Computer Software

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Aug 7, 2012 (5 years and 2 months ago)

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Computer Software

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

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2

Learning Objectives


Describe several important trends occurring

in computer software


Give examples of several major types of
application and system software


Explain the purpose of several popular
software packages for end user productivity
and collaborative computing

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3

Learning Objectives


Define and describe the functions of an
operating system


Describe the main uses of computer
programming software, tools, and languages


Describe the issues associated with open
source software

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4

Types of Application & System Software

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5

Application Software

Custom

Commercial

Off
-
the
-
Shelf

(COTS)

General

Purpose

Open
-
Source

Application Software

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6

Business Application Software

Thousands of these packages support
specific end
-
user applications

Customer Relationship Management

Enterprise Resource Planning

Supply Chain Management

Function
-
Specific Application Software

Web
-
enabled electronic commerce

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7

Software Suites, Integrated Packages

Most widely used productivity packages
are bundled as software suites

Advantages

1. Cost less than buying
individual packages

2. All have similar GUI

3. Programs work well
together

Disadvantages

1. All features not used

2. Takes a lot of disk
space (bloatware)

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8

Components of Top Software Suites

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9

Integrated Packages

Integrated packages combine the functions

of several programs into one package

E.g., Microsoft Works, AppleWork

Advantages

1. Many functions for
lower price

2. Uses less disk space

3. Frequently pre
-
installed on PCs

Disadvantages

1. Limited functionality

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10

Web Browsers

Software that supports navigation through
point
-
and
-
click, hyper
-
linked Web resources

Becoming the universal platform

from which end users launch…

Information searches

E
-
mail

Multimedia file transfer

Discussion groups

Other Internet
-
based applications

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11

Search Engines

Google, Ask Jeeves, Look Smart, Lycos,
Overture, Yahoo!

Browsers are used to gain access

to Internet search engines

Using search engines to find information has
become an indispensable part of Internet,
intranet, and extranet applications

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E
-
mail, Instant Messaging, Weblogs


E
-
mail


Sending and receiving messages and
attachments via the Internet, intranet, or
extranet


Instant messaging (IM)


Receive electronic messages instantly


Weblog or blog


A personal website in dated log format


Updated with new information about a subject
or range of subjects

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Word Processing/Desktop Publishing


Word Processing


Create, edit, revise, and print documents


E.g., Microsoft Word, Lotus WordPro, Corel
WordPerfect


Desktop Publishing


Produce printed materials that look
professionally published


E.g., Adobe PageMaker, Microsoft Publisher,
QuarkXPress

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14

Electronic Spreadsheets

Used by virtually every business for

analysis, planning, modeling

Worksheet of rows and columns

Can be stored on local computers or a network

Requires designing format and developing

the relationships (formulas)

Most help you develop charts and graph

displays of spreadsheet results

Supports what
-
if questions

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15

Presentation Graphics

Microsoft PowerPoint,
Lotus Freelance,
Corel Presentations

Are used to create
multimedia
presentations of
graphics, photos,
animation, video

Top packages can
tailor files for
transfer in HTML
format to websites

Convert numeric
data into graphics

Common

presentation

graphics

packages…

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Personal Information Managers

Manages schedules, appointments, tasks

Most have ability to access the Web and e
-
mail

Stores information about clients

Some support team collaboration by sharing
information with other PIM users

e.g., Lotus Organizer, Microsoft Outlook

Software for end user productivity and collaboration

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17

Groupware


Software that helps workgroups collaborate
on group assignments


E
-
mail, discussion groups, databases, audio,
and video conferencing


E.g., Lotus Notes, Novell GroupWise,
Microsoft Exchange


Windows SharePoint Services and
WebSphere both allow teams to create
websites for information sharing and
document collaboration

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Software Alternatives


Outsource software development and
maintenance


Application service providers (ASPs)


Companies that own, operate, and maintain
application software and computer system
resources


Use the application for a fee over the Internet


Pay
-
as
-
you
-
go


Use expected to accelerate

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19

Cloud Computing


Software and virtualized hardware resources
are provided as a service over the Internet


No technology knowledge, expertise, or control
needed


Often confused with grid computing


Pay
-
for
-
use avoids capital expenditures


Sharing “perishable and intangible” computer
power improves utilization rates


Capacity can be scaled upward almost instantly


Immediate access to broad range of applications


Contracts can generally be terminated at any time

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Software Licensing

Trade secrets

COTS and ASP software is licensed, which involves…

You buy a license to use the software

Licensed to protect vendor’s property rights

You don’t buy software…

Traditional contract law, including Uniform
Commercial Code (UCC)

