Smart Grid in Power Sector - National Seminar on IT Applications in ...

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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SMART GRID IN
POWER SECTOR

Presented by
-

Ishna

Satyarth
, G. N.
Pandey

Indian Institute of Information
Technology Allahabad

Indicia


Introduction


Smart Grid: Why???


Poor Quality of power



Causes of poor Quality



Interruptions



Causes of interruption



Voltage Fluctuations


Comparative study of consumption of power in rural and urban areas


Smart grid applications during poor quality of power / natural calamity


Technical details of smart meters


Smart grid conceptual model


Potentiality of smart grid


Limitation of smart grid


Conclusion


References

Introduction



As

the

name

suggest,

smart

grid

technology

is

a

collaboration

of

information

and

communication

technology

to

our

electricity

grid

to

enable

the

grid

system

to

provide

us

real
-
time

pricing

of

devices

so

as

to

reduce

the

human

effort

and

also

provide

a

quick

recovery

of

fault

or

damage

that

has

occurred

or

may

occur

by

continuous

sensing

of

grid

lines

via

two

way

communication

(like

demand

response)

between

the

supplier

and

the

consumer

through

automation
.

Thus,

enabling

the

reliability

and

efficiency

of

network,

and

sustainability

and

economics

of

production

and

distribution

of

electricity
.




There

are

many

countries

like

USA,

UK

and

Denmark

which

are

taking

this

project

of

smart

grid

very

seriously
.

In

USA,

a

provision

of

$
100

billion

has

been

met

for

introducing

smart

grid

over

a

period

of

10

years
.

The

massive

power

blackout

during

the

month

of

July
-
August

2012

is

an

answer

for

why

smart

grid

is

important

in

India

and

it

brings

in

itself

a

reason

for

implementing

smart

grid

technology

in

India
.


WHY SMART GRID IS
IMPORTANT



Massive power blackouts answers why smart grid is the
necessity for India.


The

areas

shown

in

pink

color

was

affected

with

power

blackout

during

31
st

july

2012
.


Had

there

been

Smart

Grid

in

India,

then

there

would

not

have

been

such

a

blackout
.



Growth projection for year 2012
-
2017 is 8.2%


Average and Peak Shortages








Plant Load Factor












So, Total shortage range is (8.2+8.5) to (8.2+10.6). So, the smart grid will enable us to
reduce this shortage range of 16.7 to 18.8 significantly.



Year

2009
-
10

2010
-
11

2011
-
12

All

India

PLF

77.53

75.08

73.32

Central

Sector

85.49

86.12

82.1

State

Sector

70.9

66.72

68

Private

Utilities

82.41

76.7

76.2

Private

PPs

82.68

83.47

67.27

Year

2009
-
10

2010
-
11

2011
-
12

Average

Shortage

10.1

8.5

8.5

Peak

Shortage

12.7

9.8

10.6

Poor Quality of Power


What causes Poor power Quality?


Voltage

fluctuations

are

generally

caused

by

loose

connections

on

the

power

lines
.

Too

low

voltage

may

cause

dim

lights
.

The

causes

could

be

either

loose

connections,

overloading

on

the

network

or

the

conductor

wire

which

carry

power

to

your

house

being

too

small
.




Interruptions:


An interruption is defined as the load current or complete loss of supply
voltage.


Depending on its duration, an interruption is categorized as momentary,
instantaneous, sustained, or temporary.


For interruption types, the duration ranges are as follows:


Instantaneous 0.5 to 30 cycles


Momentary 30 cycles to 2 seconds


Temporary 2 seconds to 2 minutes


Sustained greater than 2 minutes



Causes of interruption


Electrical

supply

grid

damage,

such

as

vehicle

accidents,

lightning

strikes,

trees,

animals,

equipment

failure,

destructive

weather

(high

winds,

heavy

snow

or

ice

on

lines,

etc
.
),

or

a

basic

circuit

breaker

tripping
.



