Towards a Distributed,

whirrtarragonElectronics - Devices

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Towards a Distributed,
Service
-
Oriented Control
Infrastructure for Smart Grid

ASU
-

Cyber Physical Systems Lab

Professor G. Fainekos

Presenter:
Ramtin

Raji

Kermani

Muhammad
Umer

Tariq
1
, Santiago
Grijalva
, Marilyn Wolf


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.

Some Background …



What is Smart Grid?


A

smart grid

is a digitally enabled

electrical
grid

that gathers, distributes, and acts on
information about the behavior of all
participants (suppliers and consumers) in
order to improve the efficiency, importance,
reliability, economics, and sustainability of
electricity services. (Wikipedia)

Abstract


What is missing?


Smart Grid initiatives aim to overlay the
existing power grid infrastructure with a
communication and computation
infrastructure to enable integration of
renewable resources and increased
efficiency and reliability of the electric
power grid.


Abstract


Enable integration of renewable energy


Increased Efficiency


Reliability

Smart Grid

Initiative

Overlay

Communication

Infrastructure

Computation

Infrastructure

+

Electric

Power Grid

How?

-

Substantial changes to Centralized Control Infrastructure

-

More Powerful Comm. and Comp. Infrastructure

In This Paper …


We describe:


The elements required for implementation of a “Prosumer”
based
distributed control architecture
for smart grid.



We propose:



A
Hard Real Time enabled
,
Web Services based


1
-

Computing infrastructure


2
-

Distributed Control infrastructure







For Development





For Operation

In This Paper …


Main components of this computing infrastructure:


Generic Real Time API (Generic
RT
-
API
)


A Rule based Configurable
API Translator


A Hard Real Time Web Services (
HRT
-
WS
) Engine


The ability to receive
XML based
configuration/control instructions
remotely.



We have used

LXRT/RTAI based Hard Real Time Linux
environment.

In This Paper …


Keywords:


Smart Grid,


Cyber Physical Systems,


Power
System Informatics


Hard Real
-
Time Systems


Web Services


Model Transformation

Introduction


Energy Management Systems (EMS)


Traditionally, the control of the bulk electric power grid has been
realized by Energy Management Systems (EMS) that allow
control devices located at substations, generation units and loads
to achieve safe and economical operation of the grid.



Main components of these EMS systems:


Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)


Computing Resources,


User Interface


Network Economic


Security Application Software



Distributed management System (DMS)


Increased automation level compared to EMS



Introduction


EMS and DMS


Based on Centralized Control



Limitations of Centralized Control:


Too much data is needed for operation


Communication bottlenecks


Intractable control & optimization problems


Exponential growth of EMS and DMS complexity


Vulnerability of energy control centers to security attacks


Also EMS/DMS:


Bad software stack


Introduction of More software for power applications




Suitable software engineering techniques.




E
nsure the fulfillment of mission critical requirements

Introduction


Transition towards Distributed Control Architecture Needs:
Appropriate Computing and Control infrastructure



Using Web Services and Service Oriented Architecture?


smart grid applications would require enhancements to the
current Web Services infrastructure, such as support for
Timeliness


Proposed Computing Structure in this paper:

-
Development Support

-
Run
-
time Support


Introduction


Contributions of this paper:


A Futuristic distributed control architecture for
Smart Grid built on the concept of “
Prosumer
”.



A
Hard Real Time
-
enabled
,
Web Services based
Computing Infrastructure required to implement
our proposed distributed control architecture



Implementation steps towards a lab prototype of
the proposed computing infrastructure

Related Work


Smart grid Architecture


Some works support just one type of apps


Some don’t support a generic infrastructure


The Smart Grid initiative of the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing
standards to ensure interoperability of the smart
grid components


Related Work


Our Architecture represents an
abstraction
layer
which hides the NIST Conceptual
Reference Model and GWAC interoperability
stack from smart grid applications and
presents them with an interface which is
more suitable to realizing flexible and reliable
smart grid applications

Related Work

NIST Conceptual Reference Model

Related Work


Service Oriented Architecture


Web Services has emerged as the most popular technology
for developing SOA based solutions



SOA is not just a set of standards. It is a design philosophy
which aims at developing systems that are loosely coupled,
flexible, reusable and adaptable. Our proposed infrastructure
moves the concepts of Web Services and SOA beyond the
enterprise domain and applies them to the development of a
smart grid control infrastructure.

Concept of “
Prosumer



Prosumer: Producer + Consumer


Prosumer may consist of a combination of: a)
components: energy sources, loads, and storage, b)
an electric grid, c) a grid control system, and d) a
market


Any electric system can be represented as a prosumer, and all
the power system control interactions can be modelled as
interactions between prosumers


Proposed Control Architecture


Architecture level


4 (hierarchical) Control Layers


Interactions are defined based on interfaces


Proposed Control Architecture


Prosumer Services and Interfaces


We use the concept of Prosumer and its associated control
layers to propose a Web Services
-
based SOA control
infrastructure for smart grid by standardizing a set of entity
-
centric web services.


Proposed Control Architecture

Proposed Control Architecture


The details of power system quantities like
voltage, active power and reactive power are
contained inside the messages used in the
service definitions above.


For example,
giveRealTimeStatusMsg of LCTRL
service would include all
the real time status
values that are of interest to a service trying
to control that particular device. Moreover,
we propose to modify the traditional WSDL
definition to associate a
timing constraint
with each of the operation

Proposed Control Architecture


Case Study:


Residential Demand Response


Utility


U_PRSMR


Neighbourhood


N_PRSMR


Home


H_PRSMR


How it works?

Proposed Control Architecture

-
Advantages:

-
Autonomous Local Control

-
Smaller Optimization Problems

-
Automated Configuration and Operation

-
Reliability and Certification

-
Flexibility for Market Innovations



IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS OF PROPOSED

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE


Location of Computing resources


LCRTL


Devices






Prioritizing Applications


Supporting different data rates


Timelines


Model driven Development and operation


Proposed computing infrastructure


Hardware


Heterogeneous hardware (Servers to embedded)


Operating System


RTAI (Real
-
time Application Interface) (Kernel)


LXRT (Linux Real
-
time) (User Space)


Generic RT API and API translator


Generic Real
-
time API


Rule
-
based Configurable API translator


Middleware


Hard Real
-
Time Web Services (HRT
-
WS) Engine

Proposed computing infrastructure

Program Structure using the Generic RT
-
API









Once we have a program in terms of our Generic RT
-
API, we can
translate it to a particular RTOS platform using an API Translator

Proposed computing infrastructure

Proposed computing infrastructure

Proposed computing infrastructure

Steps towards Implementation


We propose to use model driven tools to transform model
based simulations into actual machine readable configurations for
the individual elements of computing platform proposed here, in
an automated and reliable manner.



Analogy:

Simulink model for Automotive industry


Executable Code generation

Steps towards Implementation


Conclusion and Future Work


The proposed hard real time enabled, Web Services
based automatically configurable computing
infrastructure can support and accelerate the
application development for the Prosumer
-

driven,
distributed smart grid control architecture.



The scope of the paper is at the architecture level
which will open multiple opportunities for research in
future.

How this paper could be useful in our Lab?


More Questions?