You will be able to list the positives
and negatives of genetic engineering
Read “Increasing variation” which starts on
p. 320 and ends on page 321
Give one example of a new bacteria that
Give one example of a new plant that was
This is a new technology used to change
the genetic instructions in individuals
Why would you want to change the
genetic instructions in an organism?
To allow the organism to do something
Ex. Insert a gene into crops to allow them to
make a protein to fight of a fungus
For gene therapy
A defective gene is replaced with a “good”
You will be able to describe how
DNA is removed from one cell and added to
Read all of p. 327
What is a plasmid?
Copy the following series of DNA nucleotides onto a
sheet of paper.
2. Look carefully at the series, and find this sequence of
. It may appear more than once.
3. When you find it, divide the sequence in half with a
mark of your pencil. You will divide it between the
. This produces short segments of DNA.
How many occurrences of the sequence GTTAAC can
Recognition sequences are the
places on the DNA where an
enzyme will cut it
Gene for human
Gene for human
Bacterial cell for
containing gene for
human growth hormone
9 Making Recombinant DNA
When you combine DNA from two
individuals, we call it recombinant DNA
Figure 17.5 A tobacco plant expressing a firefly gene
You will be able to explain how gel
electrophoresis separates pieces of DNA.
Read the section named “The tools of
molecular Biology” on p. 322
How is DNA cut?
How is DNA separated?
Use of Restriction Enzymes
Restriction enzymes cut DNA whenever they
see a specific sequence of bases.
The pieces of cut DNA are called restriction
Each person has a different DNA sequence
So restriction enzymes will cut each person’s
DNA into different sized pieces.
We can use a process called gel
electrophoresis to separate the pieces
Figure 20.x1a Laboratory worker reviewing DNA band pattern
Moves DNA because it is negative
Separates DNA fragments based on size
The smaller the fragment the farther it will
Can compare DNA from individuals
Figure 20.17 DNA fingerprints from a murder case
Figure 20.9 Using restriction fragment patterns to distinguish DNA from different
You will be able to explain how selective
breeding can be used to improve offspring.
Read all of page 310
Define selective breeding
The tomatoes in your salad and the dog in
your backyard are a result of selective
Can you think of some selective
You will be able to describe the
process of cloning.
How can a sheep that is 12 years old have
a twin that is 4 years old?
A body cell is taken from a donor animal.
An egg cell is taken from a donor animal.
The fused cell begins dividing, becoming an embryo.
The nucleus is removed from the egg.
The body cell and egg are fused by electric shock.
The embryo is implanted into the uterus of a foster mother.
The embryo develops into a cloned animal.
A donor cell is taken from a
These two cells are
fused using an
The fused cell
The embryo is
placed in the
uterus of a foster
An egg cell is taken
from an adult female
The nucleus of
the egg cell is