Series and parallel circuits report

winetediousElectronics - Devices

Oct 7, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Series and parallel circuits report


1. Materials and components


a. for series circuits R1=39k
Ω

R2=27k
Ω
,R3=39k
Ω

under 5V


b. for
parallel

circuit R1=27K
Ω

R2=39k
Ω
,R3=39k
Ω
under 5V


c. series and parallel circuit

R1=22k
Ω

R2=20k
Ω

R3=47k
Ω

R4=47k
Ω

R5=27k
Ω

R6
=22k
Ω

R7=47k
Ω


d. 555 timer circuit

R1=1.2k
Ω

R2=4.7k
Ω

C1=100uF ,555timer

LED


O
ther materials to make the board circuit


D
eveloper*1 , Stripper*1, Acid powder*1 , new unused board, plastic box*4, transparent
paper

2. Tools to complete the project


DMM, alligator, nipper, dc, eagle software, solder, sucker or copper web, uv exposure unit,
drilling set,goggles., paint tools in windows system.

3. Steps to accomplish the project

a. connect each circuits by using eagle as the schematic graphs showing:

f
or series circuit

for parallel circuit

for series and parallel circuit




F
or 555timer circuit

wires that not connected to any components is considered to be with the ground polarity.


b. then changing into the board file,and adjust wire , clearance
, supply distance, sizes, restring in
the drc data as required before autorouting. And do the polygon to let the rest of space fulled by
polygon.

c. export the brd files into images as the follows


F
or
series

and parallel circuits




F
or series circuits








A
nd for parallel circuits

for 555timer circuits, lastly in
inder to type them in a uv , diagrams above need to be changed in display with eagle in dimension,
pads and bottom, and the graphs are shown below.


series circuit

parallel circuit


ser
ies and parallel

555timer sircuit

d. using paint tool to fix the hole which are not correctly round.
T
hen saves the files again when
finished.

e. print those in a transparent surface

f. making the board:


1.using uv exposure unit to print the image in t
ransparency to the new board in 15 seconds.


2.prepared 4 plastic box (one with pure water) other 3 is filled with developer (one bottle of
water mixed), acid powder (half mixed with boiling water), stripper in order.


3.put the printed board into develo
per first after taking off its plastic paper in the surface, till the
liquid eats all the materials covered the copper in 10
-
15 minutes.(Wearing glasses is needed)


4.Then with the water flushing the developer on one of the box full of water, put the boar
d into
acid liquid (after powder fully melted) in 10minutes till the polygon parts being pulled apart.


5. At last, after flushing the liquid from front step with water, put the board into stripper, to ger
rid of the whole blue part of the board in 3 minu
tes.


6. Get the table cleaned, and wait for the drier of board.

g. drilling the holes for each circuits. Attention: bigger holes for vcc should be drilled with larger
size of drilling set.

h. connect each components in order following the board print pap
er provided.

i. Soldering:


1.wait for enough time till the iron have the high temperature more than 19
0

.


2. carefully solders each hole as the board files shows


3.especially for led and capacitor, making sure after soldering they are still in good condition.


4. test the four circuits as required.



4. Brief description to the circuits


a. series cir
cuit :3 resistors are in series connection under 5V DC. Each of their voltage power
shoule be calculated and measured , Vt Rt and
It should also be measured.


b.parallel circuit 3 resistors are in paralleled connection with each other under 5V, each voltag
e
power should be measured in practical part of work. Vt Rt and It is needed as well.


C

series and parallel circuit


W
ith 7resistors connected as graph showing above, each voltage should be measured and Rt
Vt,It Pt also needed.

d. 555timer circuit


wh
en the circuit is in right condition, led will light on and off
continuously
. No need to test
others.

5. Suggestion applications

Series circuit could be used to the applications that require some components working under the
same current. Parallel circuit
needs to be applied to the condition that all the components working
in the same volatage. 555 timer circuit could be used to the situation that requires changing signals
for decoration.

