Final Exam Study Guide

wirelessthrillBiotechnology

Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Exam III /
Final Exam
Study Guide

Chapter 18

Know the biology of the Ti plasmid and the binary Ti plasmid system

Explain how the binary Ti plasmid system and the microprojectile bombardment
(biolistic) system is used to genetically engineer plants (i.e., k
now how to genetically
engineer plants for expression of your favorite gene)

What are reporter genes and how do they work?


Chapters 19 and 20

Know what genes have been genetically engineered in plants and what new traits they
confer as discussed in class

Be able to explain how to modify any given gene/cDNA for expression in plants (i.e.,
gene construction) and how to introduce it into plants

Know how to test plants for transgene insertion, gene expression, and protein production

Know the reasons for non
-
id
entical expression of foreign genes in genetically modified
plants


Chapter 21

Understand the use of microinjection and engineered stem cells in creating transgenic
animals

Understand how to make and select genetically engineered stem cells for gene knocko
uts

Know the Cre
-
loxP system for gene knockouts

Know the reasons for non
-
identical expression of foreign genes in genetically modified
organisms (GMOs)

Be familiar with the animal genetic engineering examples covered in class

Be able to explain mammalian c
loning via nuclear transfer


Chapters 22

Understand how biotechnology is regulated


Chapters 23

Recognize the ethical issues resulting from biotechnology

Be able to express your personal views on this issues based on scientific information


Sample essay qu
estions

1. Explain how you would go about creating a genetically engineered goat that expresses
human growth hormone in its milk?


2. Humans are now eating food from genetically modified organisms (GMOs),
particularly from plants. Give five examples in whi
ch you identify the genetically
engineered plant, the altered trait, and the gene construction responsible for this trait.
List any concerns that opponents have expressed with regard to the specific examples
you have selected.


3. Explain how you would pro
duce a clone of yourself or a favorite mammalian pet.


The items below

represent many key points from this course that you should know
.



Structural

organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes



Transcription

and transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes
and eukaryotes



Enhancers and how they work



Restriction enzymes,
DNA cloning
,

and cloning vectors



cDNA
&

genomic library

production & screening; characterization of clones



Southern, northern, and western blotting




PCR methodology and application
s

(Reverse t
ranscriptase
-
PCR, Real time
-
PCR)



Automated and manual methods of
DNA sequencing
, including pyrosequencing



Monoclonal antibody production and
ELISAs



DNA fingerprinting

(
especially
VNTRs and

STRs)




Genetic engineering
/
expression of eukaryotic genes in prokar
yotes and vice versa



Protein targeting sequences and their addition to genetically engineered genes



RNAi and other methods to eliminate specific RNAs



Human gene therapy

(basic types, vectors involved, some examples)



Application of
recombinant

DNA technolog
y to vaccine production

(
e.g.,
subunit
vaccines)



Use of the binary Ti plasmid system and
microparticle bombardment (
biolistic
method
)

in plant genetic engineering



Be familiar with the plant genetic engineering examples covered in class



Use of microinjecti
on and engineered stem cells in creating transgenic animals



Making and selecting genetically engineered stem cells for gene knockouts



Cre
-
loxP system for gene knockouts



Reasons for non
-
identical expression of foreign genes in
genetically modified
organisms

(
GMOs
)



Be familiar with the animal genetic engineering examples covered in class



Mammalian cloning via nuclear transfer



Key points of the Human Genome Project (including human genome size, the
two

approaches used to get the human
genome
sequence and ethic
al implications)



Be able to understand and design a microarray experiment



Know key points of the student presentations to answer multiple choice questions