Copyright and trademark

Intellectual property rights

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21

Categories of Group Software

System

Management
Programs

System
Development
Programs

Manages hardware, software, network,
and data resources of computer systems

Operating systems, network
management programs, database
management systems, system utilities

Helps users develop IS programs and
procedures, and then prepare them

for processing

Includes language translators and
editors, CASE, and programming tools

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22

Interface Between End Users & Computer

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Operating Systems

Integrated system of programs that…

Provides
support
services as the
computer
executes
application
programs

Manages the
operations of
the CPU

Controls the
input/out,
storage
resources, and
activities of the
computer
system

The operating system must be loaded and activated

before other tasks can be accomplished

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Operating System Basic Functions


Command
-
driven


Menu
-
driven


Graphical User


Interfaces (GUI)

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Popular Operating Systems


Windows


GUI, multitasking, networking, multimedia


Microsoft’s operating system


NT, XP, 2003


Different versions manage servers


Standard, enterprise, data center, Web


Unix


Multitasking, multi
-
user, network
-
managing


Portable
-

can run on mainframes, midrange,

and PCs

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26

Popular Operating Systems


Linux


Low
-
cost, powerful, reliable, Unix
-
like

operating system


Open
-
source


MAC OS X


Apple operating system for the iMac


GUI


Multitasking


Multimedia

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Open Source Software


The basic idea


When programmers can read, redistribute, and
modify source code, the software evolves


This can happen at astonishing speed


Produces better software than the traditional
commercial (closed) model


The proprietary approach to software
development has hidden costs that often
outweigh its benefits


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Open Source Software


Open source software is
not



Shareware


Public domain software


Freeware


A viewer or reader made freely available
without source code


OSS…


Is copyrighted & distributed with license terms


Sometimes carries a fee for packaging,
distribution, or support

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Open
-
Source Licensing Characteristics


The License


The program must include the source code and allow
distribution in source code as well as compiled form


Shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away
the software as a component of an aggregate software
distribution containing programs from several sources


Must allow modifications and derived works, and must
allow them to be distributed under the same terms as
the license of the original software

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Open
-
Source Licensing Characteristics


The License (continued)


May restrict source code from being distributed in
modified form only if the license allows the distribution
of patch files with the source code for the purpose of
modifying the program at build time


Must not discriminate against any person or any

group of persons


Must not restrict anyone from making use of the
program in a specific field of endeavor

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Open
-
Source Licensing Characteristics


The License (continued)


The rights attached to the program must

apply to all to whom the program is
redistributed, without the need for execution

of an additional license


Must not be specific to a product


Must not contaminate other software by
placing restrictions on any software

distributed along with the licensed software

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Examples of Open Source Software


Open Office


Can be used for any purpose: domestic, commercial,
educational, or public administration


Mac OS X


Based on a form of UNIX


Advanced GUI


Supports multi
-
tasking and multimedia


Integrated Web browser, e
-
mail, instant messaging,
search engine, digital media player, and more


Includes software development tools

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Application Virtualization


An umbrella term for software technologies that
improve portability, manageability, and compatibility
of applications


Works by insulating applications from the underlying
operating system


Benefits


No need for multiple platforms for multiple

applications


Energy savings from not having servers running

at low capacity

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Other System Management Programs

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Other System Software


Utilities


Miscellaneous housekeeping functions


Example: Norton utilities includes data backup,
virus protection, data compression, etc.


Performance Monitors


Programs that monitor and adjust computer
system to keep them running efficiently


Security Monitors


Monitor and control use of computer systems

to prevent unauthorized use of resources

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Application Servers


Provide an interface between an operating
system and the application programs of users


Middleware


Helps diverse software applications exchange
data and work together more efficiently

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Programming Languages

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Machine Languages

First Generation Languages

The most basic of programming languages

Strings of binary codes unique to each computer

Requires specific knowledge of the

internal operations of the CPU being used

Must specify the storage location for every

instruction and item of data used

Difficult to work with, and error prone

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Assembler Languages

Second Generation Languages

Developed to reduce difficulties

in writing machine language programs

Uses assemblers to convert the programs

into machine instructions

Symbols used to represent operation codes

and storage locations

Alphabetic abbreviations, call mnemonics, and

other symbols represent operation codes,

storage locations, and data elements

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High
-
Level Languages

Third Generation Languages

Uses brief statements or arithmetic expressions

Statements translated into machine language

by compilers or interpreters

Less efficient than assembler language and

requires greater translation time

Machine dependent

Examples: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN

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Fourth
-
Generation Languages