6. Observation and comments

a. picking the right value of resistor an
d the capacitor for the circuits to make sure that each of
them will not be working over power rating.


b. when do soldering, holes should be enough soldered and shiny to make sure circuits in good
connection


c. when test the current, the way of measurem
ent should be correct, or it will burn DMM.

7. calculation and measurement for the circuits.

a. series circuit.


Theory: Vt=5V,V1=1.856V,V2=1.285V,V3=1.856V.


It=0.0476mA=I1=I2=I3


Rt=R1+R2+R3=39+27+39=105k
Ω


Pt=0.238mW p1=0.088mw p2=0.0612mw p3=0.088mw


Practical: Vt=5V V1=1.91V V2=1.33V V3=1.91V It= error (forgot to changing from voltage
to mA)


b. parallel circuit


Theory : Vt=V1=V2=V3=5V ,

It=0.462mA, I1=0.185mA, I2=0..128mA, I3=0.128mA

Rt=10
.8k
Ω

R1=27k
Ω
,R2=R3=39k
Ω
,

Pt=2.31mw p1=0.926mw p2=p3=0.641mw

Practical part:

Vt=5V ,V1=V2=V3=5.14V,It=0.458mA, Rt=11.1k
Ω

c. series and parallel circuit


Theory part:

Vt=10v, v1=6.106v,v2=v3=3.894v,v4=1.645v,v5=0.945v,v6=2.668v,v7=7.332v

It=0.434mA,

I1=0.
278mA,I2=0.195mA,I3=0.083mA,I4=0.035mA,I5=0.035mA,I6=0.121mA,I7=0.156mA,


Rt=23.047k
Ω

R1=22k
Ω
,R2=20k
Ω
,R3=R4=47k
Ω
,R6=22k
Ω
,R7=47k
Ω

Pt=4.339mW
P1=1.697mw,p2=0.759mw,p3=0.323mw,p4=0.0576mw,p5=0.033mw,p6=0.323mw,p7=1.144mw

P
ractical:

Error1

Vt=10v v2=4.37v v3=
4.37v v4=v5=v6=v7=0 v1 error (forgot to changing from ampere )

Rt=38.4k
Ω

Rectify data2 (fixed the soldering parts )

Vt=10v v2=4.37 v3=4.337, v4=1.66v,v5=0.76v Rt=23.8k
Ω



Since some errors appeared in series and parallel circuit, diagnosing and rectify fau
lts are needed
in the following step.

After completion, it is
found

that series and parallel circuit has some errors while in measurement.

1.

description to actions taken to diagnose the error

It is found that the in series and parallel circuit V4 V5V6V7 all
equal to 0, and R2

s value is
27k
Ω
not exactly 20k
Ω

due to the deepest violet near to black in the second color coding and
some of it color has been pulled
apart
. Also Rt=38.4k
Ω
far from its theory calculation.

2.

Description to rectify the errors. Due to the V4 to V7

s 0 value( no current thr
ough), it is
necessary to find which wire of that relevant part is open. Switch the DMM to sound position,
test the routed wires as the graph showing above, it is easily to find that the wire from R7 to
R2 is open, and also R4 to R5 is not connected closel
y.(when testing the wire , there will be
no sound some time).

3.

faulty components and adjustment: then after looking at relevant soldered parts of those wires,
it is found that the soldered part in one of R7

s hole and R5

s is not enough covered by solder.
T
he 2 holes needed to be soldered again to fix the weak part of the holes. Then after soldering
these 2 holes.
V
oltage from R4 to R7 is in good connection.


Rectify data2 (fixed the soldering parts )

Vt=10v v2=4.37 v3=4.337v, v4=1.66v,v5=0.76v Rt=23.8k
Ω



From total resistance measured again, the circuit is in good condition. But due to the R2

s real
value ,the relevant voltages to R2 still have some difference from the date being recorded above.

4.

Tools used to
diagnose

the errors are: DMM, alligator,dc.

5.

Ma
terials and components to rectify the error: solder, nipper, suck or copper web.

6.

tools to rectify the error: Iron, DMM, alligator, dc.