

Sun

www.mdpi.com

DOI: 10.3390/s120302742

29 February 2012



Magnetic superstrates that use split ring
resonators (MSRR) inclusions


The MSRR unit cell is to have
POSITIVE values for the
effective permeability and
permittivity at the
resonance frequency of the
antenna

Shows the gain of the micro strip antenna before
and after using the artificial magnetic
superstrate
.
The gain improved by 3.4 dB at the resonance
frequency after using the engineered
superstrate
.
This means the efficiency of the antenna at the
operating frequency of 2.2GHz increased by 17%
due to the
metamaterial

superstrate
.

A planar 10X10 array of MSRRS was printed on the hose dielectric layer to provide the engineered magnetic
material. The
superstrates

used here consists of 3 layers of printed magnetic inclusions, separated by 2 mm of
air layers.

Images :

O. M.
Ramahi
, M. S.
Boybay
, O.
Siddiqui
, L.
Yousefi
, A.
Kabiri
,

Hussein
Attia
, M. Bait
-
Suwailam

and Z.
Ren
, "Metamaterials: An Enabling
Technology for Wireless Communications,"

Proceeding of International Conference on Communication Technologies ICCT2010,

Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia, Jan. 18
-
20, 2010


Applications of
Metamaterials
: Superconductors


Often made of
niobium



Research:


From
metamaterials

to
metadevices

Nikolay

I.
Zheludev

and Yuri S.
Kivshar

Nature Materials 11, 917
-
924 (2012)

DOI: 10.1038/nmat3431

23 October 2012

Top Picture


Periodictable.com


Bottom Picture:


Terahertz
nonliner

superconducting
metamaterial

Apl.aip.org


Limited to microwave and terahertz
spectral domains


Switch from
plasmonic

excitations to
quantum excitations


Can control magnetic fields


Provide lower losses with better sensitivity


Diagram of a terahertz
metamaterial

superconductor.

Periodic table data for
Niobum

Assessment of
Metamaterials


Cost
efficient


Low cost manufacturing


Less
bulky, planar structure


Can affect many different types of
waves: optical, acoustic, heat, infrared,
magnetic field, electric


Unlimited combinations with other
materials


Unlimited possibilities with a structure
that adapts to external stimuli



Picture:


Google.com

A man wearing a
metamaterial

shirt that allows him to appear
translucent.

Metamaterials with unique mechanical properties. A team
there has designed materials with “negative compressibility”
that in theory will compress when they are pulled and expand
when they are compressed.

Picture: Mechanical Properties


“New ‘Mechanical
Metamaterial
’ Expands When You Compress It, Shrinks When
your Stretch It”

http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2012
-
05/new
-
mechanical
-
metamaterial
-
expands
-
when
-
you
-
compress
-
it
-
shrinks
-
when
-
you
-
stretch
-
it

Further Suggested Research


Other applications


Future applications


Integration/hybridization of
metamaterials

with natural materials


How to improve
metamaterials


Commercial uses


More capabilities of
metamaterials


Picture:

nature.com

The many different types of
metamaterials

Conclusions


Negative refractive index can change
the structure of
metamaterials


Electricity, magnetism, light, heat can
all affect a material


Structures can change based on
surroundings


Main applications include the super
-
lens and invisibility cloak, but open
doors to many other fields and
possibilities.


Picture:

Metamaterials

Google.com


A
metamaterial

that could allow wireless power transmission.