Modern Genetics - Solon City Schools

whooshdisguisingBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Modern Genetics

Chapter 4

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Human Inheritance


Some human traits are
controlled by single
genes with two alleles,
and others by single
genes with multiple
alleles. Still other traits
are controlled by many
genes that act together.

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The Sex Chromosomes


Sex chromosomes are
one of 23 pairs of
chromosomes in each
body.


The sex chromosomes
carry genes that
determine whether a
person is male or female.


They also carry genes
that determine other
traits.

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Sex
-
Linked Genes


Genes on the X and Y
chromosomes are
often called sex
-
linked genes.


A carrier is a person
who has one
recessive allele for a
trait and one
dominant allele.

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Sex
-
Linked Traits


Colorblindness


Male patterned
baldness.


Hemophilia.


Duchene Muscular

Dystrophy.

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Environment


Many of a person’s
characteristics are
determined by an
interaction between
genes and the
environment.

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Human Genetic Disorders


A genetic disorder is
an abnormal condition
that a person inherits
through genes or
chromosomes.


Cystic Fibrosis


Sickle
-
Cell Disease


Hemophilia


Down Syndrome

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Genetic Disorders


Some genetic
disorders are caused
by mutations in the
DNA of genes.


Other disorders are
caused by changes in
the overall structure
or number of
chromosomes.

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Pedigrees


A pedigree is a chart
of “family tree” that
tracks which
members of a family
have a particular trait.

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Managing Genetic Disorders


Karyotype is a picture of
all the chromosomes in a
cell.


Genetic counseling helps
couples understand their
chances of having a child
with a particular genetic
disorder.


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Dealing with Genetic Disorders


Medical Care.


Education.


Job Training.


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Advances in Genetics


Selective breeding.


Cloning.


Genetic engineering.

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Selective Breeding


Inbreeding involves
crossing two
individuals that have
similar characteristics.


Hybridization is the
cross between two
genetically different
individuals.

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Cloning


A clone is an
organism that has
exactly the same
genes as the
organism for which it
was produced.


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Genetic Engineering


Genetic engineering is
when genes from one
organism are transferred
into the DNA of another
organism.


Bacteria.


Cows.


Gene therapy.


Genetically altered crops.

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Education About Genetics


A genome is all the DNA
in one cell of an
organism.


The main goal of the
Human Genome Project
has been to identify the
DNA sequence of every
gene in the human
genome.

Paramecia usually reproduce asexually. Fish reproduce
sexually. Suppose the environmental conditions in the
lagoon change. What advantage will the fish population
have over the paramecium population?

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1. Sexual reproduction...
2. Sexual reproduction...
3. Sexual reproduction ...
4. Sexual reproduction ...
0%
0%
0%
0%
1. Sexual reproduction produces
offspring that are identical to the
parents.

2. Sexual reproduction decreases the
genetic variability in the fish
populations.

3. Sexual reproduction limits the
spread of harmful characteristics in
fish populations.

4. Sexual reproduction allows
populations to adapt to new
conditions over fewer generations.

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What is one advantage of sexual
reproduction?

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does not requi...
allows for div...
does not allow...
does not requi...
0%
0%
0%
0%
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1.
does not require a
lot of calories

2.
allows for diversity

3.
does not allow for
diversity

4.
does not require
two organisms

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What is one advantage of asexual
reproduction?

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requires a lot...
allows for div...
does not allow...
requires two d...
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
requires a lot of
calories

2.
allows for diversity

3.
does not allow for
diversity

4.
requires two different
organisms

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Which of the following is not an example of
asexual reproduction?

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Budding
dispersal of s...
fission
mating
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
Budding

2.
dispersal of spores

3.
fission

4.
mating

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How has sexual reproduction enhanced a
species’ chance for survival?

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Sexual reprodu...
Sexual reprodu...
Sexual reprodu...
Sexual reprodu...
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
Sexual reproduction produces
offspring with unique traits.

2.
Sexual reproduction always
produces offspring that are
identical.

3.
Sexual reproduction does not
allow for genetic variation.

4.
Sexual reproduction between
two different species produces
offspring that can not
reproduce.

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From whom does an offspring get its traits?

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Mom
Dad
both a and b
neither a nor ...
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
Mom

2.
Dad

3.
both a and b

4.
neither a nor b

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Which of the following terms describe the
appearance of the organism?


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Allele
Genotype
homozygous
phenotype
heterozygous
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
Allele

2.
Genotype

3.
homozygous

4.
phenotype

5.
heterozygous

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Which term describes a trait that is always
expressed when present?

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dominant
genotype
phenotype
recessive
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
dominant

2.
genotype

3.
phenotype

4.
recessive

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Which term describes two of the same
allele?

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dominant
heterozygous
homozygous
recessive
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
dominant

2.
heterozygous

3.
homozygous

4.
recessive

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Given the genotype Bb, B is dominant for

brown eyes and b is recessive for blue eye, what
is the genotype and phenotype?

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Heterozygous b...
Heterozygous b...
Homozygous blu...
Homozygous bro...
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
Heterozygous blue
eyes

2.
Heterozygous brown
eyes

3.
Homozygous blue
eyes

4.
Homozygous brown
eyes

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Two adults decide to have a baby. If one parent
has brown eyes (BB), which is a dominant trait and
the other parent has blue eyes (bb), which is a
recessive trait, what is the probability that they will
have a baby with blue eyes?

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100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
100%

2.
75%

3.
50%

4.
25%

5.
0%

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A red four o’clock flower was crossed with a white
four o’clock flower. With Incomplete dominance
as a factor, what is the phenotype of the offspring?

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100% red
100% white
50% red, 50% w...
100% pink
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
100% red

2.
100% white

3.
50% red, 50% white

4.
100% pink

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What is the phenotype of the F1 generation from
the Punnett square?

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100% tall
100% short
50 % tall, 50%...
75 % tall, 25%...
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
100% tall

2.
100% short

3.
50 % tall, 50% short

4.
75 % tall, 25% short

T

T

T

t

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