HyperCar

wideeyedarmenianElectronics - Devices

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Hypercar

Pollution Prevention

Michelle Bates

What is a Hypercar?


Ultralight, Low
-
Drag, Hybrid
-
Electric
Vehicle (HEV)


2 Sources of energy:


Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn
gasoline engines


Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors


2 Drive trains


Internal Combustion Engine
-

gas or alt. fuels


Battery driven electric

Drivesystems


Conventional


Internal combustion engine coupled to wheels
through the transmission, driveshaft, etc.


Hybrid
-
Electric


Engine (or other power source) generates
electricity from fuel, which then powers electric
motors that turn the wheels

Six Main Sources of Energy Loss
in a Conventional Car:

Hypercar Strategies to Reduce
Energy Losses


Ultralight


1994 Average U.S. Passenger car 1439 kg


2000
-
2005 Hypercar (4
-
5 seat) 521 kg


Low Aerodynamic Drag


Hybrid
-
Electric Drivesystem


Efficient Accessories

Ultralight


Composites


Embed strong reinforcing fibers in a supporting
"matrix" of polymer


Advanced Composites


Long or continuous reinforcing fibers such as
carbon or aramid (kevlar) in addition to glass






Advanced Composite Materials


Advantages

-
50
-
65% reduction in
weight

-
Crashworthy

-
Design Flexibility

-
Durability

-
Manufacturing



Disadvantages

-
$

GM’s 1991 Ultralite Concept Car

Mass Decompounding


Low
-
Drag Aerodynamic Design


Smooth underbody


Low
-
angle windshields


Tapered rear end


Minimized body seams


Aerodynamically designed air intakes,
suspension, and wheel wells


Result: 40
-
50% decrease in drag

Rolling Resistance


1/3 engine output lost


Solution


lightweight car


tire improvements


improved wheel
bearing and brake
design


Reduction in rolling
resistance by 50
-
80%

Hybrid
-
Electric Drive


Series


Engine with generator
to supply electricity for
battery pack and
electric motor


No mechanical
connection


Power transferred
electrically to wheel
motor


Parallel


Direct mechanical
connection between
hybrid power unit and
wheels


Electric motor drives
the wheels


Example

Hybrid
-
Electric Drive

Series

Parallel

Hybrid
-
Electric Drive


Generate electricity
from the fuel, powers
wheel motors


Electric motors can
recover part of the
braking energy


Wheel Motor

Hybrid
-
Electric Drive


Large decrease in engine size


reduces weight, cost, fuel consumption



Drive system efficiency doubled

Efficient Accessories


Avoid heat buildup by using:


Insulation, special heat
-
reflecting glass, solar
-
powered vent fans


Innovative cooling and dehumidification systems


Improved headlights and taillights


More efficient electronics and interior
lighting systems

Hypercar

Whole Systems Approach


Optimizing parts individually results in
inefficiency overall


Hypercar is cost effective when the entire
system is designed for efficiency

Hypercar Safety


Advanced composites


Smaller propulsion system


room at both ends of the car for materials
dedicated to crash energy management


Front and side airbags, harnesses with
pretensioners and stress
-
limiters, padding,
active headrests


Pollution Prevention


Hypercars would go roughly 2
-
4 times
farther on a unit of fuel


decreased overall carbon dioxide emissions


lower emissions per vehicle mile traveled


Alternative fuels



Fuel Efficiency

Life Cycle Assessment


Advanced Composites are durable


won’t rust, dent or chip


Total weight is much less, so there is less
pure waste produced


Current Status


Hypercars do not currently exist


Hybrid
-
electric vehicles (HEVs) do exist


Chrysler, Ford and GM


Year 2000 prototype HEVs


Year 2003 release HEVs on the U.S. market


Department of Energy HEV Propulsion
Program


Funds 50% of development costs

Toyota’s Hybrid
-
Electric Prius
Sedan



Japanese market for
one year


Not ultralight (weighs
330 lbs. more)


66 miles per gallon


Emissions reduced to
1/10th the Japanese
legal requirement


U.S. market year 2000


Toyota Prius

Toyota Camry


Engine

1.5
-
liter, 16
valve, 4
-
cyl

2.2
-
liter, 16
valve, 4
-
cyl

Engine
Output

58 hp at 4,000
rpm

136 hp at 5,200
rpm

Fuel
Efficiency


66 mpg


23 mpg

Max.
Range


850 miles


500 miles

ABS

Standard

Optional

Price

~$20,000

$17,873



Future Projections


Zero
-
Emission Vehicles (ZEVs)


One tenth of new cars sold in five U.S. states
by 2004


Half of all vehicles Hypercars by 2020



Overall fuel consumption 25 percent less than
today's level




Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid
-
Electric Cars


Battery Electric


Run on electricity stored in
onboard batteries


Gasoline contains 100 times
more energy per pound than
batteries


Several thousand pounds of
batteries (mass compounding)


Range less than 150 miles



Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid
-
Electric Cars


Battery
-
Electric


Batteries must be
replaced every few
years


Batteries cost $2000
-
$15,000 each


Batteries not recyclable


Emission shifting

GM’s EV1

Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid
-
Electric Cars


Hybrid
-
Electric Cars


Wheels powered by electric motor or motors,
convert fuel into energy as they go


Alternative fuel sources (Ex: renewable fuel
cells)


Decrease carbon dioxide emissions


Increased engine and drive systems efficiency


Mass decompounding


Economic Impacts: The Winners


Makers of power electronics,
microelectronics, advanced electric motors
and small engines, alternative power plants
and storage devices, and software


Composite materials, structures, and tooling
and manufacturing equipment suppliers


Providers of polymers, fibers, coatings, and
adhesives for the composites industry


Aerospace firms


Economic Impacts: Losers


Iron and steel industries (a Hypercar has
92% less iron and steel)


Heavy machine tools


Oil for motor fuel


Automotive fluids and lubricants

For More Information


The Hypercar Center


www.hypercarcenter.org


Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program


www.hev.doe.gov


Rocky Mountain Institute


www.rmi.org


Toyota Prius


www.toyota.com