When

these

components

shutdown

suddenly

by

an

interruption,

it

can

cause

ruination

of

product,

equipment

damage,

as

well

as

the

cost

associated

with

downtime,

restart

and

cleanup



Voltage Fluctuations:


Voltage

fluctuation

is

a

systematic

variation

of

the

voltage

waveform

or

a

series

of

random

voltage

changes,

of

small

dimensions,

like

95

to

105
%

of

nominal

at

a

low

frequency

(generally

below

25

Hz)
.



COMPARATIVE STUDY OF
CONSUMPTION OF POWER
IN RURAL AND URBAN
AREAS




Energy Consumption of Devices in Rural Area


Equipment

Power

(W)

Running Time

Energy
Consumption(k
Wh) Quater

Daily

Weekly

Quarterly

Drill

500

10

5

Lamp

60

5

450

27

TV

100

3

270

27

Total

Comsumption

660

8

730

59


Energy Consumption of Devices in Urban Area


Equipment

Power

(W)

Running Time

Energy
Consumption(k
Wh) Quater

Daily

Weekly

Quarterly

Electric

Shaver

20

0.15

15

<1

Toaster

850

0.15

15

13

Freezer

85

16

1450

125

Mixer

150

0.1

7

<1

Coffee

Machine

800

0.2

23

18

Hair

Dryer

600

1

13

8

Refrigerator

75

9

800

60

Oven

1300

0.1

15

20

Boiler

200

675

135

Dish

Washing

Machine

100

Iron

1000

0.5

7

7

Vacuum

Cleaner

600

2

26

16

TV

100

3

270

27

Total

Comsumption

5780

28.7

3.5

3316

>529

SMART GRID APPLICATIONS
DURING POOR QUALITY OF POWER
/ NATURAL CALAMITY



A

smarter

grid

will

add

high

resilience

to

our

electric

power

system

making

it

better

prepared

to

address

emergencies

such

as

severe

storms,

large

solar

flares,

terrorist

attacks

and

earthquakes
.




Because

of

its

two
-
way

interactive

capacity,

Smart

Grid

will

allow

for

automatic

rerouting

during

equipment

failure

or

outages
.

This

will

minimize

outages

and

also

minimize

the

effects

when

they

do

happen

by

detecting

the

outages

and

isolating

them,

before

they

become

large
-
scale

blackouts
.




It

is

also

a

way

to

bring

increased

national

security

to

our

energy

system


by

drawing

on

greater

amount

of

home
-
grown

electricity

that

are

more

resistant

to

natural

disasters

and

attacks
.

TECHNICAL DETAILS OF
SMART METERS



A

smart

meter

is

an

electrical

meter

that

records

consumption

of

electric

energy

in

intervals

of

an

hour

or

less

and

communicates

that

information

at

least

daily

back

to

the

utility

for

billing

and

monitoring

purposes
.




It

also

enables

two
-
way

communication

between

the

central

system

and

the

meter
.



Smart

meters

provide

the

Smart

Grid

interface

between

you

and

your

energy

provider
.

It

is

installed

in

place

of

your

old,

mechanical

meter,

in

such

a

way

that

these

meters

operate

digitally,

and

they

further

allow

for

automated

and

complex

transfers

of

information

between

your

home

and

your

energy

provider
.




For

example,

smart

meters

will

deliver

signals

from

your

energy

provider

so

that

you

can

cut

your

energy

costs

accordingly
.



the

energy

information

coming

to

and

from

your

home

through

your

smart

meter

can

be

run

through

a

home

energy

management

system

(EMS),

which

will

allow

you

to

view

it

in

an

easy
-
to
-
understand

format

on

your

hand
-
held

device

or

computer
.



An

EMS

also

allows

you

to

monitor

real
-
time

information

and

price

signals

from

your

utility

and

create

settings

to

automatically

use

power

when

prices

are

lowest
.



