Smart Grid Lecture - EME Society - University of Strathclyde

whirrtarragonElectronics - Devices

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Smart Grids

Institute for Energy and Environment

Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering

University of Strathclyde

Active Network Management (ANM) and

Smart Grids

Paradigm shift from “fit & forget”


Accepted characteristics:


Distributed generation


Renewable


Monitoring, comms and control


Preventive and corrective actions


Flexible & adaptable


Embedded intelligence


Autonomy



Acknowledgement: Alinata, Victoria, Australia


has expertise and
capability/capacity across the range of
research and development areas
essential to the delivery of the Smart Grid

Active Networks

Taking the lead from market opportunities and energy policy
distribution networks are becoming more ‘active’ (transmission
networks already being active):



Responsive customers (DSM, Home Automation, etc.)


Smart Metering


Distributed, micro scale and renewable generation


Electric Vehicles


Distribution Automation led by security and reliability drivers


Energy storage


Interaction of energy networks (electricity, gas, heat, etc.)


Cooperation with transmission



3
Transmission : 2020
HVDC circuit
Re
-
conductor or re
-
insulate existing double
circuit overhead line route
Full re
-
build or new build double circuit
overhead line route (none shown on this slide)
Series compensation
Possible projects

East ~ west 400kV double
circuit voltage uprating

400kV Kincardine to Harburn
(for SHETL

s 400kV east coast
scheme)

Series compensation on west
and east coast interconnector
circuits

HVDC Hunterston

Deeside

Windyhill to Longannet
EU SmartGrids agenda


EU wide vision and research and deployment ageda for moves
towards smarter grids

SmartGrid: Proposed Definition


A SmartGrid is an electricity network that can
intelligently integrate the actions of all users
connected to it (generators, consumers and
those that do both) in order to efficiently deliver
sustainable, economic and secure electricity
supplies.




SmartGrid Definition


A SmartGrid employs innovative products and services
together with intelligent monitoring, control,
communication, and self
-
healing technologies to:



better facilitate the connection and operation of
generators

of all sizes and technologies


allow electricity
consumers

to play a part in optimising
the operation of the system


provide consumers with greater
information

and
choice

in the way they secure their electricity supplies


significantly reduce the
environmental impact
of the
total electricity supply system


deliver
enhanced

levels of reliability and security of
supply



Aura
-
NMS project

Autonomous Regional Active
Network Management System
(Aura
-
NMS) project with ABB,
Scottish Power, EdF
-
Energy


moving towards demonstration


Novel network management
approaches being deployed on ABB
COM600 computer


lab concept
demonstration in 2008


Different algorithms tested:



Constraint satisfaction for thermal
and voltage constraint management


OPF for thermal constraint
management


Current tracing for thermal
constraint management

2
2
2
2
45MVA
45MVA
To Swansea North
RHOS
RHYDLYDAN
ABERYSTWYTH
BOW STREET
MACHYNLLETH
FAIRBOURNE
G
WPD
-
WALES
SP
-
MANWEB
Rheidol
Hydro
61.6MVA
G
Rheidol
WF
2.5MVA
MYNYDD GORDDU
G
Mynydd Gorddu
WF
12MVA
Llangwyryfron
WF
7MVA
G
LLANGWYRYFRON
G
2.4MVA
G
Cefn Croes
WF
60MVA
5/6
5/6
5/6
5/6
5/6
5/6
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
1
1
AuRA
-
NMS: Autonomous Regional Active Network Management System

Using:


Distributed hardware (ABB COM600 Industrial PC)


Distributed, agent based, control software


Aim to provide:


Plug and play functionality


Enhanced network control


Initial functions:


Thermal Management


Voltage Control


Reconfiguration




Distributed

Intelligence

research

aspects
:


Autonomous

behaviour
:


Automatically

planning

and

executing

network

management

functions


Automatically

reacting

to

control

decisions

from

other

AuRA
-
NMS

functions


Negotiation

and

arbitration

to

determine

correct

actions

to

take


System

integration
:


New

agents

automatically

integrate

with

existing

control

functions


Harmonisation

with

Common

Information

Model

and

IEC

61850




Orkney ANM project


Orkney Min/Max demand: 8/31MW
(11,500 customers)


33kV submarine cables: 2 x 20MW
import/export


Generation mix of wind and gas
(wave and tidal).