Fourth
-
Generation Languages

Variety of programming languages that are

nonprocedural and conversational

Programmers specify the result wanted;

the computer determines the sequence of

instructions that accomplish the result

Simplifies the programming process

Natural language; very close to English

Sometimes called fifth
-
generation (5GLs)

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Object
-
Oriented Languages

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Object
-
Oriented Languages

Easier to use and more efficient for graphics
-
oriented user interfaces

Most widely used software
development languages

Reusable: can use an object from one
application in another application

Examples: Visual Basic, C++, Java

Most object
-
oriented languages provide a GUI
that supports visual programming

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Web Languages

HTML

A page description language that creates
hypertext documents for the Web

XML

Describes Web page content by

applying identifying tags or contextual
labels to the data

Java

Object
-
oriented programming language that
is simple, secure, and platform independent

Java applets can be executed

on any computer

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J2EE versus .Net

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How Web Services Work

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Language Translator Programs

Translate instructions written in programming

languages into machine language

Assembler

Translates
assembler
language
statement

Compiler

Translates high
-
level language
statements

Interpreter

A compiler that
translates and
executes each
statement in

a program,

one at a time

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Programming Tools


Help programmers identify and minimize
errors while they are programming


Graphical programming interfaces


Programming editors


Debuggers


CASE Tools


A combination of many programming tools into
a single application with a common interface


Used in different stages of the systems
development process

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49

Case 1: Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service (SaaS)


General Electric


500,000 suppliers in 100 countries, with

14 different languages


Needed to coordinate contracts, compliance
initiatives, certifications, and interactions


Was using homegrown Global Supplier Library


Switched to a Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service vendor


Better capabilities for same cost


Suppliers can manage their own data

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Case 1: Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service (SaaS)


H.B. Fuller Company


Current payroll system was expensive and
going nowhere


Gave up control to avoid the headaches of
trying to fix the existing software


Configuration rather than customization

allows company to maintain its “lean core”


Standardization leads to more agility


IT must be involved in the process


Must have a way to backup necessary data,

in case SaaS provider goes out of business

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Case Study Questions


What factors should companies take into
consideration when making the decision
between developing their own applications,
purchasing them from a vendor, or taking the
SaaS route?


Make a list of factors and discuss their
importance to this decision

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Case Study Questions


What risks did GE take on when they
contracted with a small, less experienced
vendor?


What contingencies could have been put in
place to prevent any problems from arising?


What should companies do if no “configuration
option” perfectly fits with their needs?


Should they attempt to customize, or select

the least
-
worst alternative?


When would they do each?

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Case 2: Power Distribution & Law Enforcement

XML is becoming increasingly popular as an

open standard for sharing data across organizations

A power
consortium is
implementing an
XML
-
based
settlements
system that drives
costs out of power
distribution


In Ohio, almost
1,000 police
departments now
have access to
digital records kept
by neighboring law
enforcement
agencies

The Ohio Law
Enforcement
Gateway Search
Engine is an Internet
-
based tool that can
securely comb
through numerous
crime databases with
a single log
-
in and
query

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Case Study Questions


What is the business value of XML to the organizations
described in the case?


How are they able to achieve such large returns on
investment?


What are other ways in which XML could be used by
organizations to create value and share data?


Look for examples involving for
-
profit organizations to
gain a more complete perspective on the issue


What seem to be important elements in the success

of projects relying on extensive use of XML across
organizations, and why?


Research metadata to inform your answer

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Case
3:

Wolf Peak International


Wolf Peak International


A small company which designs and manufactures
eyewear for safety, sports, driving, and fashion


Outgrew the capabilities of QuickBooks


Spent a lot of money to implement a new accounting
system


Nobody knew how to extract financial or operational
data used to make critical business decisions


Successfully implemented SAP Business One
software, replacing the failed accounting system

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Case Study Questions


What problems occurred when Wolf Peak upgraded
from QuickBooks to a new accounting software
package?


How could these problems have been avoided?


Why was SAP’s Business One a better choice for
Wolf Peak’s management than the new accounting
software?


Should most SMEs use an integrated business
software suite like SAP Business One, instead of
specialized accounting and other business software
packages?