A

customer

can

also

choose

settings

that

allow

specific

appliances

and

equipment

to

turn

off

automatically

when

a

large

demand

threatens

to

cause

an

outage

avoiding

peak

demands

rates,

helping

to

balance

the

energy

load

in

your

area,

and

preventing

blackouts
.

SMART GRID CONCEPTUAL
MODEL


POTENTIALITY OF SMART
GRID


Smart

grid

can

provide

following

functionalities



Efficient

management

of

electricity
.




Reduced

losses

in

the

transmission

of

power
.




Efficient

load

balancing

such

that

load

is

balanced

uniformly

across

the

grids
.




Leading

to

the

acceptance

of

more

renewable

sources

of

energy

and

focus

on

completely

shifting

the

dependence

on

them
.




Provide

the

better

protection

from

the

wrong

doers
.




It

would

upgrade

the

whole

power

system

that

could

stand

up

with

the

advanced

technology
.




It

could

bring

down

the

cost

of

power

due

to

the

efficient

management
.




Introduction

of

features

which

would

be

more

customer

friendly

like

online

billing

system,

smart

metering
.




Energy

efficient

appliances

would

be

introduced

that

will

save

a

huge

amount

of

energy
.




Reduced

costs

of

management

and

even

the

operation

costs

would

be

much

lesser
.



LIMITATION OF SMART
GRID



With

smart

meters,

the

entire

body

is

exposed

to

the

radiofrequency

(RF)/microwave

EMFs
.

A

short

list

includes
:

neurological

impairment,

ear

pain

and

hearing

problems,

headaches,

depression,

breathing

dysfunctions,

heart

ailments

and

chest

pains,

burning

skin,

sleep

disturbances,

vision

troubles,

sterility,

blood

pressure

changes,

autism,

and

neurodegenerative

diseases

from

EMF

exposure
.



Other

include

glioma

cancer

and

Electro
-
Hypersensitivity

(EHS)

and

many

more
.

CONCLUSION



The

transition

toward

a

smart

grid

has

made

advances

within

the

electric

transmission

and

distribution

infrastructure

as

information

technology

and

communications

has

advanced
;

however,

recent

visions

of

an

electric

system

that

not

only

services,

but

integrates

and

interacts

with

its

use,

generation,

and

storage

in

factories,

businesses,

and

homes

is

driving

new

business

and

policy

models

and

the

technology

deployments

to

support

them
.

References


[1]http://www.newstrackindia.com/newsdetails/2012/09/14/255
--
12th
-
Plan
-
growth
-
projection
-
lowered
-
to
-
8
-
2
-
percent
-
.html


[2]http://portal.indiainfoline.com/datamonitor/Indian
-
Infrastructure/May
-
2012/Plant
-
Load
-
Factor.aspx


[3]http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article3702075.ece


[4]http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/powersystems/nep2012/generation_12.pdf


[5] NY Times reported, http://smartgrid
-
for
-
india.blogspot.in/


[6] Dr.
Damir

Novosel
, “Experiences with deployment of smart
grid”.,IEEE

2011.


[7]
Shiban

Kanti

Bala
, B.
Chitti

Babu
, and
Shyamal

Bala
, “A Review on Development of Smart Grid
Technology in India and its Future Perspectives”, IEEE 2011.


[8]
Anjali

Singhal

and R. P.
Saxena
, “Software models for Smart Grid”, IEEE 2012.


[9]
Agrawal

V.K.,
Porwal

R.K., Kumar Rajesh,
Pandey

Vivek
,
Muthukumar

T., “Deployment of
System Protection Schemes for Enhancing Reliability of Power System”, IEEE 2011.


[10] P.
Srikantha
, C. Rosenberg and S.
Keshav
, “An Analysis of Peak Demand Reductions Due to
Elasticity of Domestic Appliances”, IEEE 2012.


[11] U.S. Department of Energy. "Smart Grid / Department of Energy"2: Literature Survey 2:
Literature Survey