Understanding information, its management, and the history of IT

wittyexecutiveNetworking and Communications

Feb 17, 2014 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Understanding information, its
management, and the history of IT

MBA 501

Week 2

Objectives of today’s class


To look in more detail at Assignment 1


To examine some of the key trends in
hardware, software, data and
telecommunications


To review the history of the internet and some
of its core applications


To look at one of the commonly used
methodologies for examining technology
trends: The Gartner Hype Cycle

Classification of IT into 3 types


Function IT
encompasses technologies
--
such as spreadsheet and word
processing applications
--
that streamline individual tasks.



Network IT
includes capabilities like e
-
mail, instant messaging, and blogs and
helps people communicate with one another.



Enterprise IT
brings with it approaches such as customer resource management
and supply chain management and lets companies re
-
create interactions between
groups of workers or with business partners.



Different types of technology bring about different types of organizational change,
and managers should tailor their own roles accordingly. Categorizing IT in this
manner can help leaders determine which technologies to invest in and how they
can assist organizations in making the most of them.

Mastering the Three Worlds of Information Technology. Harvard Business Review,
Nov2006, Vol. 84 Issue 11, p141
-
149,

Mastering the Three Worlds of Information Technology. Harvard
Business Review, Nov2006, Vol. 84 Issue 11, p141
-
149,

Chart; found on p145

Future role of the IS function?


Technology is getting more complex and is often mission critical



Users are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and are more often involved in
actual application development



IS professionals are no longer the only ones who can bridge the gap between
technology and its users



Management of the process is becoming more complex and difficult as its
importance increases



Judgment of IS performance is based on business outcomes and business results



We will look at this topic in more detail in Week 4


McNurlin
, Sprague & Bui. Information Systems Management in Practice.
Pearson. 2008

HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, AND DATA
TRENDS

Information technology and business:
historical trends

IT initially used to make manual information processing work faster and more efficient

Then IT was used to improve the management of work

Now IT has a fundamental impact on the structure and operation of work, business
practices, the global economy.


Internet of
things,
semantic
web, AI,
AR, “big”
data

2010s

.

HARDWARE trends


Decentralization


Computing power in


the hands of end
-
users


Access to corporate networks


from outside the
organization


The
consumerization

of hardware and BYOD


SOFTWARE trends


1990s: strong shift to off
-
the
-
shelf software


1990s: a shift away from proprietary systems and a push
toward open systems and “open
-
source” software.


wider adoption of software standards and
“interoperability” (making different systems work
together)


1990s and 2000s: enterprise resource planning (ERP)
systems. Systems integration rather than application
development


Now software is becoming much more network
-
centric


Cloud computing


McNurlin
, Sprague & Bui. Information Systems Management in Practice.
Pearson. 2008

CLOUD COMPUTING


Computing done not on computers in homes and offices, but
in “the cloud”


drawing on huge server farms and data
centres

accessed via the Internet



Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service (
SaaS
)


the provider provides access to
software via the Internet


Salesforce.com

(tag line NO SOFTWARE!)



Platform
-
as
-
a
-
Service (
PaaS
) software and development tools hosted
on the provider's servers.
Eg
.
Google Apps



use in small business



Infrastructure
-
as
-
a
-
Service (
IaaS
) provides blocks of storage /
computing power on demand (aka utility computing)
eg
.
Amazon Web
Services


DATA trends


Decentralization and power shift: direct access to
data for end users via the desktop


1990s: Shift from data management to
information management. Information resources
include all digitized media (voice, video, graphics,
animation, photographs, text) internal and
external to the firm.


Data warehousing for POS information, web
server log (web analytics, data mining)


Knowledge management


Content management of websites


McNurlin
, Sprague & Bui. Information Systems Management in Practice.
Pearson. 2008

“Big Data”



Definition of “big data”


Size


Number of independent data sources (
eg
.
Sensors)


Complexity


“Big ...refers to big complexity rather than big volume. Of course, valuable
and complex datasets of this sort naturally tend to grow rapidly and so big
data quickly becomes truly massive”
http://mike2.openmethodology.org/wiki/Big_Data_Definition


Examples

of big data

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING

Telecommunications and
networking: uses


Sharing of technology resources


Sharing of data


Collaboration


Distributed data processing (client / server
model)


Enhanced communications


Market outreach (inbound and outbound)

Managing Information Technology. 7
th

Ed. Brown et al. Pearson 2012

Telecommunications and
networking trends


Late 1970’s
-

80s: LANs connected PCs, and the corporate data
centre



Prior to the Internet companies used leased lines for WANs to
link offices and factories. Often slow and always expensive.