Requirement for generation
constraint management system:

1.
DTI funded study


2003/2004

2.
RPZ application


2005

3.
Technical and commercial
development


2006
-
2008

4.
Prototyping and Trial


November
2006

5.
Full deployment


2008/2009

6.
Commercialisation


SOUTH
RONALDSAY
FLOTTA
HOY
STROMNESS
BURGAR
HILL
SHAPINSAY
STRONSAY
EDAY
SANDAY
WESTRAY
KIRKWALL
KIRKWALL

Each zone has a thermal
limitation on generation output at
any given time


Whole system has a further
thermal limit on generation output


Real time control of wind and
marine generating units based on
measurements and control logic


Technology being taken forward
by university spin
-
out company:


Orkney ANM project

Renewables Integration: Multiple Objective
Optimisation Distributed Energy Resource Planning


Multiple objective
optimisation framework for
DER integration


Outer loop DER investment,
location and capacity
optimisation


Inner loop operational
optimisation (OPF) including
dispatch/curtailment
decisions


Work developing from
DG/ANM to energy storage,
electric vehicles and other
network constraints


Shetland Energy Storage project


Different energy storage roles
considered:


Wind energy capture


Voltage support


Reserve/response


Mix of generation technologies:


Wind power


Gas turbines


Diesel engines


VRB and NaS battery
technologies considered to
support system and enhance
wind connection potential


UNST
GUTCHER
MID YELL
FIRTH
SULLOM
VOE
TERMINAL
BRAE
VOE
TUMBLIN
BURRADAL
E
SCALLOWA
Y
SANDWICK
SUMBURGH
LERWICK 33kV
LERWICK 11kV
LERWIC
K
‘A’
LERWIC
K
‘B’
Normally
Open Point
EVs in our dreams …

And back in the real world …


City car requires 60 mile range


in the US 75% of daily commutes are
40 miles or less


In the UK …


This requires a 22kWh battery
approximately


This requires 7 hour charge at 3kW
(maximum from 13A socket)


2030 energy requirement in range 10
-

40 TWh p.a. (cf. 360 TWh GB
electrical energy demand)


So a long charge but at a slow rate


High powered, fast charging is
possible but new infrastructure is
required


Electric Vehicles Grid Integration


Statistical model of domestic car use has been constructed


Privately owned cars are utilised only
5.2%

of time of
transportation, thus they are available up to
94.8%
of time as
responsive load or provide secondary function, V2G or G2V


Statistical model of electric vehicle use now possible


Integration with network management schemes


0
0.02
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04:00
04:50
05:40
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01:40
02:30
03:20
Probability

Time (24hrs)

Probability of cars in use weekdays VS weekends

Cars in use weekdays
Cars in use weekends
Markets and Economics


Market structures and mechanisms for highly distributed energy
futures with consumer participation


Transmission and Distribution system pricing alternatives for
future system scenarios


Generation scheduling and unit commitment using OPF


Time of Use (ToU) and alterative pricing studies


-20.0
-15.0
-10.0
-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
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Generation Tariff Zone
Generation Tariff (£/kW/year)
2006
CP 2020
EA 2020
SR 2020
EC 2020
Asset Management




Sensor design


Data acquisition


Partial discharge and RF measurement


Intelligent data analysis


Automated diagnostics


Distributed intelligence architectures


Asset management methods



Demand Side Participation


Smart meter trial and consultation inputs


Home Area Networks (HAN) for demand
side participations


Laboratory demonstration and calibration of
automated home energy management


Energy Systems Research Unit:


BRE Scotland Chair in Energy Utilisation


ESP
-
r and MERIT software for home energy
assessment

SP Energy Demand Research



Data Analysis expertise and support for SP Energy Retail:


Independent investigation of effects of Smart Meters on consumers energy
usage behaviour


Part of OFGEMs EDR Project involving 3 other major utilities


Undertaken during summer 2009 with reporting complete prior to SP reporting
deadlines


Ongoing support/advice for the remainder of EDR project (until March 2010)


Smart
Plug

Meter

Web
Service

National/Zonal Demand

Usage
Statistics

Task
Criticality

Schedule
Time

Advances

Request
Advances

Best Tariff/
time to use

INDO
Requests

Visualisation and intelligent interpretation of energy usage

Questions?