Op-Amps: Experiment Guide

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Oct 7, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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EE 4
3/100 Fall

2005 Lab
7

Op
-
Amps


1

Op
-
Amps: Experiment Guide


In this lab, we are going to

study operational amplifiers and
circuits
with op
-
amps
. The op
-
amp
chip that we are going to use is

LMC 6482 from National Instrument. The configuration of the
chip is shown below. It has two amplifie
rs in one chip with 8 pins. The pin configuration is also
shown in the same figure (There is a node on the chip indicating pin 1). The power supply to the
chip is
-
4

V for V
-

and +
6

V for V
+

in this lab

(Maximum V
+
-
V
-

is 30V)
.
For more information,
please
refer to the device specification.



Part 1: Noninverting Amplifier

(a)

DC measurements:

(1)

Build up the noninverting amplifier as shown in Fig 1.
Use +25V
channel
and
-
25V
channel
of the DC power supply
for the V
DD

and V
SS
, the +25V should be set up to +6V
and

-
25V channel should be set up to
-
4V. U
se
6
V channel

of the DC power supply
for
V
in
, and measure both input and output using oscilloscope.
R
1

is 5k and R
2

is 5k
.
Change
V
in

from
-
2
V to 3
V

to verify the proper amplification range of DC inputs.


(2)

Fix the DC
input 0.5V,
measure

the amplifier gain (V
out
/V
in
) for R
2
= 2
k, 5k, 10k
Ω

(turn
R
2

)
and compare with the calculated gain.

(
You need to take out the pot from the circuit
to measure its value.)

(b)

AC measurement:

(1)

Now, set the input signal to a 1 kHz,
0.5

V
PP
,

0

VDC offset

(on the function generator
display)

S
ine wave from the function generator.
Use a 10k
Ω

potentiometer as R
2
.
Adjust
R
2
to see the gain change
.
Can you get a gain less than unity by turning R
2
?
Why?

(2)

Turn the potentiometer R
2

until the gain is
2

and

then adjust the
Vpp

and
DC
offset

to the
input signal. Observe the input and output waveforms as you vary the DC offset

for
large

Vpp (say 2
.5V)
. Draw the input and output for a case that gives clipping, label all the
axes and indicate the
amplitude
, and
DC offset value
.


EE 4
3/100 Fall

2005 Lab
7

Op
-
Amps


2




Part 2: Inverting Amplifier

Using the unused op
-
amp of the
chip
, build the inverting amplifier as shown
in Fig 2

(please use
the unused op
-
amp now).
R
1

is 5k and R
2

is the 10k pot.
While you are building a circuit, it is
safer for th
e circuits if you turn the DC power supply OUTPUT OFF. Let
the input signal be a 1
kHz,
2.5
V
PP
sine wave, 0 VDC offset, turn R
2

to max. What’s happening to the output signal

as
you

change R
2
? Adjust the input offset to make the output more complete. Now ad
just the
potentiometer and observe the resulting change in the amplitude and offset of the output. Adjust
these two parameters until the gain is at its maximum and there’s no clipping. What range of
output voltage

do you have in this circuit? Verify the co
rrect amplification

(range of the output
signal)

of both AC and DC signals. What is the phase difference between V
out

and V
in

and where is
it from?


Fig 2 Inverting Amplifier





EE 4
3/100 Fall

2005 Lab
7

Op
-
Amps


3


Part 3: Cascaded connection

Now we will study a cascade connection of two a
mplifiers. Connect the output of the inverting
amp to act as the input voltage for the non
-
inverting amp.
U
se R
2
=
10k

in
the inverting

circuit

and
R
2

=5k in the noninverting circuit
. The input signal should be a 1 kHz,
50
mV
PP
(
on the
function
generator

di
splay) sine wave and you have to pick the correct offset for the circuit to amplify
linearly. Adjust the input signal to make sure there is no clipping in the circuit. Measure the gain
of each stage separately and then the overall gain of this cascaded cir
cuit.




Fig 3 Cascade amplifier structure




Part 4:
Integrator

Put a 0.1 uF capacitor in
stead of

R
2

in a new inverting amplifier

(Fig 3)

and measure the time
constant
.

Use

a 60 Hz
,

5
00mV
PP

square wave
as
input. After getting the waveforms and triggerin
g
correct, measure time constant

RC
(
how will you measure it? Hint: you
r

prelab question 4
)
.
Compare measured time constant with theory. Now change the
function generator

back to a sine
wave input
,

sweep

frequency from 1Hz to 100
k
Hz

and observe the change
of the gain

with
frequency
.



Fig
4

Integrator


EE 4
3/100 Fall

2005 Lab
7

Op
-
Amps


4


Note on op
-
amp integrator


The circuit in figure 4 violates one of the cardinal rules of op
-
amp circuit design
-

``there must
always be a DC feedback path to the inverting input or the op
-
amp output will g
o to the rail.''
The
general problem with this integrator circuit is that a small error current,
input offset current
, will
be integrated by the capacitor to be large output voltages, and eventually drive the op
-
amp output
into saturation. The LMC 6482 op
-
amp you are using has remarkably low input offset currents, so
that you may not see this effect in a short time. If you want to see this effect, ask your TA for
another pin
-
compatible op
-
amp such as the LM6142, substitute in
the
integrator circuit, and se
e if
you observe any difference in the average DC level of the output. (Typically, a real integrator is
made with a zero
-
reset, or a large resistor in parallel with the integrator capacitor).


Part 5:
Differentiator

Build the inverting amplifier but put
0.1 uF capacitor in
stead of

R
1

as shown in Fig 4
.
Use R
2
=5k
Input a 500

Hz
5
00

mVpp
triangle

wave. Zoom into the waveform to measure time constant

RC
(Hint: prelab question 5)
. Compare measured time constant with theory.
Add DC offset to the
input signal, is there any change on the output signal? Why?



Fig 5

Differentiator