The only publicly available telecommunication system was voice
telephone



Internet changed everything
-

first wired and then wireless


Increase in bandwidth is the major driver


McNurlin
, Sprague & Bui. Information Systems Management in Practice.
Pearson. 2008

Functions of a telecommunications
network

Function

Description

Transmission

Movement of voice/data using network

and underlying
media

Processing

Ensuring that error
-
free communication

gets to right
destination

Editorial

Checking for errors

and putting communication into
standardized format

Conversion

Changing coding system or speed when moving from one
device

to another

Routing

Choosing most efficient path when multiple paths are
available

Network control

Keeping

track of status of network elements and checking
to see if communications are ready to be sent

Interface

Handling

interactions between users and the network

Managing Information Technology. 7
th

Ed. Brown et al. Pearson 2012

Speed of transmission and bandwidth (capacity)

50,000 bits (
ie
. 1s and
0s)=1 page of data


1,000,000 bits = 1 page of

a graphic

3 billion bytes (8 bits=1
byte) or 3 gigabytes

= 1
hour of HD video

10 pages via

a 56
kps

modem (analog phone
line) = 9 seconds

10 pages of graphics via

a
56
kps

modem (analog
phone line) = 3 minutes

1

hour HD video

via

a 56
kps

modem (analog phone
line) = 5 days


10 pages via a 1 million bps
DSL line = 0.5 second

10 pages of graphics via a 1
million bps (mbps) DSL line
= 10 seconds


1

hour HD video

via a 1
million bps DSL line = 6
.66
hours


1

hour HD video

via a 30
mbps
fiber
-
to
-
the
-
premises

line = 13.33 minutes

Bandwidth determines what types of communication


voice, data,

graphics, video


can reasonably be transmitted over a particular medium

Managing Information Technology. 7
th

Ed. Brown et al. Pearson 2012

Types of network


Local area network (LAN): operates within an organization
over a relatively small area (2
-
3 miles)


can be wired or
wireless


Backbone networks: middle distance networks that connect
LANs with one another and with organizational WANs and the
Internet


Wide area network (WAN): long
-
distance networks that
connect geographically distant elements of an organization
(several variants and ways of implementing these)


Internet: a network of networks that uses the TCP/IP protocol
with gateways to other networks (LANS and WANS that may
use other networking protocols)



Managing Information Technology. 7
th

Ed. Brown et al. Pearson 2012

HISTORY OF THE INTERNET

How did we get here? Brief History
of the Internet


1968
-

DARPA
(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)
contracts with
BBN

(Bolt,
Beranek

& Newman)
to create
ARPAnet


1970
-

First five nodes:


UCLA


Stanford


UC Santa Barbara


U of Utah, and


BBN


1974
-

TCP specification by
Vint

Cerf


1984


On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts converts en
masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging



History of the Internet video

-

a technical view (8 minutes)

Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA

History of the internet (cont’d)


Email introduced in 1972


Desktop computing became the norm for business in the mid
-
to
-
late 1980’s


1989
-

World Wide Web devised



text only until 1993, when the image tag was introduced into html


this fueled commerce on the web
eg
.


yahoo.com (1994 ) amazon.com (1995) ,ebay.com (1995), google.com (1998)


By 1997 virtually every major company, organization, government, and media
outlet had a web presence


The first Internet boom lasted until 2001


Since 2001 organizational and commercial use of the internet has matured,
and now “all business is
eBusiness
”. The Internet is ubiquitous.



Top significant moments from internet history (timeline)

(1971


2009)




A Timeline of the Internet and E
-
Retailing: Milestones of Influence and Concurrent
Events

(Kelly School of Business)


Some uses of the internet in 2014
?


A METHODOLOGY FOR EXAMINING
TECHNOLOGY TRENDS: THE
GARTNER

HYPE CYCLE

The Gartner Hype Cycle research methodology


Helps to separate hype from technology that
has real promise / offers business value


Reduces technology investment risk by
analyzing technology life cycles


“Gartner Hype Cycles provide a graphic representation of the
maturity and adoption of technologies and applications, and
how they are potentially relevant to solving real business
problems and exploiting new opportunities. Gartner Hype
Cycle methodology gives you a view of how a technology or
application will evolve over time, providing a sound source of
insight to manage its deployment within the context of your
specific business goals.”


http://www.gartner.com/technology/research/methodologies/hype
-
cycle.jsp

Gartner Hype Cycle 2013: Emerging Technologies

Gartner.
http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2575515


Goals of the networked organizational
environment


Leverage knowledge globally


Knowledge
-
based strategy using KM


Foster a working atmosphere where people are willing to share,
and to seek help from others to solve problems
-

use IT (email,
messaging, groupware) to help them do it
.




Organize for complexity:


corporate decisions having environmental, HR, economic and
ethical impacts (triple bottom line: people, planet, profits)


strategic alliances increase complexity, as does specialization
and massively increased choice for consumers


McNurlin
, Sprague & Bui. Information Systems Management in Practice.
Pearson. 2008

Goals of the networked organizational
environment


Work electronically


Workplace is shifting to workspace


Requires different ways of managing and organizational structures


Move away from top
-
down hierarchical (broadcast model) to
the Internet “conversation” model


Power moves to the consumer


Handle change


To keep up, companies will need to innovate continually
-

fine
tune products for continuous improvement (and completely
redesign products where necessary)


McNurlin
, Sprague & Bui. Information Systems Management in Practice.
Pearson. 2008

Will networks change the nature of
the corporation?


“In the next 5 years, networks will be supporting a
shift to business teams from individuals as the basic
unit of corporate productivity. In the 10
-
year time
frame, we’ll see changing organizational structures.
In 20 to 30 years, we’ll see a shift so fundamental, it
will mean the end of the corporation as we know it.”

Paul
Saffo



Institute for the Future 1990


We are now in that 20
-
30 year timeframe


so is
that shift happening?